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Abijam's wicked reign and death.

I. KINGS.

His son Asa succeeds him.

B. C. 958.

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4. M. 396. NOW in the eighteenth year of

6 i And there was war between Re- A. M. 3046. King Jeroboam the son of Nebat hoboam and Jeroboam all the days reigned Abijam over Judah.

of his life. 2 Three years reigned he in Jerusalem. ng Now the rest of the acts of Abijam, b And his mother's name was Maachah, the and all that he did, are they not B. C. 955. daughter of a Abishalom.

written in the book of the Chronicles 3 And he walked in all the sins of his father, || of the kings of Judah? And there was war which he had done before him : and his heart between Abijam and Jeroboam. was not perfect with the LORD his God, as the 8 And Abijam slept with his fathers; and heart of David his father.

they buried him in the city of David : and Asa 4. Nevertheless, f for David's sake did the his son reigned in his stead. Lord his God give him a "lamp in Jerusalem, 9 | And in the twentieth year of Jeroboam to set up his son after him, and to establish king of Israel reigned Asa over Judah. Jerusalem :

10 And forty and one years reigned he in Je6 Because David did that which was right rusalem. And his ? mother's name was Maain the eyes of the LORD, and turned not aside chah, the daughter of Abishalom. from any thing that he commanded him all the 11 m And Asa did that which was right in the days of his life, h save only in the matter of eyes of the LORD, as did David his father. Uriah the Hittite.

12 - And he took away the sodomites out of

30.

a 2 Chron. xiii. 1.- 2 Chron. xi. 20-22.-2 Chron. xiii. Chap. xiv. 6.- 2 Sam. xi. 4, 15; xii. 9.-i Chap. xiv. 2, Michaia the daughter of Uriel.- d 2 Chron. xi. 21, Absalom. _* 2 Chron. xiii. 2, 22.-12 Chron. xiv. 1.- _. That is, • Chap. xi. 4; Psalm cxix. 80. Chap. xi. 32, 36; 2 Chron. Il grandmother's, verse 2.2 Chron. xiv. 2. _ Chapter xiv. xxi. 7.-al Or, candle, Chap. xi. 36.

24; xxii. 46.

NOTES ON CHAPTER XV.

Verse 6. This was mentioned before, (chap. xiv. Verses 1, 2. Reigned Abijam over Judah-So his | 30,) and therefore may seem to come in here improreign began with Jeroboam's eighteenth year, conti- | perly, because the historian is not speaking of Renued his whole nineteenth year, and ended within hoboam, but of his son Abijam. Bochart thinks that his twentieth year, in which also Asa's reign began; || Rehoboam stands here for the son of Rehoboam. and thus one and the same year may be attributed to But the meaning of these words seems rather to be, two several persons. Three years reigned he, &c. that though God was pleased, for David's sake, to -That is, part of three years. The daughter of continue a lamp, that is, a successor, to him in JeruAbishalom-Or, of Absalom, as he is called 2 Chron. | salem; yet these successors were vexed with contixi. 21; and because he is here mentioned as a known nual wars, as appeared both in the reign of Rehoperson, without any addition of his kindred or qua- | boam and of Abijam, and did not enjoy their kingdom lity, some conceive that this was Absalom's daughter, peaceably. called properly Tamar, (2 Sam. xiv. 27,) and from Verses 10, 11. His mother's nameThat is, his her royal grandmother, (2 Sam. iii. 3,) Maacah. grandmother's, as appears from verse 2. She is

Verse 4. And the Lord gave him a lampA son called his mother in the same sense in which David and successor, to perpetuate his name and memory, || is called Abijam's father, verse 3; that is, his progewhich otherwise had gone into obscurity. Jerusa- | nitor. And his grandmother's name may be here lem—That he might maintain that city, and temple, || mentioned, rather than his mother's, because his and worship, as a witness for himself in the world, || mother was either an obscure person, or was dead, against the Israelites and heathen world.

or unwilling to take care of the education of her son, Verse 5. Save only in the matter of Uriah-This, and so he was educated by the grandmother, who, and the like phrases, are not to be understood as ex- | though she poisoned his father Abijam with her clusive of every sinful action, but only of an habitual idolatrous principles, (verse 12,) yet could not infect and continued apostacy from God, as the very phrase | Asa, nor withhold him from prosecuting his good of turning aside from God, or from his commands, | purposes of reforming religion. Asa did that which doth generally imply: and thus it is most true; for was right-As to the government of his kingdom, David's other sins were either sudden and transient and the reformation and establishment of God's acts, soon repented of and blotted out, as in the cases worship; in the eyes of the Lord— That is right of Nabal and Achish, or mistakes of his judgment, | indeed which so in God's eyes. Those are apwhich was not fully convinced of the sinfulness of proved whom he commendeth. As did Darid his such actions; whereas that which concerned Uriah's father-Whom he made his pattern; worshipping wise was a designed and studied sin, long continued the Lord alone, and taking away all idols, as it here in, defended with a succession of other sins, pre- || follows. sumptuous and scandalous to his government, and to Verse 12. He took away the sodomites-All whom the true religion.

he could find out; but some escaped his observation, Asa does that which is good

CHAPTER XV.

in the sight of the Lord.

A. M. 3053. the land, and removed all the idols 17 And Baasha king of Israel went A. M. 3053. B. C. 951.

B. C. 951. that his fathers had made.

up against Judah, and built · Ramah, 13 And also • Maachah his mother, even her that he might not suffer any to go out or come be removed from being queen, because she || in to Asa king of Judah. had made an idol in a grove; and Asa 3 de- 18 Then Asa took all the silver and the gold stroyed her idol, and P burnt it by the brook that were left in the treasures of the house Kidron.

of the Lord, and the treasures of the king's 14 . But the high places were not removed : house, and delivered them into the hand of nevertheless Asa's 'heart was perfect with the his servants : and King Asa sent them to * BenLord all his days.

hadad, the son of Tabrimon, the son of He15 And he brought in the things which his zion, king of Syria, that dwelt at Damascus, father had dedicated, and the things which saying, himself had dedicated, into the house of the 19 There is a league between me and thee, LORD, silver, and gold, and vessels.

and between my father and thy father: be16 And there was war between Asa and hold, I have sent unto thee a present of silver Baasha king of Israel all their days.

and gold; come and break thy league with

• 2 Chronieles xv. 16.—3 Heb. cut off .

:p Exodus xxxii. 20. 9 Csap. xxii. 43; 2 Chron. xv. 17.-Verse 3.

* Heb. holy.

-2 Chronicles xvi. I, &c.Chap. xii. 27.-* 2 Chron. xvi. 2.

Joshua xviii. 25. –y Chap, xi, 23.

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as appears from chap. xxii. 46. And removed all the in distress, and going to fight with Jeroboam, (2 idols his father had made-If his father had made Chron. xiii.,) though afterward he did not perform them, he had the more need to remove them, that he his vows, nor bring into the house of the Lord what Inight cut off the entail of the curse.

he had devoted: probably he was prevented by death, Verse 13. Her he removed from being queen-He Asa his son, however, made good his vow; and also took from her either the name and authority of himself brought in what he had dedicated to holy queen regent, which she, having been Rehoboam's uses, namely, silver, and gold, and ressels, having wife, and Abijam's mother, took to herself during gotten great spoil in his war with the Ethiopians, Asa's minority, or the dignity of the queen-mother, . 2 Chron. xiv. 13, 14. and those guards, or instruments of power, which Verse 17. Baasha built RamahThat is, reshe had enjoyed and misemployed. She had made paired and fortified it. It was a city in the tribe of an idol-Hebrew, a terror, or horror, that is, a Benjamin, which either belonged to the kingdom of horrible idol; which, it may be, is so called, because Israel, or he had taken it from Judah. That he it was of a more terrible shape than ordinary, and might not suffer any to go out, &c.—That he might not to be seen without horror. Kidron—That when hinder all communication between his people and it was burned to powder, it might be thrown into the the people of Judah, and that his people might not water, and be unfit for any use.

go up to Jerusalem to worship. For this place lay Verse 14. The high places were not removed in the confines of both kingdoms; and in such a 2 Chron. xiv. 3. He took away the altars of the strait, that a fortification being made there, none strange gods, and the high places where they were could pass to or fro without a license from Baasha. worshipped: but as for those high places where the Verse 18. Asa took all the silver and gold that true God was worshipped, he did not take them were left-Which either Shishak had left, or Abijam away; partly, because he thought there was no great or Asa or others, of both Israel or Judah, had dedievil in them, which had been used by David and cated; which probably was not inconsiderable, beSolomon, and other good men; partly because he cause Asa had got great spoils from Zarah, (2 Chron. thought the removal of them might do more hurt xiv.) and he, and his numerous and prosperous peothm their continuance, by occasioning the total ne- ple, did at this time express a great zeal for the gleet of God's worship by many of the people, who house and worship of God. Sent them—Wherein either could not, or through want of faith and zealhe committed three great faults, among many would not, go up to Jerusalem to worship; now es- | others; Ist, He alienated things consecrated to God, peciaily, when the Israelites, formerly their friends, without necessity. 2d, He did this out of distrust were become their enemies, and watched all oppor- of that God whose power and goodness he had tunities to invade or molest them. Asa's heart was lately experienced. 3d, He did this for an ill inperfect_That is, he sincerely and constantly ad-tent, to hire him to the breach of his league and hered to the worship of God. Though he could not covenant with Baasha, (verse 19,) and to take away hinder the people from using the high places, yet he part of that land which by right, and the special entirely devoted himself to the worship of God in gift of God, belonged to the Israelites. the manner and place prescribed by him.

Verse 19. There is a league between me and thee Verse 15. He brought in the things which his fa- | - In the latter end of Solomon's reign, the Syrians ther had dedicated— Namely, Abijam, when he was were enemies to him, chap. xi. 24, 25: but when VOL. II. ( 6 )

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The death and burial of Asa.

I. KINGS.

The reign and death of Nadab.

B. C. 451.

B. C. 951.

About B. C. 954.

A. M. 3053. Baasha king of Israel, that he may book of the Chronicles of the kings A. M. 3053. $depart from me.

of Judah? Nevertheless in the time 20 So Benhadad hearkened unto King Asa, of his old age he was diseased in his feet. and sent the captains of the hosts which he 24 And Asa slept with his fathers, and was had against the cities of Israel, and smote - Ijon, buried with his fathers in the city of David his and · Dan, and b Abel-beth-maachah, and all | father: 8 and TM Jehoshaphat his son reigned in Cinneroth, with all the land of Naphtali. his stead.

21 And it came to pass, when Baasha heard 25 | And Nadab the son of Jerothereof, that he left off building of Ramah, and boam ? began to reign over Israel in dwelt in Tirzah.

the second year of Asa king of Judah, and 22 • Then King Asa made a proclamation | reigned over Israel two years. throughout all Judah ; none was 6 exempted : 26 And he did evil in the sight of the LORD, and they took away the stones of Ramah, and and walked in the way of his father, and in the timber thereof, wherewith Baasha had his sin, wherewith he made Israel to sin. builded ; and King Asa built with them Geba 27 qk And Baasha the son of Ahijah, of the of Benjamin, and · Mizpah.

house of Issachar, conspired against him; and 23 7 The rest of all the acts of Asa, and all Baasha smote him at Gibbethon, which behis might, and all that he did, and the cities longed to the Philistines; for Nadab and all which he built, are they not written in the Israel laid siege to Gibbethon.

5 Hebrew, go up.- 2 Kings xv. 29.- Judges xviii. 29. 6 2 Chron. xvii. 1.-Matt. i. 8, called Josaphat.—Heb. 02 Sam. xx. 14.-c 2 Chron. xvi. 6. —Heb. free.—_d Josh. I reigned.- i Chapter xii. 30; xiv. 16. k Chapter xiv. 16. xxi. 17.-e Josh. xviii. 26.-Li 2 Chron. xvi. 12.

1 Josh. xix. 44; xxi. 23; Chap. xvi. 15.

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he was dead, and the kingdom was divided, both Verse 23. Nevertheless he was diseased in his Judah and Israel made peace with the Syrians; | feet-Notwithstanding the great things which he having enough to do to settle themselves in their | had done, and the glory and prosperity which he own dominions. Behold, I have sent thee a present | had enjoyed, he felt the effects of human infirmity, come, break thy league with Baasha--It is strange and of his own sins. He probably had the gout, that Asa's conscience would suffer him, or that he, // which made him less active than he had been bea professor of the true religion, was not ashamed to fore this disease seized him. be guilty of such a wicked piece of policy as to Verses 25, 26. And reigned over Israel two years tempt with money even a heathen to break his | --Not complete, as appears from verses 28-33. And word, or league rather, which, no doubt, he had walked in his sin—In the worship of the calves sworn to observe. This certainly was not the way || which his father had made. If the death of his to recommend the worship and service of Jehovah | brother Abijah had had a due influence upon him, to the heathen nations around.

to make him religious, and the honour done to that Verses 20, 21. And smote Ijon and Dan, &c.--He well-disposed young man at his death had engaged fell upon the northern part of the kingdom of Israel, | him to follow his good example, his reign might which was nearest to Damascus ; while Baasha was have been long and glorious; but he walked in the busy at Ramah, which was in the more southern | way of his father, kept up the worship of the part

. And dwelt in TirzahNow the royal city || calves, and forbade his subjects to go up to Jerusaof Israel. There he abode to defend his own king-lem to worship; sinned and made Israel to sin ; and doms, and durst not return to oppose Asa, lest the therefore God brought ruin upon him quickly, in Syrian king should make a second invasion. So the second year of his reign. Asa met with success in this ungodly course, as Verses 27, 28. Baasha smote him at Gibbethon, good men sometimes meet with disappointment in which belonged to the Philistines—This was a city a good cause and course. So there is no judging in the tribe of Dan, given to the Levites, (Josh. xix. of causes by events.

44, and xxi. 23,) who quitted it, as they did the rest Verse 22. None were exempted--All sorts of per- || of their cities, when Jeroboam would not suffer sons were obliged to come, except those who were them to execute their office, 2 Chron. xi. 14; and disabled by age, or infirmity, or absence, or by the the Philistines, it is likely, seized upon it, being adpublic service of the king and kingdom in other joining to their country. But, it appears, Nadab places. Built Geba, &c.—Repaired and strength- was now endeavouring to recover it out of their ened them, for they were built before ; which he hands, as of right belonging to him; and here, in judged better than to perfect the fortifications of the midst of his army, did Baasha, with others, conRamah, which would have been a perpetual bone spire against him, and kill him: and so little interest of contention (as we speak) between Judah and had he in the affections of his people, that his army Israel.

not only did not avenge his death, but chose his

Jehu the prophet denounces

CHAPTER XVI.

the destruction of Baasha.

A M 3053.
B. C. 951.

B. C. 951.

28 Even in the third year of Asa 31 Now the rest of the acts of Na- A. M. 3053.

king of Judah did Baasha slay him, dab, and all that he did, are they and reigned in his stead.

not written in the book of the Chronicles of the 29 And it came to pass when he reigned, kings of Israel ? that he smote all the house of Jeroboam; he 32 ° And there was war between Asa and left not to Jeroboam any that breathed, until Baasha king of Israel all their days. he had destroyed him, according unto - the 33 In the third year of Asa king of Judah saying of the LORD, which he spake by his began Baasha the son of Ahijah to reign over servant Ahijah the Shilonite:

all Israel in Tirzah, twenty and four years. 30 Because of the sins of Jeroboam which 34 And he did evil in the sight of the he sinned, and which he made Israel sin, by LORD, and walked in Pthe way of Jeroboam, his provocation wherewith he provoked the and in his sin wherewith he made Israel LORD God of Israel to anger.

to sin.

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Chap. xiv. 10, 14—5 Chap. xiv. 9, 16.– - Verse 16.

p Chap. xii. 28, 29; xiii. 33 ; xiv. 16.

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murderer his successor. Whether Baasha did this foretold chap. xiv. 10, but not any that breathed. upon a personal pique against Nadab, or to be re-Herein he was barbarous; but God was righteous; venged on the house of Jeroboam for some affront and Jeroboam's sin was punished: for they that proreceived from them; or whether under pretencevoke God do it to their own confusion, Jer. vii. 19. of freeing his country from the tyranny of an ill | According to the word of the Lord, which he spake prince; or whether purely from a principle of am- | by Ahijah-Baasha had no thought about sulfilling bition, to make way for himself to the throne, doth | Ahijah's prophecy, but God overruled his ambition not appear; but having slain him, he reigned in his and cruelty to that end, and thereby executed on stead.

the house of Jeroboam, the judgments he had threatVerse 28. Eren in the third year of Asa did Baa-ened, and that as speedily as Ahijah had foretold, sảa slay him--It was threatened, (chap. xiv. 15,) || (chap. xiv. 14,) for no word of God shall fall to the that Israel should be as a reed shaken in the water. I ground. And so they were, when, during the single reign of Verse 30. Because of the sins of Jeroboam-Thus Asa their government was in seven or eight differ- that same wicked policy which he used to establish ent hands. Jeroboam was upon the throne at the the kingdom in his family, proved his and their ruin; beginning of his reign, and Ahab at the end of it; which is very frequently the event of ungodly between whom were Nadab, Baasha, Elah, Zimri, || counsels. Tibni, and Omri, undermining and destroying one Verse 34. And he walked in the way of Jeroboam another. This they got by deserting the house both | — This makes it evident that Baasha did not cut off of God and of David.

Jeroboam's family because they were idolaters, but Verse 29. He smote all the house of Jeroboam, because he aspired to the throne; which, when he The first thing he did when he came to the crown had obtained, he endeavoured to establish himself was, to cut off all that had any title to it, that he in by the same impious policy which Jeroboam might secure himself in his usurped government. || had used : for he reformed nothing in religion, but He did not think it enough to imprison or banish | continued the idolatrous worship of the calves them, but he destroyed them; and carried his ven- | which Jeroboam had set up, to keep the people geance so far, that he left not only no males, as was ll from going to worship at Jerusalem.

CHAPTER XVI. The ruin of Baasha's family foretold, 1-7; and executed by Zimri, 8–14. Zimri's short reign, 15–20. The struggle

between Omri and Tibni, and Omri's reign, 21–28. The beginning of Ahab's reign, 29–33. B. C... THEN the word of the Lord came 2 Forasmuch as I exalted thee out A. M. 3074.

to · Jehu the son of Hanani of the dust, and made thee prince against Baasha, saying,

over my people Israel, and thou hast walked

B. C. 930.

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His father Hanani, who was a prophet before him, Verse 1. The word of the Lord came to Jehu- was sent to reprove Asa king of Judah for hiring This Jehu was a prophet, and the son of a prophet. Il Benhadad king of Syria to assist him against Baasha, Zimri conspires against Elah,

NOTES ON CHAPTER XVI.

I. KINGS.

and kills him in Tirzan

B. C. 930.

B. C. 930.

A. M. 3074. in the way of Jeroboam, and hast 7 And also by the hand of the Pro- A. M. 3074.

made my people Israel to sin, to pro- phet i Jehu the son of Hanani came voke me to anger with their sins;

the word of the Lord against Baasha, and 3 Behold, I will d take away the posterity of | against his house, even for all the evil that Baasha, and the posterity of his house; and he did in the sight of the Lord, in provoking : will make thy house like the house of Jero-him to anger with the work of his hands, si boam the son of Nebat.

being like the house of Jeroboam; and because 4 Him that dieth of Baasha in the city shall be killed him. the dogs eat; and him that dieth of his in the 8 4 In the twenty and sixth year of Asa king fields shall the fowls of the air eat.

of Judah began Elah the son of Baasha to reign 5 1 Now the rest of the acts of Baasha, and over Israel in Tirzah, two years. what he did, and his might, 6 are they not 9 1 And his servant Zimri, captain of half his written in the book of the Chronicles of the chariots, conspired against him, as he was in kings of Israel?

Tirzah, drinking himself drunk in the house 6 So Baasha slept with his fathers, and was of Arza, steward of his house in Tirzah. buried in h Tirzah : and Elah his son reigned 10 And Zimri went in and smote him, and in his stead.

killed him, in the twenty and seventh year

i Verse 1.

a Verse 11.-e Chapter xiv. 10; xv. 29.- Chapter xiv. 11.

62 Chron. xvi. 1.- b Chap. xiv. 17 ; xv. 21.

k Chap. xv. 27, 29; Hos. i. 4.-12 Kings ix. 31.

1 Heb. which was over.

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and for relying on the Syrians, instead of relying on of executing God's judgment upon Nadab, and such the Lord, 2 Chron. xvi. 7. But Jehu, Hanani's son, success thereon, as should procure him a present who was young and more active, was sent on this and quiet possession of the kingdom.” So that his longer and more dangerous expedition to Baasha, || accession to the kingdom was from the divine deking of Israel. It appears, he continued long in his cree; but the form and manner of his accession was usefulness; for we find him reproving Jehoshaphat, | from himself, from his own ambition and covetousabove forty years after, and writing the annals of ness, which induced him to kill Nadab; and as it was that prince, 2 Chron. xix. 2, and xx. 24. The gift wicked and cruel, it is therefore charged upon him of prophecy, thus happily entailed, and descending as a wilful murder, verse 7. from the father to the son, was worthy of so much Verse 3. Make thy house like the house of Jerothe more honour. It seems there was not wanting | boam the son of Nebat—This threat was exactly a succession of prophets, during the kingdoms of verified; for as Nadab the son of Jeroboam reigned Israel and Judah, as Abarbinel has observed, their | but two years, so Elah the son of Baasha reigned names being preserved in the Holy Scriptures. no longer; and as Nadab was killed by the sword,

Verse 2. Forasmuch as I exalted thee out of the so was Elah: thus remarkable was the similitude dustProbably from a mean family in the tribe of between Jeroboam and Baasha, in their lives and in Issachar. Perhaps he was but a common soldier, their deaths; in their sons, and in their families. See or some very inferior officer in the army which be-Bishop Patrick. sieged Gibbethon; but, being bold and daring, he Verse 7. And also by the hand of the Prophet Jehu formed a conspiracy against Nadab. The message | -The order of the narrative seems to be here much which this prophet brought to Baasha is much the confused, to restore which Houbigant places this same with that which Ahijah sent to Jeroboam by seventh verse before the fifth and sixth. . Came the his wise. Ist, He reminds him of the great things || word of the Lord against Baasha-The meaning God had done for him: 2d, He charges him with || is, the message which came from the Lord to Jehu, high crimes and misdemeanours; and, 3d, He fore- (verses 1-4,) was here delivered by the hand, that is, tels the same destruction to come upon his family the ministry of Jehu unto Baasha. Jehu did what which he himself had been employed to bring on God commanded in this matter, though it was not the family of Jeroboam. And made thee prince without apparent hazard to himself. And because over my people IsraelBut it may be asked, how he killed him—That is, Nadab; who though he be Baasha's exaltation to the kingdom can he ascribed not expressed, is sufficiently understood. But why to God, when it is manifest he obtained it by his own is he punished for doing God's work? Because, treachery and cruelty? To this Mr. Poole replies, 1st, Though God appointed that Jeroboam's family that “though the manner of invading the kingdom | should be cut off, yet he did not give Baasha comwas from himself and his own wicked heart, yet, the mission to do it. 2d, Baasha did this not to fulfil translation of the kingdom from Nadab to Baasha, || God's will, but his own lusts. See on verse 2. simply considered, was from God, who by his decree Verses 8–10. Began Elah to reign in Tirzah and providence ordered it, and disposed of all occa- two years-One complete and part of another. sions, and of the hearts of all the soldiers, and the Zimri, captain of half his chariots-Of all his people so, that Baasha should have the opportunity || military chariots, and the men belonging to them;

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