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Hilkiah finds the


book of the lau.

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B. C. 624.

B. C. 624

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12 And the men did the work faith-|| out upon us, because our fathers have A. M. 3380.

fully: and the overseers of them were not kept the word of the Lord, to do Jahath and Obadiah, the Levites, of the sons of after all that is written in this book. Merari; and Zechariah and Meshullam, of the 22 And Hilkiah, and they that the king had sons of the Kohathites, to set it forward; and appointed, went to Huldah the prophetess, the other of the Levites, all that could skill of instru- wife of Shallum the son of Tikvath, the son ments of music.

of " Hasrah, keeper of the 12 wardrobe ; (now 13 Also they were over the bearers of burdens, she dwelt in Jerusalem 13 in the college ;) and and were overseers of all that wrought the they spake to her to that effect. work in any manner of service: land of the 23 And she answered them, Thus saith the Levites there were scribes, and officers, and LORD God of Israel, Tell ye

the man that sent porters.

you to me, 14 1 And when they brought out the money 24 Thus saith the Lord, Behold, I will bring that was brought into the house of the LORD, evil upon this place, and upon the inbabitants Hilkiah the priest m found a book of the law of thereof, even all the curses that are written in the LORD given by Moses.

the book which they have read before the king 15 And Hilkiah answered and said to Sha- l) of Judah :

25 law in the house of the LORD. And Hilkiah burned incense unto other gods, that they might delivered the book to Shaphan.

provoke me to anger with all the works of their 16 And Shaphan carried the book to the king, hands; therefore my wrath shall be poured out and brought the king word back again, saying, upon this place, and shall not be quenched. All that was committed ' to thy servants, they || 26 And as for the king of Judah, who sent do it.

you to inquire of the LORD, so shall ye say unto 17 And they have gathered together the him, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel conmoney that was found in the house of the cerning the words which thou hast heard ; LORD, and have delivered it into the hand of the 27 Because thy heart was tender, and thou overseers, and to the hand of the workmen. didst humble thyself before God when thou

18 Then Shaphan the scribe told the king, || heardest his words against this place, and saying, Hilkiah the priest hath given me a book. | against the inhabitants thereof, and humbledst And Shaphan read ' it before the king. thyself before me, and didst rend thy clothes,

19 And it came to pass, when the king had and weep before me; I have even heard thee heard the words of the law, that he rent his also, saith the LORD. clothes.

28 Behold, I will gather thee to thy fathers, 20 And the king commanded Hilkiah, and and thou shalt be gathered to thy grave in Ahikam the son of Shaphan, and 10 Abdon the peace, neither shall thine eyes see all the evil son of Micah, and Shaphan the scribe, and that I will bring upon this place, and upon the Asaiah a servant of the king's, saying, inhabitants of the same. So they brought the

21 Go, inquire of the Lord for me, and for king word again. them that are left in Israel, and in Judah, con- 29 q Then the king sent and gathered togecerning the words of the book that is found : for ther all the elders of Judah and Jerusalem. great is the wrath of the Lord that is poured 30 And the king went up into the house of the

_L 2 Kings xxii. 14.- 11 Or,

il Chron. xxiii. 4,5.- .-m2 Kings xxii. 8, &c.--Heb. by the hand of - -> Heb. to the hand of.- - Heb. poured out, or, melted. - Heb. in it.

10 Or, Achbor, 2 Kings xxii. 12.-
_13 Heb. garments.

13 Or, in the school, or, in the second part.

LO 2 Kings xxiii. 1, &c.

which the kings of Judah had destroyed-The exercised in both employments, and did successively chambers adjoining to the temple, or within the oversee the work, and praise God with their voices courts.

and instruments. Verse 12. All that could skill of instruments of Verse 19. When the king had heard the words he music-All these, here named, were skilful in in-| rent his clothes-Were the things contained in Scripstruments of music--Which may be here mentioned, ture new to us, as they were here to Josiah, surely to intimate, that as they were skilful, so they were they would make deeper impressions upon us than

Josiah keeps a


solemn passover.

A. M. 3390. LORD, and all the men of Judah and 32 And he caused all that were


pre- A. M. 3380. B. C. 624.

B. C. 624. the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and the sent in Jerusalem and Benjamin to priests, and the Levites, and all the people, stand to it. And the inhabitants of Jerusalem "great and small : and he read in their ears all did according to the covenant of God, the God the words of the book of the covenant that was of their fathers. found in the house of the LORD.

33 And Josiah took away all the 9 abomina31 And the king stood in his P place, and tions out of all the countries that pertained to made a covenant before the LORD, to walk after the children of Israel, and made all that were the Lord, and to keep his commandments, and present in Israel to serve, even to serve the his testimonies, and his statutes, with all his LORD their God. And all his days they de. heart, and with all his soul, to perform the words parted not 16 from following the LORD, the God of the covenant which are written in this book. of their fathers.

1* Heb. from great even to small.

:-P 2 Kings xi. 14 ; xxiii. 3;
Chap. vi. 13.

15 Heb. found.-9 1 Kings xi. 5. - Jer. iii. 10.16 Heb.

from after.

they commonly do. But they are not the less | rusalem did according to the covenant, &c.—They weighty, and therefore should not be the less re-complied with God's and the king's command, as to garded, because they are well known.

the outward acts of God's worship, though not with Verses 32, 33. He caused all present to stand to it an upright and renewed heart, as appears by the -He caused them to engage by an oath or covenant, history. To serve, even to serve the Lord their God that they would observe the laws of God, as his pre- --The repetition shows, that this was the only thing decessors had formerly done, and which indeed they his heart was set upon. He aimed at nothing, in all were before obliged to do. The inhabitants of Je- || he did, but to engage them to God and their duty.

CHAPTER XXXV. Jesah keeps a solemn passover, 1–19. He goes against Pharaoh-necho, and is slain, 20–24. He is bitterly lamented, 25-27. 4.4. 3. MOREOVER, "Josiah kept a pass shall not be a burden upon your 9. M: 3381.

over unto the Lord in Jerusa- shoulders: serve now the LORD your lem: and they killed the passover on the bfour- | God, and his people Israel, teenth day of the first month.

4 And prepare yourselves by the i houses of 2 And he set the priests in their charges, your fathers, after your courses, according to and d encouraged them to the service of the the writing of David king of Israel, and house of the LORD,

according to the l writing of Solomon his son: 3 And said unto the Levites that taught all 5 And mstand in the holy place according to Israel, which were holy unto the LORD, 'Put the divisions of the families of the fathers of the holy ark 8 in the house which Solomon your brethren ? the people, and after the divithe son of David king of Israel did build : hit | sion of the families of the Levites.

*2 Kings xxiii. 21, 22.—Exodus xii. 6; Ezra vi. 19. Chapter xxiii. 18; Ezra vi. 18. Chapter xxix. 5, 11. • Dealeronomy xxxiii. 10; Chapter xxx. 22 ; Malachi ii. 7. * Chap. Xxxiv, 14.

6 Chap. v. 7. ch 1 Chron. xxiii. 26.- Lil Chronicles ix. 10. k 1 Chron. xxiii. ; xxiv. ; XXV.; xxvi.- Ch. viii. 14.-m Psa. cxxxiv. 1. - Hebrew, the house of the fathers.- - Hebrew, the sons of the people.


bear it no further on their shoulders, as they had Verse 3. That taught all Israel which were holy | done before it was fixed in the temple. Serve now - That is, the Levites were holy unto the Lord. the Lord, &c.—Ministers must look upon themselves And therefore it may be rendered, and were holy, as servants both to Christ, and to the people for his &c., that is, peculiarly dedicated to this service, of sake. They must take care and take pains, and lay ministering to the priests, and instructing the people. themselves out to the utmost, both for the honour Put the holy ark in the house, &c.--It appears from and glory of God, and for the benefit of his people, this that the ark had been removed from its place; | not as having dominion over their faith, but as but by whom or when cannot now be said. It shall | helpers of their holiness and joy. not be a burden upon your shouldersThat is, here- Verse 5. And stand in the holy placeOr minisafter. For they were to carry it to a settled place, ter (as that word is frequently used) in the court of there to remain: and then they would be obliged to | the priests. According to the division of the famiJosiah keeps a


solemn passover.

A. M. 3381.
B. C. 623.

B. C. 623.


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6 So kill the passover, and " sanc- || the families of the people, to offer A. M. 3381.

tify yourselves, and prepare your bre- | unto the LORD, as it is written in
thren, that they may do according to the word the book of Moses. And so did they with the
of the Lord by the hand of Moses.

7 And Josiah 3 gaveo to the people of the 13 And they roasted the passover with fire
flock, lambs and kids, all for the passover-according to the ordinance: but the other holy
offerings, for all that were present, to the offerings "sod they in pots, and in caldrons,
number of thirty thousand, and three thou- | and in pans, and 6 divided them speedily among
sand bullocks: these were of the king's sub-all the people.

14 And afterward they made ready for them-
8 And his princes 4 gave willingly unto the selves, and for the priests : because the priests
people, to the priests, and to the Levites: Hil- | the sons of Aaron were busied in offering of
kiah, and Zechariah, and Jehiel, rulers of the burnt-offerings and the fat until night; there-
house of God, gave unto the priests for the pass-fore the Levites prepared for themselves, and
over-offerings two thousand and six hundred for the priests the sons of Aaron.
small cattle, and three hundred oxen.

15 And the singers the sons of Asaph were in 9 Cononiah also, and Shemaiah, and Netha- their place, according to the * commandment neel, his brethren, and Hashabiah, and Jeiel, of David, and Asaph, and Heman, and Jeduand Jozabad, chief of the Levites, gave unto thun the king's seer; and the porters y waited the Levites for passover-offerings five thousand at every gate; they might not depart from their small cattle, and five hundred oxen.

service; for their brethren the Levites prepared 10 So the service was prepared, and the for them. priests P stood in their place, and the Levites 16 So all the service of the LORD was prein their courses, according to the king's com- pared the same day, to keep the passover, and mandment.

to offer burnt-offerings upon the altar of the 11 And they killed the passover, and the LORD, according to the commandment of King priests 9 sprinkled the blood from their hands, || Josiah. and the Levites 'flayed them.

17 And the children of Israel that were pre12 And they removed the burnt-offerings, that sent kept the passover at that time, and the they might give according to the divisions of feast of 2 unleavened bread seven days.

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lies-According to the several families, both of the For they supposed the thirty thousand, which the
people, whom he calls their brethren, lest they should king had given, were not sufficient for all the fami-
despise them, or grudge to serve them, and of the lies.
Levites. For the passover was to be eaten by the Verse 11. And the Levites flayed themWhich
several families according to their numbers, and they did, (though properly that work belonged to
therefore he commands these persons, that when the the priests,) because the priests, who were sancti-
paschal lambs were brought to them to be killed, fied, were not sufficient for it, there being so many
they should so order the matter, that they might be thousands of the cattle; and they were fully em-
distributed to the several families, whether of the ployed in the killing of the sacrifices, and the sprink-
Levites or other tribes.

ling of the blood, which was more properly the
Verses 6, 7. Prepare your brethren-By purify- priests' work than the other.
ing thein, and exciting them to fit themselves for so Verse 12. And they remored the burnt-offerings--
great and solemn a work. Josiah gave to the people that part of the paschal lambs which was to be
lambs and kidsFor either of these might be used burned, which they despatched as soon as possible

, for the paschal-offering. And three thousand bul- that they might give that part which was to be eaten locks--Which were to be offered after the lambs upon to each family. And so they did with the oden-All the several days of the feast of unleavened bread. of which were not given for peace-offerings, but

Verse 8. And his princes gave willingly--Not some for burnt-offerings : which they also offered as the political, but ecclesiastical princes, or the chief fast as they could, that they might give to each famiof the priests and Levites, whose names here a portion sufficient for them to feast on. Unto the people, priests, and Levites-For the use Verses 13, 14. But the other holy offerings sod they of any of the families of them, as need should be. Il in pots-Those from which the burrat-offerings were

Josiah is slain, fighting


against Pharaoh-necho.

B. C. 610.

A M. 3381. 18 And a there was no passover like | God commanded me to make haste : A. M. 3394. B. C. 623.

to that kept in Israel from the days forbear thee from meddling with of Samuel the prophet; neither did all the kings God, who is with me, that he destroy thee of Israel keep such a passover as Josiah kept, not. and the priests, and the Levites, and all Judah 22 Nevertheless Josiah would not turn his face and Israel that were present, and the inhabitants from him, but o disguised himself that he might of Jerusalem.

fight with him, and hearkened not unto the 19 In the eighteenth year of the reign of Josiah words of Necho from the mouth of God, and was this passover kept.

came to fight in the valley of Megiddo. B. C. 610.

20 After all this, when Josiah 23 And the archers shot at King Josiah ; and

had prepared the 'temple, Necho king the king said to his servants, Have me away; of Egypt came up to fight against Charchemish for I am sore 11 wounded. by Euphrates :'and Josiah went out against 24 . His servants therefore took him out of him.

that chariot, and put him in the second chariot 21 But he sent ambassadors to him, saying, that he had; and they brought him to JerusaWhat have I to do with thee, thou king of lem, and he died, and was buried 12 in one of Judah? I come not against thee this day, but the sepulchres of his fathers. And all Judah against 10 the house wherewith I have war : for and Jerusalem mourned for Josiah.

1 2 Kings xxi. 22, 23. — 62 Kings xxiii. 29; Jer. xlvi. 2. 'Heb. house, -1Heb. the house of my war. 1 Kings xxii. 34.

11 Hebrew, made sick, 1 Kings xxii. 34.—2 Kings xxiii. 30. 12 Or, among the sepulchres. - Zech. xii. 11.

and a

removed, (verse 12,) namely, the peace-offerings, gage against one who has both a better army,
part of which fell to the share of the offerer, who better cause, and God on his side.
was Josiah, and, by his gift, to the people. After-

ter "Verse 22. Josiah would not turn his face from him ward they made realy-To wit, the paschal lambs, -Being, peradventure, encouraged to go out against and their part of the peace-offerings.

him by a misinterpretation of that promise made to Verse 18. There was no passover like to that-- him, chap. xxxiv. 28, Thou shalt be gathered to thy The whole solemnity was performed exactly accord- grave in peace. Thus God overrules the errors and ing to the law, whereas in Hezekiah's passover there miscarriages of men to the accomplishment of his were several irregularities: likewise Josiah furnish- own counsels. But disguised himself-Changed ed the whole congregation with beasts for sacrifice at his habit, that he might not give his enemies the adhis own charge, which no king ever did before vantage of aiming at his person, which he wisely him.

thought they would do, that being a likely course to Verse 20. After all this, when Josiah had pre- | end their trouble, as indeed it proved. And hearkpared the temple-When he and his people hoped ened not unto the words of Necho from the mouth of that God was reconciled, and the foundation of a God-Either, 1st, which Pharaoh sent to him in the lasting happiness laid, their hopes were quickly name of God; or rather, 2d, which Pharaoh received blasted. So much are men often mistaken in their from the mouth of God; who was pleased, some judgments about the designs of God's providence. way or other, to impart his mind to him, and which

To fight against CharchemishWhich the Assy- Pharaoh acquainted him with by the command of rian had lately taken from the king of Egypt, of God. And therefore Josiah is here blamed for not which he boasts, Isa. x. 9.

hearkening to this message: although, if he sinned Verse 21. I come not against thee, but against the herein, it was only a sin of ignorance, for he did not house wherewith I have war-Against the house of | know that God had spoken this to Pharaoh, and the king of Assyria, between whom and me there is was not bound to believe his testimony, which war. For God commanded me to make haste- he had good reason to suspect in this matter. Yet, Therefore, give me no hinderance. Some think he it seems, he ought so far to have regarded it, as only pretended this, because he knew Josiah had a to have inquired into the mind of God about it, great reverence for God, and in obedience to him which he neglected to do, and therefore cannot might desist from his purpose. And the Targum, | be wholly excused. How can we think to proswith some of the Jews, thinks he called his own idol per in our ways, if we do not acknowledge God in by the name of God; though Kimchi thinks, and the them? event makes it most probable, that he spoke of the Verse 24. And put him in the second chariot-It true God, who perhaps admonished him in a dream, I was the custom of war, in former times, for great as he did Abimelech, or sent him a message to go officers to have led horses with them in battle, that against the Assyrians by the Prophet Jeremiah, if one failed they might mount another. And, in many of whose prophecies are directed to foreign | like manner, we may presume, that when it became nations. Forbear thee from meddling with God, a fashion to fight in chariots, all great commanders who is with me, &c.—It is at thy peril if thou en- || had an empty one following them, to which they

Jeremiah laments


for Josiah.

A. M. 3394. 25 And Jeremiah 8 lamented for Jo- 26 T Now the rest of the acts of Josiah, A M. 3394. B. C. 610.

B. C. 610. siah : and all the singing-men and and his 13 goodness, according to that the singing-women spake of Josiah in their la- | which was written in the law of the LORD, mentations to this day, i and made them an or- 27 And his deeds, first and last, behold, they dinance in Israel : and behold, they are written are written in the book of the kings of Israel in the Lamentations.

and Judah.

& Lam. iv. 20.

ch Matt. ix. 23.

i Jer. xxii. 20.

13 Heb. kindnesses.

might betake themselves, if any mischief befell the deeply affected with his subject, or more capable of other. They brought him to Jerusalem, and he carrying it through all the tender sentiments of sordiedBishop Sherlock observes, that Josiah had so row and compassion, than Jeremiah." All the singgood a character in Scripture, that both Jews and ing-men and singing-women spake of Josiah in Christians have been at a loss to account for his un- | their lamentations-Among the Jews men and wofortunate end. The learned Dr. Prideaux endeav- men were usually employed to mourn at funerals, ours to justify his conduct in opposing the passage and to sing the praises of the dead. And so real of the king of Egypt, because it was a service due to and great was the mourning for Josiah, that for ages the king of Assyria, to whom Josiah was a vassal. afterward they always remembered it in their “Be it so,” says Dr. Dodd, “yet his duty to the king lamentations for the dead, saying of the person of Assyria could not dissolve his dependance on a deceased, Thou art worthy to be lamented for, as higher Master. He went to war as vassal of the good Josial was, or words to the same purpose. king of Assyria, but did he ask counsel of God as Or, as Poole thinks, the meaning may be, that in all king of Judah? Or was he attended to the war with their succeeding lamentations for their public calamsuch forces only as the kings of Judah might law-ities, they remembered Josiah's death as their first fully use? That he had chariots and horsemen, and fatal blow, which opened the flood-gates to all appears plainly from this account of his death. That their following miseries. And made them an ordithis was the true or only cause of his misfortune, 1 nance in Israel-Ordained that the mournful pieces, dare not affirm; for I have no express authority to penned on this sad occasion, should be learned and support me in affirming it: but this I see, that he sung by all sorts of people. And, behold, they are was found in the day of battle, not with the equipage written in the Lamentations—Not in the book termed of a king of Judah, but surrounded with forces The Lamentations of Jeremiah, which was written which the law of his God had forbidden him to on another occasion; but in some collection of trust to, and which had often proved a strength mournful poems, now lost. fatal to his ancestors.” See Bishop Sherlock's Dis- Verse 26. The rest of the acts of Josiah, and his sertation on the Use and Intent of Prophecy, at goodness—His piety toward God, and his benignity, the end.

clemency, and kindness toward all his subjects, Verse 25. Jeremiah lamented for Josiah-Sor-being of a most tender and mild disposition, both rowed much on account of the immature death of toward God and toward men, chap. xxxiv. 27. this good king, foreseeing that the utter ruin of his According to that which was written in the laucountry would follow upon it. And as it was usual || Which he made his rule in all his actions. The with the Jews to make lamentations, elegies, or revelation which God has given us of his mind and mournful pieces upon the death of great men, will is the only true standard by which we can safely princes, and others that had distinguished them- walk. All other rules may deceive us, and will selves among them, and deserved well of their often either leave us in doubt or uncertainty how to country, it is probable Jeremiah wrote such a piece act, or will lead us wrong. But the word of God is a on the occasion of Josiah’s death. If he did so, the sure and unerring guide, a lamp unto our feet, and a loss of it is very much to be deplored, because, as | light unto our paths. Let us walk by this, and we Dr. Dodd observes, it was, no doubt, “a master- | shall please God in time and enjoy him in eterpiece of its kind as there never was an author more ll nity.

CHAPTER XXXVI. The wicked reigns of Jehoalaz, 1-4; Jehoiakim, 5–8 ; Jehoiachin and Zedekiah, 9–13: The wickedness of the people,

14–16. Jerusalem destroyed, Judah laid waste, the people slain or led away captive, according to God's word, 17-21. The proclamation of Cyrus, 22, 23. 384


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