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The psalmist prays
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thou hast made us to drink the 5* Thatthy beloved may be delivered; A. M. 2964.
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save with thy right hand, and hear me. 4 • Thou hast given a banner to them that 6 God hath 8 spoken in his holiness ; I will fear thee, that it may be displayed because of rejoice, I will h divide i Shechem, and mete out the truth. Selah.
the valley of Succoth.
d Isa. li. 17, 22; Jer. xxv, 15.
- Psa. XX. 5.
& Psa. lxxxix. 35.- Josh. i. 6.-i Gen. xii. 6.- Joshua
of small importance to us. Michtam of David, to
Michtam of David, to us again-Be at peace with us; smile upon and teach—Namely, in an eminent manner; or, for the take part with us, and we shall again have prosperspecial instruction of God's church and people, in || ity. some points of great moment; as concerning the Verses 2, 3. Thou hast made the earth to tremble grievous calamities to which God's church and peo- | --A poetical expression, signifying great and dreadple were obnoxious, (verses 1-3,) and the certainty | ful changes among the people. Heal the breaches of God's promises, and of their deliverance out of thereof-Reconcile all those differences which our them, upon condition of their faith and obedience. civil wars have made among us. Thou hast showed Which doctrines were of great moment, especially to thy people hard things—Thou hast made us feel the Israelites, who were, and were likely to be, ex
what it is to offend thee, by inflicting grievous punercised in the same manner, and with the same vari- || ishments upon us; thou hast made us drink the ety and vicissitudes of condition, under which their wine of astonishment—Thou hast fulfilled the words ancestors had been. When he strove with Aram-na- | of thy servant Moses, Deut. xxviii. 34, for we have haraim-That is, Syria of the rivers ; or, that part been like men berest of the use of their reason by of it which is called Mesopotamia, as lying between some intoxicating portion, and have madly destroyed the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates. The Syrians, one another. both here and in other places, were called Aram, be- Verses 4, 5. Thou hast given a banner, &c.—But cause they were the descendants of Aram, the son now thou hast granted the desires of those that deof Shem, Gen. x. 22. Aram-zobah is that part of || voutly worship and serve thee, and given an ensign Syria which was called Zobah, 2 Sam. viii. 5. As to which all the tribes may repair. David, says Dr. David's victory over Idumea was different from that | Delaney, was the only centre of union which that over the Syrians, the next clause should be rendered people ever had, and God now made him their capliterally, And Joab returned, &c. This conquest of | tain and ruler to manifest the truth of those promises Joab's is to be looked upon as distinct from that of which had been made to him long before. But Abishai, mentioned 2 Sam. viii. 13; 1 Chron. xviii. the banner here is not only to be considered as a 12. After Abishai had slain eighteen thousand of the sign and instrument of their union, intimating that Idumeans, Joab fell upon them again ; and, as the they, who were lately divided under several bantitle of this Psalm particularly informs us, smote in ners, should now be gathered together and united the same place twelve thousand more, and afterward | under one; but also of battle and war. As if he had destroyed thein entirely. See 1 Kings xi. 15, 16. said, Thou hast given us an army and power to opThe valley of Salt is in Idumea, near the Dead || pose our enemies: we have our banner to set against sea.
theirs. Though the Philistines and other nations Verse 1. O God, thou hast cast us ojf-So highly have long been too hard for us, by reason of our had our sins provoked thy divine majesty, that thou divisions, yet now thou hast united us under one didst reject or forsake us, so as to withdraw thy gra- | government, that the people may unanimously fight cious and powerful presence from us, and no longer against their enemies. To them that fear thee-Or, to go forth with our armies. Thus the Psalm begins | for, or on behalf of, them that fear thee; an emwith a melancholy memorial of the many disgraces phatical passage, implying that God gave this great and disappointments with which God had, for some blessing to the people of Israel for the sake of those years past, chastised the people. For, during the few sincere Israelites, who were among them. That reign of Saul, especially in the latter part of it, and it may be displayed because of the truth-Not for during David's struggle with the house of Saul, any merit of ours, but to show thy faithfulness in while he reigned over Judah only, the affairs of the making good thy promises. That thy belored may kingdom were much perplexed, and the neighbour- || be delivered, &c.—That by thy mighty power acing nations were very vexatious to them. Thou companying my arms, I may be an instrument of hast scattered us—Hebrew, 130379, peratztanu, thou | delivering thy beloved people from those that have hast broken us; partly by that dreadful overthrow oppressed them; save with thy right hand-With by the Philistines, 1 Sam. xxxi., and partly by the thine own power, and with such instruments as thou civil war in our own country between Judah and Is- | art pleased to make use of. Observe, reader, they rael. Thou hast been displeased—And thy displea- that fear God are his beloved ; they are dear to him sure, caused by our sins, has been the source of all | as the apple of his eye: they are often in distress, our sufferings. Whatever our trouble may be, and but they shall be delivered, for God's own right hand whoever may be the instruments of it, we must own shall save them. he righteous hand of God in it. O turn thyself to Verse 6. God hath spoken, &c. -Having prayed The psalmist's strong
confidence in God.
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7 Gilead is mine, and Manasseh is 10 Wilt not thou, O God, which A. M. 2964.
mine; 'Ephraim also is the strength a hadst cast us off ? and thou, O God, of my head; m Judah is my lawgiver ; which didst 'not go out with our armies ?
8 Moab is my wash-pot ; over Edom will 11 Give us help from trouble: for 'vain is the I cast out my shoe : p Philistia, 6 triumph thou ? help of man. because of me.
12 Through God we shall do valiantly: 9 Who will bring me into the strong city ? | for he it is that shall u tread down our enewho will lead me into Edom ?
I Deut. xxxiii. 17. — Gen. xlix. 10.- 2 Samuel vui, 2. • Psa. cviii. 9; 2 Sam. viii. 14.-P2 Sam. viii. 1.-3 Or, triumph thou over me, by an irony; Psa. cviii. 10. Heb.city of
strength, 2 Sam. xi. 1 ; xii. 26.-9 Verse 1 ; Psa. xliv. 9; cviii. 11. Josh. vii. 12. - Psa. cxi. 8; cxlvi. 3. -? Heb. salvation. - Num. xxiv. 18; 1 Chron. xix. 13.-u Isa. Ixiii. 3.
that God would hear and save him, he now intimates | like slaves. I will, as it were, trample upon them; that God had done it already, had prevented his a proverbial expression. Philistia, triumph thou prayers, and had spoken to him, and of him, about | because of me--Or, over me, as in former years thou the establishing of his throne; in his holiness—Or, didst use to triumph and insult over the poor Israelrather, by his holiness, as this very expression, ups, ites. It is an ironical expression, signifying that her bekodsho, is rendered, Psa. lxxxix. 35. Which car-| triumphs were to come to an end. Bishop Patrick ries the form of an oath, and implies, that God did | gives a different interpretation to this clause, thus: not simply speak, but swore by his holiness, as is - The Philistines likewise, whom I have begun to there expressed. I will rejoice-Therefore I will smite, shall add to my triumphs, and be forced to meet turn my prayers into praises, for what God has al- me as their conquering Lord.” ready done; and, as I am assured, will further do on Verses 9, 10. Who will bring me into the strong my behalf. I will divide Shechem--Namely, as a city, &c.--As if he had said, These are difficult things portion or inheritance, as npanx, achallekah, pro-|| indeed; and I may well ask, when I consider how perly signifies. I will exercise dominion over, and potent these nations are, By what power shall I endistribute it to be possessed as I see good. Shechem ter that strongly fenced city? (or, cilies rather, the was a place within Jordan in mount Ephraim. And singular number being put for the plural.) Who is it mete out the valley of Succoth--A place without that will conduct me into Idumea, and make me Jordan. He mentions Shechem and Succoth for master of it? None can do it but God. Having all the land of Canaan within and without Jordan, beaten his enemies out of the field, he desires God's which, having been formerly divided between him assistance to take their strong holds, and so secure and Ish-bosheth, was now entirely in his posses- | himself from further attempts. Edom was a high sion. Some, however, think that the expression is and rocky country, Obad. verse 3, fortified by naproverbial, and only means, I will divide the spoils ture, as well as by art, and therefore not to be subof my enemies with as much ease as the sons of Ja-dued without a divine hand. Wilt not thou, fc., who cob portioned out Shechem, and measured out for didst not go out with our armies–Namely, in formtheir tents the valley of Succoth.
er times; but now hast graciously returned to us. Verse 7. Gilead is mine--All the land beyond He brings to his own mind, and to the minds of the Jordan, which was possessed by Reuben and Gad, people, their former calamities, that they might be and half of the tribe of Manasseh. And Manasseh more thankful for present mercies and deliverances. is mine-The other half of that tribe within Jordan. Verses 11, 12. Give us help from trouble-Do not Ephraim is the strength, &c.-A chief part of my frustrate these hopes, but afford us thy help against strength, either to offend mine enemies, or to defend the Syrians also 2 Sam. viii. 5, who now distress us; myself. For this tribe was very numerous, and val- || for vain is the help of man--No human force is iant, and rich. Judah is my lawgiver--The chief | able to deliver us; nor have we any confidence in it, seat of my throne and kingdom, and of the inferior but in thee alone. Observe well, reader, then only throne of judgment, Psa. cxxii. 5. The tribe to are we qualified to receive help from God, when we which the royal sceptre and lawgiver were appro- are brought to own the insufficiency of all creatures to priated by divine appointment, Gen. xlix. 10. Thus do that for us which we expect him to do. Through he exultingly surveys his strength, Gilead and Ma- || God we shall do valiantly--Through his help we nasseh comprehending the whole country beyond | shall behave ourselves courageously, and do valiant Jordan, as did Ephraim and Judah that on this side acts; for he it is that shall tread down our enemies of it.
-And not we ourselves. Though we do ever so Verse 8. Moab is my wash-pot--The wash-pot be- || valiantly, the success must be attributed entirely to ing a mean article of household stuff, for the use of him. Al our victories, as well as our valour, are the feet, (as the Syriac interprets it,) the lowest part from him, and therefore at his feet all our crowns of the body, it is a fit title for the Moabites, whom must be laid. Observe again, reader, as it is only David intended to bring into the lowest degree of through God, and by the influence of his grace, that servitude, and to render contemptible, 2 Sam. viii. 2. we can, at any time, do valiantly; as it is he that Over Edom-An old, proud, insolent, and cruel ene- puts strength into us, and inspires us, who of ourmy of Israel; will I cast my shoe-I will use them I selves are weak and timorous with true courage and
The psalmist prays
earnestly to God.
resolution; so confidence in him is the best principle, || en our endeavours in the way of duty. For though and chief means of this courage and fortitude. But it is God that performeth all things for us, and workwe must remember this confidence must be so fareth in us to will and to do, yet we must be workers from superseding, that it must encourage and quick-ll together with him.
PSALM LXI. The occasion of this Psalm is very doubtful; but it seems to have been some great distress of David's, either by Saul,
or by Absalom; though it might be composed some time after that distress was past. David, in great danger, flees to God for deliverance, upon experience of his former goodness, 1-3. Resolves to trust in him, and promises him
perpetual service for his hearing his prayers, 4, 5. Praises him from an assurance of future blessings, 6-8. To the chief Musician upon Neginah, A Psalm of 3 For thou hast been a shelter for me, A. M. 2964.
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and a strong tower from the enemy. B: M: 2048: HEAR my cry, O God; attend 4 b I will abide in thy tabernacle for ever : "I unto my prayer.
will ? trust in the covert of thy wings. Selah. 2 From the end of the earth will I cry unto 5 For thou, O God, hast heard my vows: thee, when my heart is overwhelmed : lead me thou hast given me the heritage of those that to the rock that is higher than I.
fear thy name.
a Prov. xviii. 10.
b Psa. xxvii. 4.
c Psa. xvii. 8; lvii. l; xci. 4.- Or, make
NOTES ON PSALM LXI.
must make it so who expect to find God their shelter Verses 2, 3. From the end of the earth--Or rather, and strong tower. None but his servants have of the land, to which, it seems, David had been the benefit of his protection. David speaks of abidriven by the violence of his enemies; will I cry ding in God's tabernacle for ever, because it was a unto thee--And not to other gods, but to thee only. type and figure of heaven, Hebrews ix. 8, 24. And It is our happiness that, wherever we are, we may those that dwell in his tabernacle, as it is a house of have liberty of access to God, and may find a way duty, during the short time of their abode on earth, open to a throne of grace. Lead me to the rock shall dwell in that tabernacle which is a house of that is higher than I--Convey to a place of safety, glory during an endless eternity. I will trust in where mine enemies cannot approach to hurt me: the covert of thy wings—In the mean time, while take me under thy peculiar care and protection. I am in danger and trouble, I will cast myself upon He alludes to their custom of securing themselves thy protection with full confidence. This advantage in rocks. God's power and promise are a rock | they have that abide in God's tabernacle; that in the that is higher than we. In these we must take re- || time of trouble he shall there hide them. And those fuge, and in these must we abide. Christ is the that have found God a shelter to them, ought still to rock of our salvation, and they, and only they, have recourse to him in all their straits. are safe that are in him. But we cannot get upon Verse 5. For thou, O God, hast heard my vowsthis rock unless God lead us by his power. I will My fervent prayers, attended with vows and proput thee in the cleft of the rock-We should mises, as was usual, especially in cases of great therefore, by faith and prayer, put ourselves under | danger or difficulty. Thou hast taken notice of them; the divine conduct, that we may be taken under the thou hast accepted them, because they were made divine protection. For thou hast been a shelter to in sincerity, and hast been well pleased with them. me--I have found in thee a rock higher than I, there- | We ought always to remember that God is a witfore I trust thou wilt still lead me to that rock. Our ness to all our vows, all our good purposes, and past experience of the benefit of trusting in God, as solemn promises of new obedience. He keeps an it should engage us still to keep close to him, so it account of them, which should be a sufficient reason should encourage us to hope that it will not be in with us (as it was with David here) why we should vain. Thou hast been my strong tower from the perform our vows. For he that hears the vows we enemy, and thou art as strong as ever, and thy name make, will cause us to hear from him if they be not as much a refuge for the righteous as ever it was, made good. Thou hast given me the heritage, &c. Prov. xviii. 10.
- Thou hast allotted me my portion with and among Verse 4. I will abide in thy tabernacle for ever- them that fear and worship thee, who are the exI shall, I doubt not, be restored to thy tabernacle, cellent ones, in whom is all my delight, and upon from which I ain now banished, and, according to that account I must acknowledge it to thy praise, the desire of my heart, worship and enjoy thee there that I have a goodly heritage. Thou hast granted all my days. Thus he determines that the service me this singular mercy, to live in thy land, to enof God shall be his constant business; and all those || joy thy presence, and to worship in thy ta!iernacle.
David expresses his
confidence in God.
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6 a Thou ’ wilt prolong the king's || prepare mercy and truth, which may A. M. 2964
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years 3 as many genera- | preserve him. tions.
8 So will I sing praise unto thy name for ever, 7 He shall abide before God for ever : 0 || that I may daily perform my vows.
d Psa. xxi. 4.
- Heb. Thou shalt add days to the days of the
* Heb. as generation and generation.
Psa. xl. 11; Prov.
which is the heritage which all, that fear thee, prize in his tabernacle. O prepare mercy and truth-Or, and desire above all things.
order, or appoint, as the word 19, man, here sigVerses 6–8. Thou wilt prolong the king's life- | nifies, intending, either, 1st, The graces of mercy, or My life.
He calls himself king, either, 1st, Because, compassion and truth, or faithfulness, which are if this Psalm was composed before Saul's death, yet the great supporters of thrones; or rather, the effects even then he knew he was designed and appointed of God's mercy and truth. Thy truth, in giving me to be king; or, rather, 2d, Because it was not com- those mercies which thou hast promised to me; posed till Saul was dead, and he was actually crowned and thy mercy, in giving me such further blessings king, at least of Judah. And his years—The years as I need, and thou seest fit to give me. So will I of my life and reign; as many generations-Assing praise unto thy name for ever—I will never long as if I had a lease of it for many ages. Thus cease praising thee while I live, and after I die I he speaks, because his kingdom was not like Saul's, shall praise thee in eternity. Let us remember, we but established to him and his heirs; and because must make praising God the work of our time in this Christ, his Son and Heir, should actually, and in his world; even to the last, as long as our lives are proown person, possess the kingdom for ever. We may | longed, we must continue praising him; and then observe further here, that the Chaldee Paraphrase it will be made the work of our eternity in the adds the word Christ; thus, Thou shalt give unto world to come, and we shall be praising him for Christ the King days upon days. His years shall | ever. That I may daily perform my vows-That be as the generations of this world, and the genera- || I may pay unto thee those services and oblations tions of the world to come. And so Theodoret ob- || which I vowed to thee, when I was in trouble. serves, that the former part of the verse may very || David's praising God was itself the performance of well agree with the psalmist, but that the latter part his vows, and it disposed his heart to the performof it is by no means applicable to him, but only to ance of them in other instances. Praising God, Christ; who was, according to the flesh, to descend and paying our vows to him, must be our constant from him, and of whom the psalmist was an eminent daily work; every day we must be doing something type. He shall abide-Hebrew, 50', jesheeb, he toward it; because it is all but little in comparison shall sit ; namely, on the throne; before God for with what is due; because we daily receive fresh ever-Living and ruling as in God's presence, serv- || mercies, and because, if we think much to do it daily ing him with his royal power, and worshipping him we cannot expect to be doing it eternally.
PSALM LXII. This is a Psalm of praise for some deliverance, which David, the author of it, attributes wholly to God, on whom
alone, therefore, he advises all people to place their dependance. He expresses his confidence in God, 1-7. Excites
to trust in him, 8–12. To the chief Musician, to 'Jeduthun, A Psalm of 2 "He only is my rock and my salva- A. M. 2956. David.
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he is my * defence ; • I shall not A. M. 2956.
TRULY? - my soul : waiteth upon be greatly moved.
sal- 3 How long will ye imagine mischief against vation.
a man ? ye shall be slain all of you :
b Verse 6.
il Chronicles xxv. 1, 3.-? Or, Only. _ Psalm xxxiii. 20.
* Heb. is silent, Psa. Ixv. 1.
Heb. high place, Psa. lix. 9, 17.- - Psa. xxxvii.
24. d Isa. xxx. 13.
NOTES ON PSALM LXII.
Verse 1. Truly my soul waiteth upon God-Or, Title. To Jeduthun-A famous musician ; of | Nevertheless, as some render the Hebrew particle whom, see 1 Chron. ix. 16, and xvi. 42. The Hebrew, || 7x, ach, or, however it be, whatever difficulties or however, is, upon Jeduthun, and therefore it might | dangers I may meet with; though God frown upon be the name of some musical instrument or tune, me, and I meet with discouragements in my atinvented by that Jeduthun, and for that reason tendance on him, yet still my soul waiteth upon called by his name.
God, 17017, dumijah, is silent toward him, does not David advises to
trust in God.
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A. M. 2956. bowing wall shall ye be, and as a || the rock of my strength, and my re- A. M. 2956. tottering fence.
fuge, is in God. 4 They only consult to cast him down from 8 Trust in him at all times ; ye people, pour his excellency: they delight in lies: they out your heart before him: God is i a refuge bless with their mouth, but they curse 5 in- for us. Selah. . wardly. Selah.
9 * Surely men of low degree are vanity, and 5 My soul, wait thou only upon God; for men of high degree are a lie: to be laid in the my expectation is from him.
balance, they are altogether lighter than vanity. 6 He only is my rock and my salvation : he 10 Trust not in oppression, and become not is my defence; I shall not be moved.
vain in robbery : 'if riches increase, set not 7 In God is my salvation and my glory : your heart upon them.
e Psa. xxviii. 3.2. -- Jer. 111. 23. i Psa. xviii. 2.
5 Heb. in their inward parts.
I Verses 1, h 1 Sam. i. 15; Psa. xlii. 4; Lam. ii. 19.
* Psalm xxxix. 5, 11; Isa. xl. 15, 17; Romans iii. 4. Or, alike. -1 Job xxxi. 25; Psalm lii. 7; Luke xii. 15; 1 Timothy vi. 17.
object to what he doth, and expects what he will do, cometh suddenly in an instant, Isa. xxx. 13."-See silently, quietly, and patiently looking up to him for Green. deliverance, and that in his own time and way, Verse 4. They only consult to cast him downwithout murmuring or despair, or using indirect or Namely, the man mentioned verse 3.
He means sinful practices. Observe, reader, we are in the way himself, of whom he continues to speak in the third both of duty and comfort, when our souls are wait- | person. From his excellency–From the hopes and ing upon God; that is, when we cheerfully refer | attainment of that royal dignity to which God hath ourselves, and the disposal of all our affairs, to his designed and anointed me. They delight in lies, wisdom; when we acquiesce in, and accommodate &c.-In secret slanders and execrations, covered ourselves to, all the dispensations of his providence, with flatteries and fair speeches, as it here follows. and patiently expect a doubtful event, with an entire Verse 8. Trust in him at all times, ye people, satisfaction in his righteousness and goodness, how-By my example be encouraged, and learn to trust in ever it be. The LXX. render this clause, ouxư tw God. Pour out your heart before him-Make Oew vioraynoetai n Yvxn Mv; shall not my soul be known to him all the desires, cares, and griefs of subject to God? Certainly it ought so to be; for, your hearts freely and frequently, with confident from him cometh my salvation, I have no hope of | expectation of obtaining what you want or desire deliverance or safety but from and by him.
from him. God is a refuge for us-Not only, my Verse 2. He only is my rock--He hath been so refuge, verse 7, but a refuge for us all, even as many often; in him I have found shelter, and strength, and as will fee to him, and take shelter in him. succour; he hath, by his grace, supported me under, Verse 9. Surely men of low degree are vanityand delivered me out of my troubles, and by his Are most vain, impotent, and helpless creatures in providence he has defended me from my enemies, themselves. This he delivers as a reason, or arand therefore I trust he will still support, deliver, | gument, to enforce his foregoing exhortation to and defend me. I shall not be greatly moved-- trust in God, because there was no other person or Though I may be shaken, I shall not be overthrown. I thing to which they could safely trust. Men of
Verse 3. How long will ye-Mine enemies, (to high degree are a lie–That is, deceitful; because whom he now turns his speech,) imagine mischief | unable to perform what by their power and dignity against a man-
--Against me, a man like yourselves, they seem to promise. They raise men's expectawhom common humanity obliges you to pity; ations, and afterward disappoint thein, and so deceive single man, who is no fit match for you? Ye shall those that trust in them. In which sense lying be slain all of you—The mischief which ye design is ascribed to a fountain, Jer. xv. 18; to wine, Hos. for me shall fall upon your own heads. And ac- | ix. 2; and to the olive, Heb. iii. 17, (see the Hebrew,) cordingly Saul, and the generality of these men, / when they do not give what they promise. Or, a were slain, 1 Sam. xxxi. As a bowing wall shall | lie may signify, a mere nothing; for a lie has no ye be-As suddenly and easily overthrown; as a reality in it. totlering fence- The word fence, or hedge, does not Verse 10. Trust not in oppression—That is, in fully express the sense of the original word, 773, riches gotten by fraud and violence; or in the arts gadeer, “which means such a sort of partition, or of acquiring them. As you must not trust in any wall, as, when it is decayed, is liable to fall and crush other men, so neither must you trust to yourselves, a man to death. In this view the similitude is, not nor to your own wit, or industry, or courage, by that they should be in a ruinous condition, like a which you may oppress others, and so think to sedecayed wall, but that they should threaten destruc- cure and enrich yourselves. And become not vain tion to all who came near them, as a falling wall || in robbery-Lifting up and feeding yourselves with does to all those who come within the reach of it; vain hopes of safety and felicity from those riches and as Isaiah expresses it, Like a breach ready to which you take from others by robbery and viofall, swelling out in a high wall, whose breaking li lence. If riches increase, set not your heart on