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A prayer to God

PSALM XX.

for the king

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14 P Let the words of my mouth, and || ble in thy sight, O LORD, omy strength, A. M. 2944 the meditation of my heart, be accepta- and my 9 redeemer.

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P Psa. li. 15.

—Heb. my rock; Psa. xviii. 1.

4 Isa. xliii. 14 ; xliv. 6; xlvii. 4; 1 Thess. i. 10.

this word primarily signifies; from the great trans- || ceptable in thy sight-Be really good and holy, and gression-From the guilt of such presumptuous sins, so well pleasing to thee. O Lord, my strength-0 which are, indeed, very great transgressions, and thou who hast hitherto strengthened me, both against such as, if followed by impenitence and obstinacy, | my temporal and spiritual enemies, and whose grathou wilt not pardon.

cious and powerful assistance is absolutely necessaVerse 14. Let the words of my mouth, &c.-Hav- | ry to keep me from being overcome by my sinful ing prayed that God would keep him from sinful ac- || inclinations and other temptations. And my Retions, he now prays that God would govern and deemerThis expression seems to be added emsanctify his words and thoughts. And this was ne- || phatically, and with a special respect to Christ, to cessary in order to his preservation, even from pre- || whom alone this word, Sad, goel, properly belongs. sumptuous sins, which have their first rise in the See notes on Job xix. 25. Through his blood and thoughts, and thence, probably, proceed to expres- Spirit alone did and could David expect the pardon sions before they break forth into actions. Be ac- || and grace for which he here prays.

PSALM XX. This Psalm is supposed to have been written upon occasion of some particular expedition of David, to be used by the people

as a prayer for his good success. The first three verses seem to have been intended to be spoken by the people, or the priests of the temple, upon the king's coming to offer sacrifice and prayer; the next five to be spoken partly by David himself, or by the high-priest, and partly by the people, while the sacrifice was consuming. We have here, (1,) A prayer for the king, 1-4. (2) The king and people rejoice in God, and pray for his help, 5-9. To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David. 3 Remember all thy offerings, and A. M. 2944.

B. C. 1060. 1. M. 2003. THE Lord hear thee in the day of accept thy burnt-sacrifice

. Selah. trouble;

a the name of the God 4. Grant thee according to thine own heart, of Jacob 1 defend thee.

and fulfil all thy counsel. 2 Send ? thee help from the sanctuary, and 5 We will drejoice in thy salvation, and in strengthen thee out of Zion.

the name of our God we will set up our ban

a Prov. xviii. 10. Heb set thee on a high place.

—Heb. Hebrew, support thee.- - Hebrew, turn to ashes, or, make fat. thy help.-1 Kings vi. 16 ; 2 Chron. xx. 8; Psa. lxxiii. 17. c Psa. xxi. 2.- d Psa. xix. 4. - e Exod. xvii. 15; Psa. Ix. 4.

NOTES ON PSALM XX.

posterity. Let God by his providence keep thee Verse 1. The Lord hear thee in the day of safe, and secure from the reach of evil, even the trouble-It was often a day of trouble with David. God who preserved Jacob in the days of his trouble; "Neither the crown on his head,” says Henry, “nor and let God by his grace keep thee eusy and happy the grace in his heart, would exempt him from from the fear of evil. trouble.” But in his trouble he had recourse to Verses 2-4. Send thee help from the sanctuary, God; and in this all, even the greatest of men, ought Either from heaven, as it is expressed verse 6; or, to imitate him. “Though he was a man of business, rather, from the tabernacle in Zion, where the ark and a man of war, yet he was constant to his devo- | then was; toward which the Israelites directed their tions. Though he had prophets, and priests, and prayers, and from which God heard and answered many good people among his subjects to pray for them. Thus it is explained in the next clause. Rehim, yet he did not think that excused him from member-Namely, with acceptance, as it follows; praying for himself. None must expect benefit by all thy offerings-Offered either by thee, or by us the prayers of the church, or of their ministers or thy people in thy behalf. And accept thy burntfriends for them, who are capable of praying for sacrifice-Hebrew, 77397', jedasheneh, turn to ashes, themselves, and yet neglect it. The prayers of by fire sent from heaven in token of acceptance, as others for us must be desired, not to supersede, but was usual. Grant thee according to thy own heart to second our own for ourselves.” The name of the —That is, that good success which thy heart deGod of Jacob—That is, God himself, for names are sires; and fulfil all thy counsels-Thy present deoften put for persons. He calls him the God of Ja- signs for the glory of God and the good of his and cob, or Israel, not only to distinguish him from false thy people. gods, but as an argument to enforce the prayer, be- Verses 5, 6. We will rejoice in thy salvationcause God had made a covenant with Jacob and his || Hereby they show their confidence in God, and Praise given to God

PSALM XXI.

for all his mercies.

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A. M. 2944. ners: the LORD fulfil all thy peti-h but we will remember the name of A. M. 2914. tions.

the LORD our God. 6 Now know I that the LORD saveth f his

8 They are brought down and fallen : but we anointed; he will hear him from his holy hea- are risen, and stand upright.

with the saving strength of his right hand. 9 Save, LORD: let the king hear us when we 7 Some trust in chariots, and some in horses: call.

6 ven

-6 Heb.

i Psa. ii. 2. -5 Heb. from the heaven of his holiness.

by the strength of the salvation of his right hand.

& Psa. xxxiii. 16, 17; Prov. xxi. 31 ; Isa. xxxi. 1.-hi Chron.

xxxii. 8.

their assurance of the victory. In the name of our brate, the name of the Lord our God; that is, we GodThat is, to the honour of God, we will set up will remember, or make mention of it, so as to boast our banners-In the way of triumph, which, among of or trust in it. They are brought down-From other ways, was celebrated by the setting up of ban- their horses and chariots, to which they trusted. ners, or trophies. Now know I, &c.—I am already Hebrew, wn, charegnu, they bowed down, as being assured of victory by the consideration of God's unable to stand longer, because of their mortal power and faithfulness, and love to his people. I wounds. See Judg. v. 27. But we are risen, and These words seem to have been spoken by David stand upright-Stand firmly, and keep the field. himself; or rather, by the high-priest. The Lord Let the king hear us--Either, Ist, David; and so saveth his anointedWill certainly save, with the the sense is, O Lord, preserve and assist the king, saving strength of his right hand— This shows how that, when we are distressed, and cry to him for God would hear him, even by saving him with a help, he may be able and ready to help us: or, 2d, strong hand.

Let God, the supreme Monarch, the King of kings, Verses 7-9. Some trust in chariotsThis again and, in a peculiar manner, the King of Israel, hear was spoken by the people. The word trust is not and answer us, when we pray for our king and in the Hebrew, which is more literally translated, people. But Dr. Waterland renders the verse, very These in their chariots, and those on their horses, agreeably to the Hebrew, Lord, save the king. He but we will remember, make mention of, or, cele- || (that is, the Lord) will hear us when we call.

PSALM XXI. The subject of this Psalm is the same with the former, both being made for the people's use, concerning the king. Only the

prayers there used are here turned into praises for the blessings received in answer to their prayers. And as David was an illustrious type of Christ, so in many of these expressions he looks beyond himself to Christ, in whom they are properly and fully accomplished. We have a thanksgiving for blessings received, 1-6. An expression of confidence in God, 7-13. To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David. 2 Thou hast given him his heart's A. M. 2944.

B. C. 1060 8. M: 2048: THE king shall joy in thy strength, | desire

, and hast not withholden the O LORD; and in thy salvation request of his lips. Selah. how greatly shall he rejoice!

3 For thou preventest him with the blessings

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NOTES ON PSALM XXI.

church; and now he ever liveth to make request Verse 1. The king shall joy in thy strength, with his lips, for the conversion and salvation of Conferred upon him, and put forth, by thee, on his sinners. Such desires will be granted, and such behalf, against his enemies. Though by the king || requests will never be withholden. Let us be careHere we may understand King David, who com- ful to frame ours after that all-perfect model of posed this Psalm, yet it may be much better ex- | divine love."--Horne. plained of the King Messiah ; understood of whom, Verse 3. Thou preventest him-Or, didst prerent the words thy strength mean the divine power, him, namely, David; crowning him with manifold which was manifested in the resurrection of Christ, | blessings, both more and sooner than he desired or and in the establishment of his gospel.

expected, surprising him with the gift of the kingVerse 2. Thou hast given him his heart's desiredom, and with many happy successes. With the – Thou hast granted all that he desired in his heart, blessings of goodness—That is, with excellent blessas well as that which he openly requested with his ings, or with abundance of good. Applying this to lips. “The desire of Christ's heart was his own Christ, we must say, The Son of God could not be resurrection and exaltation, for the benefit of his more ready to ask for the blessings of the divine

David's confidence

PSALM XXI.

in God's

'8 power.

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A. M. 2914. of goodness: thou o settest a crown of|| through the mercy of the Most High A. M. 2944.

B. C. 1060. pure gold on his head.

he & shall not be moved. 4 . He asked life of thee, and thou gavest it 8 Thy hand shall " find out all thine enemies: him, e even length of days for ever and ever. thy right hand shall find out those that hate thee.

5 His glory is great in thy salvation : honour 9 i Thou shalt make them as a fiery oven in and majesty hast thou laid upon him.

the time of thine anger: the Lord shall swal6 For thou hast ? made him most blessed for low them up in his wrath, "and the fire shall ever : fthou hast 2 made him exceeding glad devour them. with thy countenance.

10 m Their fruit shalt thou destroy from the earth, 7 For the king trusteth in the LORD, and and their seed from among the children of men.

_k Psa.

c2 Sam, xii. 30; 1 Chron. xx. 2. d Psa. Ixi. 5, 6. Le 2 Sam. vii. 19; Psa. xci. 16.- Heb. set him to be blessings, Gen. xii. 2; Psa. Ixxii. 17.-Psa. xvi. 11; xlv. 7; Acts ii. 28.

- Heb. gladded him with joy.

5 Psa. xvi. 8. L 1 Sam. xxxi. 3.- Li Mal. iv. l. lvi. 1, 2.- Psalm xviii. 8; Isaiah xxvi. 11. --m1 Kings xiii. 34; Job xviii. 16, 17, 19; Psalm xxxvii. 28; cix. 13; Isaiah xiv. 20.

goodness than the Father was to give them, and his Hebrew, 11372 nown, teshitheehu berachoth, Thou disposition is the same toward all his adopted sons. hast set him to be blessings for ever; that is, to be By the crown of pure gold, may be meant, in gene- the author of all felicity to his subjects and servants: ral, an illustrious crown, which is here represented see Gal. iii. 8, where we learn, that Christ, by his as being set upon our Lord's head at his exaltation death and passion, having removed the curse, became into heaven, in token of his being then advanced to the fountain of all blessedness to his people, in time this chief exercise of his regal authority. Thus he and in eternity; being himself the blessing promised is said, Psa. viii. 5, to be crowned with glory and to Abraham, and the chief subject of the patriarchal honour; and St. John says, with respect to his de- benedictions. Thou hast made him exceeding glad ified humanity, in which he was made King of — Thus Christ says of himself, Psa. xvi. 9-11, My kings, and Lord of lords, that on his head were heart is glad, and my glory rejoices; in thy presence many crowns, Rev. xix. 12, 16.

is fulness of joy, &c., and the psalmist says of him, Verse 4. He asked life of thee-Applied to David Psa. xlv. 7, Thy God hath anointed thee with the it means, He asked only the preservation of his short oil of gladness above thy fellows. and mortal life, which was often exposed to the ut- Verse 7. For the king trusleth in the Lord-Conmost perils. And thou gavest him length of days fides in him, who never fails to perform his promises; for ever and ever-Thou gavest him a long life and and through the mercy of the Most High, &c.reign here, and after that didst translate him to live | Through his kindness who is superior to all other with thee for ever. But this was far more eminent- beings, and has all events in his hands and under his ly fulfilled in Christ, who asked of his Father life, control; he shall not be moved—The throne of Daor to be sared from death, (Heb. v. 7,) though with vid, and of his seed the Messiah, shall stand fast, submission to his will: but his Father, though he saw though all the powers on earth should combine to it necessary to take away his temporal life, yet in- | overturn it. “The throne of Christ, as man,” says stantly gave him another, and that far more noble, Dr. Horne, was erected and established by his trust instead of it, even the perfect possession of an ever- and confidence in the Father during his humiliation lasting and most glorious life, both in his soul and and passion. Faith in God, therefore, is the way body, at his right hand.

that leadeth to honour and stability.” Verse 5. His glory-His fame or renown, is great Verses 8, 9. Thy hand shall find out all thine in thy salvation—By reason of those great and glo- | enemies—When they seek to hide themselves, or rious deliverances which thou hast wrought both | flee away from thee, thy hand shall discover, overtake, for him and by him. Honour and majesty hast and destroy them. Thou shalt make them as a thou laid upon him—Or, fitted to him, or upon him, || fiery oven—Hebrew, us und anun, teshithemo or made adequate to him, as the word on, teshar- chetannur esh, thou shalt put them, as it were, into veh, signifies. Thou hast given him honour and an oven of fire. The Lord shall swallow them up power suitable to his glorious person and high en- ||--Destroy them. Thus, Psa. ii. 9, Thou shalt bruise dowments. “What tongue,” says Dr. Horne, * can them with a rod of iron, &c., which prediction, and express the“ glory, honour, and majesty,' with which those contained in these verses, particularly relate the King of righteousness and peace was invested to the unbelieving Jews. Compare Mal. iv. l; Psa. upon his ascension, when he took possession of the ii. 2–4, and cix. 13–15. throne prepared for him, and received the homage Verses 10, 11. Their fruit shalt thou destroyof heaven and earth! The sacred imagery in St. Their children. God will take away both root and John's Revelation sets them before our eyes in such || branch; the parents and all that wicked race.

For a manner, that no one can read the description they intended evil against thee—That is, against whose heart will not burn within him, through im- God; not directly, but by consequence, because it patient desire to behold them.” See Revelation, || was against David, whom God had anointed, or chapters iv., vii., xix., xxi., xxii.

against the Messiah, of whom he was a type, and Verse 6. Thou hast made him blessed for ever- against the Lord's people, injuries done to whom, David, in his distress,

PSALM XXII.

makes his complaint to Goa.

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11 For they intended evil against || arrows upon thy strings against the A. M. 2944.

thee : they "imagined a mischievous | face of them. device, which they are not able to perform. 13 Be thou exalted, LORD, in thine own

12 Therefore 3 shalt thou make them turn strength : so will we sing and praise thy their 4 back, when thou shalt make ready thine | power.

n Psa. ii. 1.

Or, thou shalt set them as a brutt, Job vii. 20; xvi. 12; Lam. iii. 12.

_4 Heb. shoulder.

God takes to be done to himself, Zech. ii. 8. They Verse 12. Therefore shalt thou make them turn imagined a mischievous device, which they are not their backThat is, flee away at the first sight of able to perform—This clause seems to be added to thee. Or, thou shalt set them as a butt to shoot at, teach us this great and necessary lesson, that men as the like phrase is used Job vii. 20, and xvi. 12. are justly punished by God for their wicked inten- When thou shalt make ready thine arrows, fC., tions, although they be hindered from the execution against the face of themOr, against them, the of them, contrary to what some Jewish doctors, and word face being often redundant. “The judgments others, have taught. “Vengeance came upon the of God are called his arrows, being sharp, swift, Jews to the uttermost, because of their intended ma- sure, and deadly. What a dreadful situation, to be lice against Christ. They, like Joseph's brethren, | set as a mark and butt, at which these arrows are dithought evil against him, but they were not able to rected! View Jerusalem compassed by the Roman perform it, for God meant it unto good, to bring it armies without, and torn to pieces by the animosity to pass, as it is this day, to save much people alive, of desperate and bloody factions within. No further Gen. 1. 20. So let all the designs of ungodly men commentary is requisite upon this verse. Tremble against thy church, O Lord, through thy power of and repent, is the inference to be drawn by every bringing good out of evil, turn to her advantage ;|| Christian community under heaven, in which and let all men be convinced that no weapon formed appear the symptoms of degeneracy and apostacy." against thee can prosper.”

-Horne.

PSALM XXII. It is confessed, that David was a type of Christ, and that many Psalms, or passages in the Psalms, though properly and

literally understood of David, yet had a further and mystical reference to Christ, in whom also they were accomplished. But there are some other Psalms, or passages in the Psalms, which, either by the sacred penman of them, or, at least, by the Holy Ghost inspiring him, were directly and immediately intended for, and are properly and literally understood of, the Messiah ; though withal there may likewise be in them some respect and allusion to the state of the penman himself, who, as being a type of Christ, must, of course, in many things resemble Christ. And this seems evidently to be the case with this Psalm, which was understood of the Messiah by the Hebrew doctors themselves, as it was also by Christ and by his apostles. And there are many passages in it which were most literally accomplished in him, and cannot, in a tolerable sense, be understood of any other. And therefore it cannot reasonably be doubted that David, though he had some reference to his own condition in some parts of it, yet was carried out by the Spirit of prophecy beyond himself unto Christ, to whom alone it truly and fully agrees, and to whose sufferings and the glory that should follow, it bears a clear

and striking testimony. David speaks here of the humiliation of Christ, 1-21. Of his exaltation, 22–31. To the chief Musician upon 'Aijeleth Shahar, A || far 2 from helping me, and from b the A. M. 2941.

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words of my roaring ? 8. 2. 2060. MY "God, my God, why hast thou

20 my God, I cry in the day-time, but thou hearforsaken me? why art thou so est not; and in the night season, and am not silent.

Or, the hind of the morning.

- Matthew xxvii. 46; Mark

2 Heb. from my salvation. Heb. v. 7.- Heb. there is no

silence to me.

XV. 34.

NOTES ON PSALM XXII.

soul of the penman of it after God: but there may Title. Aijeleth Shahar-That is, the hind of the appear to him no propriety in giving such a name to morning. It may seem strange to the reader, on the a Psalm on the sufferings and glory of the Messiah. first view of the subject, that such a title as this And yet there are passages in this Psalm which seem should be given to this solemn and mournsul Psalm. to justify the appellation. For instance, Many bulls And he may think that the forty-second Psalm might have compassed me, fc., have beset me round; they much better have borne such a title, because, as the gaped upon me as a ravening, roaring lion: espehart panteth after the water-brook, so panted the || cially verse 16, Dogs have compassed me; the as

The psalmist, in distress,

PSALM XXII.

seeks refuge in God.

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3 But thou art holy, O thou that || they trusted in thee, and were not A. M. 2944.

inhabitest the praises of Israel, confounded. 4 Our fathers trusted in thee: they trusted, || 6 But I am a worm, and no man; fa and thou didst deliver them.

reproach of men, and despised of the peo5 They cried unto thee, and were delivered : | ple.

Deut. x. 21.

d Psa. xxv. 2, 3; xxxi. l; lxxi. 1 ; Isa. xlix.

23; Rom. ix. 33.- Job xxv. 6; Isa. xli. 14.

- Isa. liii. 3.

sembly of the wicked have enclosed me; words which so earnestly. From the words of my roaringevidently allude to the eastern method of hunting, From regarding, pitying, or answering my fervent namely, by assembling great numbers of people, and prayers and strong cries, forced from me by my enclosing the creatures they hunt; and as the psalm- || miseries. This latter clause seems to refer to Christ's ist, in the forty-second Psalm, rather chose to com- || prayer in the garden. pare himself to a hart than a hind, the present much Verse 2. I cry in the day-time, &c.-I continue better answers this title; in which he speaks of the praying night and day without intermission; but hunted soul of the Messiah in the feminine gender, thou hearest not—St. Paul says, Heb. v. 7, that Christ verse 20, Deliver my soul from the sword, my dar- || was heard in that he feared. Christ therefore here ling from the power of the dog. Thus any one who says that his Father heard him not, only to intimate reflects on the circumstances of David, at the time that he did not exempt him from suffering the death to which the fifty-sixth Psalm refers, and considers of the cross, for which the Father, who heard him the oriental taste, will not wonder to see that Psalm | always, had wise reasons, taken from the end for entitled, The silent dove afar off, or, in distant which his Son became incarnate, John xii. 27. And places. Fenwick, however, thinks that the title of am not silentHebrew, I have no silence, no rest, this Psalm should be rendered, T'he strength of the or quietness, as the word 77%917, dumijah, here used, morning; and that it relates to Christ, as being the is sometimes rendered. bright and morning-star, or day-spring from on Verse 3. But thou art holy—“But notwithstandhigh, as he is called, Luke i. 78; to Him, the dew of ing thou dost not answer me at present, I am perwhose birth is of the womb of the morning. The suaded that thou wilt do so, for thou art holy, good, title, therefore, says he, leads us to observe and con. | and gracious ;” O thou that inhabitest the praises template, in this Psalm, the depth of that love and con- of Israel—That dwellest in the place where the descension which made the Son of God humble him- praises of Israel have always been offered for merself in the way here described, and even to the death cies granted unto them: or, who receivest and rightly of the cross, though he be the bright morning-star, and possessest the praises of Israel; whom thy people day-spring from on high. See Delaney and Dodd. are perpetually praising for one mercy or another;

Verse 1. My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken and therefore, I trust I also shall have occasion to me?—In these words Christ, when hanging on the

praise thee. cross, complained, that he was deprived, for a time, Verses 4, 5. Our fathers, &c.—That is, my faof the loving presence and comforting influence of thers, according to the flesh, the Israelites; trusted his heavenly Father: and St. Matthew and St. Mark || in thee, and were delivered—Were not disappointed give us the very expressions which he used, Eli, of that for which they prayed and hoped: but whenEli; or, as St. Mark has it, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabach- ever they cried unto thee in their distress, thou didst thani. It is perhaps worthy of notice here, that | send them deliverance, as by Gideon, Samson, Sasabachthani is not a Hebrew word; the Hebrew | muel, &c. To trust in God is the way to obtain deword being 'Indij', gnazablani; and from hence it | liverance, and “the former instances of the divine appears most likely that our Saviour used that dia- || favour are so many arguments why we should hope lect which was most commonly understood by the for the same; but it may not always be vouchsafed Jews in his time; and which, it is probable, was a when we expect it. The patriarchs, and Israelites mixed dialect, composed of Hebrew, Chaldee, and of old, were often saved from their enemies: but the Syriac. Agreeably to this supposition, it may be holy Jesus was left to languish and expire under the further observed, that Eloi, Eloi, as St. Mark ex- | malice of his. God knows what is proper for him to presses our Saviour's words, were more nearly do and for us to suffer; we know neither. This conChaldee. Christ, it must be well observed, “was sideration is an anchor for the afflicted soul, sure and not ignorant of the reason why he was aflicted. He steadfast.”—Horne. knew that all the rigours and pains which he en- Verse 6. But I am a worm, and no manNedured on the cross were only because the chastise- || glected and despised, as a mean reptile; a reproach ment of our peace was upon him, and God laid on of men, and despised of the people—Not only of the him the iniquity of us all, Isa. liii. 5, 6. The words great men, but also of the common people. This then imply, that he had done nothing to merit the does not so truly agree to David (who, though he evils which he suffered. This is the meaning of the was hated and persecuted by Saul and his courtiers, question here, Why hast thou forsaken me? as also was honoured and beloved by the body of the peoof that in Psa. ii. 1, Why do the heathen rage?” &c. ple) as to Christ: see Isa. liii. 2, 3. “Christ may The repetition of the words, my God, my God, de- be said to have been a rorm, with respect to the notes the depth of his distress, which made him cry mean and poor condition in which he lived; but

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