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God the defence

PSALM XXXIII.

of the righteous.

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men.

A. M. 2962. 12 Blessed is the nation whose || shall he deliver any by his great A. M. 2962. B. C. 1042

B. C, 1042. God is the LORD; and the people strength. whom he hath P chosen for his own inheritance. 18 u Behold, the eye of the LORD is ' upon

13 4 The Lord looketh from heaven ; he be- || them that fear him, upon them that hope in holdeth all the sons of men.

his mercy; 14 From the place of his habitation he look- 19 To deliver their souls from death, and to eth upon all the inhabitants of the earth. keep them alive in famine.

15 He fashioneth their hearts alike; "he con- 20 2 Our soul waiteth for the LORD: a he is sidereth all their works.

our help and our shield. 16 .There is no king saved by the multitude 21 For our heart shall rejoice in him, because of a host : a mighty man is not delivered by we have trusted in his holy name. much strength.

22 Let thy mercy, O Lord, be upon us, ac17 + A horse is a vain thing for safety: neither || cording as we hope in thee.

• Psalm lxv. 4; cxliv. 15. -p Exodus xix. 5;. Deut. vii. 6. u Job xxxvi. 7; Psa. xxxiv. 15; 1 Pet. 1:1. 12.-Psa. cxlvii. 92 Chron. xvi. 9, Job xxviii. 24; Psa. xi. 4 ; xiv. 2; Prov. xv. 3. -y Job v. 20; Psa. xxxvii. 19. - Psa. Ixii. 1,5; cxxx. 6. * Job xxxiv. 21 ; Jer. xxxii. 19. Psa. xliv. 6. Li Psa. xx. 7; a Psalm cxv. 9, 10, 11. Lb Psalm xiii. 5; Zech. x. 7; John cxlvii. 10; Prov. xxi. 31.

xvi. 22. signs, and especially those which concern his chosen selves. By which he strongly proves his general people, of whom he speaks in the next verse, are proposition of God's powerful providence over all always successful and irresistible.

A horse is a vain thing for safety-Though Verse 12. Blessed is the nation, &c.-Seeing the he be strong, Job xxxix. 19, &c.; and fit for battle, Lord is so great and glorious in wisdom, and power, Prov. xxi. 31 ; or, for flight, if need requires. This and goodness, as has been just observed; inasmuch is put for all warlike provisions, of which horses as they must needs be very miserable who are either were, and are, a very considerable part. The word strangers or enemies to him; so thrice happy are pv, sheker, here translated a rain thing, properly the people of Israel, who, though they be despised | means a lie, signifying that it promises the help and by the Gentiles, are chosen by this almighty God to safety which it cannot give. Neither shall he delirer be his peculiar portion, friends and servants. any by his great strengthThe expressions being

Verses 13–15. He beholdeth all the sons of men, the same, the meaning is also the same in this and the Although he had a special relation to Israel, yet he preceding verse. After having particularized the hath a general care over all mankind, all whose | stout man, and the horse, that is to say, the infantry hearts and ways he observes. He fashioneth their and the cavalry, the strength and the swiftness of an hearls alike-3335 71° 7397, hajotzer jachad lib- || army; and said, that neither of them could save a bam, Il is he that formed their hearts, one and all, king; he repeats again, what he had said before in and consequently must know what are their thoughts general, implying that no number of forces could do and intentions: or, in the present tense, as our ver- | it. He then points out, in the next verses, where is sion renders it, He formeth, and so it resers to the the true defence and the only sure dependance of works of God's providence; and the psalınist having | man. said that God sees and observes all men, now adds, Verses 18, 19. Behold the eye of the Lord, &c.that he rules and governs them; yea, even their Whosoever therefore would have safety must expect hearts, which are most unmanageable, he disposes it only from the watchful eye and almighty hand of and inclines according to the counsel of his will. God. Is upon them that fear himThese are the Alike, or, equally, one as well as another; whether chief objects of his care and favour. Upon them they be Jews or Gentiles, bond or free, princes or that hope in his mercy—That place their hope, and peasants; all are alike subject to his jurisdiction. trust, and happiness, not in any creature, but only in He considereth all their works—Both outward and God and in his mercy and blessings. To delirer inward, all the workings of their minds and actions, their soul from death-That is, their life, when he and all their endeavours and actions. How great sees it to be expedient for them: for sometimes it is then“ must be the advantage of living in the favour, | better for them to die than to live, as both good and and under the protection, of this great Being, who, bad men have declared; and when it is so, it is known from the watch-tower of his eternal throne, behold- || to God, but not to us. And therefore the constant eth, directeth, and controlleth, at pleasure, not only | accomplishment of this and the like promises, in a the actions and the words, but the very thoughts and literal sense, is not to be expected nor simply deimaginations of all the inhabitants of the earth !"— | sired, except with submission to God's wise and graHorne.

cious will. Verses 16, 17. No king is saved by the multitude Verses 20-22. He is our helpThe help of his of a host-But only by God's providence, who dis- true Israel, to whom he hath made many promises poseth of victory and success as he pleaseth, and that and glorious discoveries of his goodness. For our frequently to the weakest side. He instances in heart shall rejoice in him--Or, therefore it shall rekings and mighty men, as the most uncontrollable joice, for this seems to have been an inference, persons in the world, and most confident of them- ll either from the foregoing or following sentence.

David triumphs in God.

PSALM XXXIV.

Safety of the righteous.

PSALM XXXIV. Dr. Delaney has given it as his opinion that David wrote this Psalm for the instruction of those men who resorted to

kim at Adullam, after his departure from Gath. It contains, says he, the noblest encouragements to piety and virtue, from an assurance that all such as are devoted are the immediate care of Almighty God; as all those of a contrary character are his abhorrence, and the sure marks of his vengeance. And, surely, this Psalm, considered in this light, is one of the noblest, the best turned, and best judged, and best adapted compositions that ever was penned. He begins by encouraging them to piety, and gratitude to God from his own example, 1-7. He then exhorts others to make trial of the same mercies; to learn the goodness of God from their own experiences, 8, 9. He then assures them, that strength and magnanimity are no securities from want and distress; whereas trust and confidence in God are a never-failing source of every thing that is good, 10. After which he sums up all in a most pathetic and beautiful exhortation to piety, to virtue, and to confidence in God; in full assurance that, as he was the guardian and true protector of virtue in distress; 80 was he the unerring observer and steady avenger of

wickedness, 11-22. A Psalm of David when he changed his behaviour 30 d magnify the LORD with me, A. M. 2962.

B. C. 1042. before ? Abimelech ; who drove him away, and and let us exalt his name together. he departed.

4 I sought the Lord, and he heard me, and A. M. 2962. I WILL · bless the Lord at all delivered me from all my fears. B. C. 1012.

times: his praise shall continually 5 2 They looked unto him, and were lightenbe in my mouth.

ed: and their faces were not ashamed. 2 My soul shall make her b boast in the LORD: 6 * This poor man cried, and the Lord heard e the humble shall hear thereof, and be glad. him, and 8 saved him out of all his troubles.

1 Or, Achish, 1 Sam. xxi. 13.—a Eph. v. 20; 1 Thess. v. 18; 2 Thess. i. 3; ii. 13. — b Jer. ix. 24; 1 Cor. i. 31 ; 2 Cor. x. 17. e Psa, cxix. 74 ; cxlii. 7.

a Psa. Ixix. 30; Luke i. 46. Le Mait. vii. 7; Luke xi. 9. ? Or, they flowed unto him.-Psa. iii. 4.8 Verses 17, 19; 2 Sam, xxii. l.

NOTES ON PSALM XXXIV.

providence in our deliverance from any threatening Title. When he changed his behaviour, &c.—A evil. We should then, with the psalmist, ascribe Psalm made upon that occasion, though not at that our safety, not to our own contrivance, subtlety, or time, when he counterfeited madness. Wherein power, but to the care of God, who watches over whether he sinned or not, is matter of dispute; but us.” this is undoubted, that his deliverance deserved Verses 4–6. I sought the Lord, and he heard methis solemn acknowledgment. Abimelech-Called | David now proceeds to give reasons why God should Achish, 1 Sam. xxi. 10. But Abimelech seems to be praised and glorified; he himself and others had have been the common name of the kings of the found by experience, that he was a God hearing Philistines, (Gen. xx. 2; xxvi. 1,) as Pharaoh was of and answering prayer. He first mentions his own the Egyptians.

God had heard and answered him, and Verses 1, 2. I will bless the Lord at all times- || delivered him from all his fears--Not only from I will never forget to bless God for this miraculous the death he feared, but from the disquietude he was deliverance. My soul shall make her boast, &c.— put into by the fear of it. “This,” says Chandler, Shall glory in this, that I have so powerful and exactly answers to the history, which informs us, gracious a Lord and Master. The humble shall that when David heard what the servants of Achish hear-Or the meek, that is, the righteous; and be said concerning him, he laid up these words in his glad-Both from their love to me, and the public heart, and was greatly afraid, 1 Sam. xxi. 13. Ungood, which they know that I design and seek | doubtedly he thought himself in extreme danger, above all things; and for the comfort and benefit but instead of removing their suspicions, and his of my example to them, in similar straits and diffi- own fears, by offering to join with the Philistines culties.

case.

against his country, he rather chose to counterfeit Verse 3. O magnify the Lord with me-Join madness, and trust Providence with the success of it, your praises with mine, 0 ye humble ones. And than secure his safety by base and dishonourable let us eralt his name together—If not in one place, compliances.” But it may be said, David was a yet in affection and work: let our souls meet, and great and eminent man; and we cannot expect to let our praises meet in the ears of the all-hearing be favoured as he was: Have any others ever exGod. Or the word 1777, jachdav, may be rendered, perienced the like benefit by prayer? Yes, many alike; that is, with equal zeal and fervency; let besides him. For, They lookeil unto him-Namely, none be willing to be outstripped by another. To the humble, or they that feared him; they sought magnify, or exalt, and the like expressions,“ do not and expected help from the Lord, and were lightened mean that we can add any thing to the glory of the-Comforted and encouraged. The meaning of the name or nature of God; but that we should show passage, Chandler thinks, is, that the humble looked forth, and publicly celebrate his majesty and great- to God for the psalmist's protection and received ness, when we experience the interpositions of his that light, that is, that comfort and joy, from him

Safety and happiness

PSALM XXXIV.

of trusting in God.

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7 h The angel of the LORD 'encamp- 9 m O fear the LORD, ye his saints : for A. M. 2962.

eth round about them that fear him, there is no want to them that fear him. and delivereth them.

10 - The young lions do lack, and suffer hun8 0 k taste and see that the LORD is good : Iger : ° but they that seek the Lord shall not I blessed is the man that trusteth in him. want any good thing.

b Dan. vi. 22; Heb. i. 14. Gen. xxxii. 1,2; 2 Kings vi, 17; || * 1 Pet. ii. 13.

Zech. ix. 8.

Psa. ii. 12.-Psa. xxxi. 23.—Job iv. 10, 11. - Psa. lxxxiv. 11.

upon David's return to safety, which diffused itself | his people. The goodness of God, here spoken of, through their whole hearts ; so that their faces includes both the amiableness and benevolence of were not ashamed, or, as 1100', jechparu, signifies, || his nature, and the bounty and beneficence of his “were not put to the blush for shame,” by being dis- || providence and grace; and, in calling us to taste and appointed as to their hope on account. But we see this, the psalmist means that we should seriously, may, with the ancient interpreters, read these and thoroughly, and affectionately consider it, and make the foregoing words imperatively, as an exhortation trial of it by our own experience; which is opposed to others; thus, Look unto him-- That is, with an eye to those slight and vanishing thoughts that men of faith and prayer, and be ye enlightened—Take usually have of the divine goodness. It is not comfort in the expectation of mercy from him. If | sufficient that we find him to be a bountiful beneit be said, “ Perhaps these also were persons of great factor to us, but we must relish and take delight in eminence, like David himself, and upon that account his goodness manifested in and by his gifts, and in were highly favoured, or their numbers made them the contemplation of his infinite perfections and considerable ;" the psalmist replies, This poor boundless love; and must be so convinced and perman cried, and the Lord heard him--A single per- || suaded of his goodness, as thereby to be encouraged, son, mean and inconsiderable, whom no man looked in the worst of times, to trust in him, and cast our upon with any respect, or looked after with any care upon him. concern; yet he was as welcome to the throne of Verses 9, 10. O fear the Lord, ye his saintsgrace as David, or any of his worthies: the Lord Reverence, serve, and trust in him : for fear is heard him, took cognizance of his case, and of his commonly put for all the parts of God's worship prayers, and saved him out of all his troubles, for and service. For there is no want to them that God will regard the prayer of the destitute, Psa. || fear him--They shall so far have all good things, as cii. 17; Isa. Ivii. 15.

to have no reason to complain of the want of any. As Verse 7. The angel of the Lord, &c.-- This is to the things of the other world, they shall have grace another reason why men should praise and glorify | sufficient for the support of the spiritual life, and as God. The singular number here put for the to this life they shall have what is necessary for the plural; for the psalmist does not speak of one single support of it. For godliness hath the promise of the angel, but of a guard of angels, as unanimous, how- | life that now is, and they that seek the kingdom of ever, in their service as if they were but one; En- || God and his righteousness, shall have other things, campeth round about them that fear him-As a life that are needful, added to them, Matt. vi. 33; 1 Tim. guard about a prince; and delivereth them-- | iv. 8. The young lions do lack, &c.—“ All the Guardeth them from dangers on every side, or ancient versions,” says Dr. Dodd, rescueth them from them, and from trials and Chaldee, read, great, powerful men, instead of young troubles when they are suffered to fall into them: lions : and Houbigant renders the place, rich men to which work they are appointed by God, Heb. are become poor and hungry; but they who seek the i. 14. God makes use of the attendance of good Lord, &c. This sense is undoubtedly good : but I spirits, for the protection of his people from the see nothing to object against our own reading: for malice and power of evil spirits, and more good the meaning is, that if God takes care of the beasts offices the holy angels do us daily than we are aware of the field, much more will he take care of them of. Though in dignity and endowments of nature who fear him, and much sooner suffer those to die they are very superior to us; though they retain for want of their prey, than these to perish through their primitive rectitude, which we have lost; though want of necessaries, or the failure of his protection." they have constant employment in the upper world Shall not want any good thing—Any thing neto praise God, and are entitled to constant rest and cessary and truly good for them, all circumstances bliss there; yet, in obedience to their Maker, and in considered ; of which God alone is a competent love to those that bear his image, they condescend judge. And, therefore, although he doth usualy to minister to the saints, and stand up for them | take special care to supply the wants of good men, against the powers of darkness. They not only and hath often done it by extraordinary ways, when visit them, but encamp round about them, acting for ordinary have failed; yet he knows that wants and their good as really, though not as sensibly, as for crosses are sometimes more necessary for, and will Jacob's, Gen. xxxii. 1, and Elisha's

, 2 Kings vi. 17. | be more useful to them, than those things which All the glory be to the God of the angels !

they may think needful, and in such cases he maniVerse 8. O taste and see that the Lord is good fests greater mercy to them in denying them supThat is, kind, merciful, and gracious, namely, to all | plies than in granting them.

except the Blessedness of the righteous.

PSALM XXXIV.

Misery of the ungodly.

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11 Come, ye children, hearken unto 16 y The face of the Lord is against A. M. 2962.

me : PI will teach you the fear of the them that do evil, a to cut off the reLORD.

membrance of them from the earth. 12 : What man is he that desireth life, and 17 The righteous cry, and the LORD hearloveth many days, that he may see good ? eth, and delivereth them out of all their troubles.

13 Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips 18 • The Lord is nigh ° unto 3 them that are from 'speaking guile.

of a broken heart; and saveth such as be of a 14 · Depart from evil, and do good ; * seek contrite spirit. peace, and pursue it.

19 Many are the afflictions of the righteous : 15 u The eyes of the Lord are upon the e but the LORD delivereth him out of them all. righteous, and his ears are open unto their 20 He keepeth all his bones: not one of *cry.

them is broken.

PPsalm xxxii. 8.—1 Peter iii. 10, 11.-rl Peter ii. 22. a Verses 6, 15, 19; Psalm cxlv. 19, 20.

—Psalm cxlv. 18. • Psa. xxxvII. 27; Isa. i. 16, 17.- * Rom. xii. 18; Heb. xii. 14. e Psa. li. 17; Isa. lvii. 15; lxi. 1 ; lxvi. 2.- -3 Heb. to the broken u Job xxxvi. 7; Psa. xxxii. 18; 1 Pet. 11. 12. Verses 6, 17. l of heart. * Heb. contrite of spirit. - -d Prov. xxiv. 16; 2 Tim. y Lev. xvii. 10; Jer. xliv. 11; Amos ix. 4.- Prov. x. 7. 111. 11, 12.- Le Verses 6, 17.- _f John xix. 36.

Verse 11. Come, ye children, &c.--Come hither, Verses 15, 16. The eyes of the Lord are upon the then, all ye, who, by considering the advantages righteous—This is added to show that the practice described above, which attend true religion, are be-l of these duties (verses 13, 14) is the true and best, come desirous of obtaining it, and, therefore, are and, indeed, the only way to see that good proposed willing to be instructed; hearken unto me-In sim- and promised; both because such righteous persons, plicity and humility of mind, seriously resolved to howsoever they may meet with affronts and injuries comply with the divine will as far as it is made from men, are under the special care of God, signiknown to you; and I will teach you the fear of the fied in this verse, and those who do the evils there LordThe true and acceptable way of worshipping forbidden shall find, to their cost, that God is their and serving him, so that you may please and glorify enemy, verse 16. The face of the Lord–That is, him here, and be admitted into his kingdom here- his anger, often called his face, because anger disaster.

covers itself in a person's face; is against them that Verse 12. What man is he that desireth life-A do evil — That commit known sin in any instances, long and happy life, begun in this world and con- especially in those above mentioned. To cut off the tinued for ever in the next: namely, who is he that remembrance of them, &c.—Utterly to root them out seriously and in good earnest desires it, so as to be and destroy them, and so to deprive both them and willing to use any endeavours which shall be pre- their children of that worldly happiness, which is scribed to him ? for otherwise the question would the only thing that they desire, and seek by their be needless, there being no man but desires it, at wicked courses. least, coldly and faintly. And loveth many days, Verse 18. The Lord is nigh unto them that are Hebrew, loveth days to see, that is, in which he of a broken heart—Ready to hearand succour them; may see, or enjoy, good, namely, prosperity and though, by the course of his providence toward them, happiness.

he may sometimes seem to themselves and others to Verses 13, 14. Keep thy tongue from evil-From stand afar off. God is near to all men; for in him all manner of evil speaking, from all injurious, false, they live: but he is near to the broken in heart, in and deceitful speeches; and thy lips from speaking || a peculiar sense, as he is ever ready and able to help guile--Or, guilesul words, contrary to truth and sin- | them; as men are much more capable of assisting cerity, and the real thoughts and intentions of thy those they value, when present with them than when heart, and used with a purpose of deceiving others absent from them; from which this form of speech, by them. Depart from evil--From all sin, and as applied to God, is taken.”—Chandler. And sareth especially from all wicked, and injurious acts and such as be of a contrite spirit-Those whose spirits practices against thy neighbour. And do good-- || are truly humbled under the hand of God, and the Be ready to perform all good and friendly offices to sense of their sins, whose hearts are subdued, and all men, as thou hast opportunity. Seek peace- | made obedient to God's will, and submissive to his Siudy, by all possible means, to live peaceably and providence. quietly with all men, avoiding grudges, debates, Verses 19, 20. Many are the afflictions of the dissensions, strifes, and enmities; and pursue il--| righteous—in the world they may have tribulation, Do not only embrace it gladly, when it is offered, and their afflictions and troubles may be many, (for but follow hard after it, when it seems to flee away they must not promise themselves such prosperity from thee, and use all possible endeavours by fair as will exempt them from the trial of their faith and and kind words, by condescensions, and by the me- || patience;) but the Lord delivereth him out of them diation or assistance of others to recover it, and to all—That is, in due time, when it will be best for compose all differences, which may arise between them to be so delivered. And in this they ought to thee and others.

think themselves happy, that God will both support VOL. II. ( 48 )

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The end of the wicked.

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1 Luisnuil sluy the wichuli and 22 The LORD h redeemeth the soul A. M. 2962.

B. C. 10-12 they that hate the righteous 5 shall be of his servants: and none of them that

trust in him shall be desolate.

desolate.

& Psa. xciv. 23.

-- Or, shall be guilty.

Ch 2 Samuel iv. | 9; 1 Kings i. 29 ; Psa. lxxi. 23; cui. 4; Lam. iii. 58.

them under their trials, and will also put an end to the Just One, Jehovah shall make desolate ; a predicthem when he hath sufficiently proved them there- tion awfully fulfilled in the punishment of the perseby. He keepeth all his bones-Not only his soul, cutors of the Messiah, one of whose proper titles this but his body, and all the parts and members thereof;| was, Acts iii. 14. not one of them is broken-God will not suffer any Verse 22. The Lord redeemeth the soul of his real mischief to befall him; though he may be often servantsThat is, their lives, or their persons, afflicted, yet he shall not be destroyed. But these from the malicious designs of all their enemies, words, though they may be understood of righteous from the power of the grave, and from the sting of men in general, of whom they are true in a meta- every affliction. He keeps them from sinning in phorical sense ; yet have a further meaning in them, their troubles, which is the only thing that could do being designed by the Spirit of God to signify a great them a real injury, and keeps them from despair, mystery, namely, that none of Christ's bones should and from being put out of possession of their own be broken when he was put to death, contrary to the souls. None that trust in him shall be desolateusual custom of treating those who were crucified, Or, comfortless; for they shall not be cut off from whose legs were wont to be broken, in order to put communion with God. And no man is desolate, but them sooner out of their pain. See John xix. 32, 36. he whom God has forsaken, nor is any man undone Dr. Kennicott's translation of this and the preceding till he is in hell. Instead of, shall be desolate, in this verse renders the application of them to Christ per- and the preceding verse, the margin reads, shall be fectly natural and easy, and is well worth the read- guilty; as the word 10VX, jeshemu, here used, is er's attention. It is thus, Many are the afflictions frequently and properly rendered. Indeed, it inof the Just One; but from them all Jehovuh deliver- cludes in it both the idea of guilt and the punishment eth him: Jehovah keepeth all his bones ; not one of incurred thereby. Now, they that in the way of true them shall be broken. This translation the Hebrew repentance, living faith, and new obedience, trust in will well bear.

the Lord, are both rescued from guilt and the punishVerse 21. Eril shall slay the wicked-Either, Ist, | ment to which it had exposed them. It may not be The evil of sin: his own wickedness, though design- | improper to observe here that, as this is another of ed against others, shall destroy himself. Or, 2d, The the alphabetical Psalms, every verse beginning with evil of misery. While the afflictions of good men a distinct letter of the Hebrew alphabet, except the shall have a happy issue, theirs shall end in their fisth, which includes two letters; so this verse is a total and final destruction. They that hate the right- | kind of detached sentence, added, as in Psa. XXV., eous shall be desolate, That persecute them and plot beyond the alphabet, perhaps in order that the Psalm their ruin, which is an evidence they hate them, might end with a promise rather than a threatening. whatsoever they may pretend to the contrary. Dr. For a similar reason the Jews repeat a verse at the Kennicott translates this latter clause, The haters of lend of some books of the Old Testament.

PSALM XXXV. The matter of this Psalm, Bishop Patrick thinks, sufficiently informs us, that it was penned by David when he was fiercely persecuted by Saul; whose forces, which were unjustly raised against him, he beseeches the Lord to dis. sipate; and especially to stop the mouths of his false accusers, (such as Doeg and the Ziphites,) of whom he most heavily complains.Dr. Horne, and many other commentators, think that David, in this Psalm, personates the Messiah in his state of humiliation and sufferings; and, of consequence, that the enemies here referred to, are those of Christ and his church, and especially the rulers of the darkness of this world, whose destruction is pro phetically foretold. (1,) David prays that Jehovah would interpose in his behalf, and deliver him from his persecu. tors, 1-3. (2) Foretels their confusion and his own triumph, 4-10. (3,) Describes their malice against him, and his love toward them, 11-16. (4) Repeats his supplications for deliverance, and enlarges on the cruel insults he met with, 17-25. (5) Again predicts their confusion, and the joy and exultation of the righteous, with his own thanksgiving, 26–28. 754

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