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The Prophet Jahaziel
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A. M. 3108. out the inhabitants of this land before 12 0 our God, wilt thou not 9 judge A. M. 3108.
thy people Israel, and gavest it to the them? for we have no might against
8 And they dwelt therein, and have built neither know we what to do: but 'our eyes thee a sanctuary therein for thy name, saying, are upon thee.
9. If, when evil cometh upon us, as the sword, 13 And all Judah stood before the LORD, with
10 And now, behold, the children of Ammon came the Spirit of the LORD in the midst of
11 Behold, I say, how they reward us, P to Be not afraid nor dismayed by reason of this
k Isaiah xli. 8; James ii. 23. 1 Kings viii. 33; Chap. vi. Psa. xxv. 15; cxxi. 1, 2 ; cxxiii. 1, 2; cxli. 8.- s Num. xi. 28, 30. Chap. vi. 20. - Deut. ii. 4, 9, _ Numbers 25, 26; xxiv. 2; Chap. xv. 1 ; xxiv. 20. —Exod. xiv. 13, 14; :p Psa. lxxxiii. 12.-1 Sam. iii. 13.
Deut. i. 29; xxxi. 6,8; Chap. xxxii. 7.
know thee not? Art thou not our God?-In cove- who rights those that suffer wrong, especially when nant with us? To whom should we seek, to whom they have no helper. Wilt thou not give sentence should we trust for relief, but to him whom we have against them, and execute it upon them? For to chosen for our God, and who has chosen us for his judge, in this place, signifies to punish, as it also people? Who gavest it to the seed of Abraham thy does in many other passages. The justice of God is friend—To whom thou didst engage thyself to be the refuge of those that are wronged. We have no his friend, and the friend of his seed for ever, and might against this great company-It may seem therefore we trust thou wilt not forsake us, his pos- strange that he should say they had no might, when terity.
he had so many hundred thousand men at command Verses 8, 9. Have built thee a sanctuary-He as are mentioned chap. xvii. 14–16, &c. But it may does not mention this under an idea that they had be observed, that this was probably such a sudden merited any thing at God's hand by building it, for invasion, that he had not time to gather any consionly of his own they had given him; but considers derable body to oppose them; or rather, he distrusted it as such a token of God's favourable presence with the greatest army, and acknowledged it to be of no them, as had encouraged them to hope he would force if God were not with him, on whom he enhear and help them, when in their distress they cried tirely relied, and not on the number and valour of to him before that house. If when evil cometh upon his soldiers, though both were very great. us, the sword, judgment—Or rather, the sword of Verse 13. All Judah stood before the Lord with judgment, or of vengeance, that is, war, whereby their little ones-Whom they used to present before thou judgest and punishest thy people for their sins. the Lord in times of great distress, to stir up them
Verses 10, 11. Whom thou wouldest not let Israel selves to more fervent prayers, their eyes being upon invade, &c.—Or give them any disturbance. He their harmless and tender children; and to move pleads the ingratitude and injustice of his enemies, | God to compassion, because God hath declared that and intimates that it would be for God's glory to ap- | he will be prevailed with by such methods as these. pear against them, and for the people whom they Verse 14. Upon Jahaziel came the Spirit of the had so ill requited for the kindness shown them. Lord—It seems he was not a prophet before this We may comfortably appeal to God against those time, but was now suddenly inspired by God with who render us evil for good. Behold how they re- the following message, to comfort this great assemward us, to come and cast us out of thy possession bly with an assured hope of deliverance, before they -And seize our land for themselves, which indeed || stirred from the place where they had prayed. For is thy land. Their crime was aggravated in this, it is never in vain to seek God; while they were yet that they made an attempt, not only upon the rights speaking, God heard. of the Israelites, but of God himself; whose land Verses 15–17. Thus saith the Lord, Be not afraid this was, which his people held of him as their -You have admitted fear enough to induce you to Lord.
have recourse to God: now do not give way to that Verse 12. O our God, wilt thou not judge them?— fear which would drive you from him. The batlle He appeals to the justice of God, the righteous Judge, I. is not yours—It is not in your own cause, nor in
The enemies of Judah
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16 To-morrow go ye down against | said, Hear me, 0 Judah, and ye in- A. M. 3108.
them: behold, they come up by the habitants of Jerusalem; 2 Believe in 3 cliff of Ziz; and ye shall find them at the end the LORD your God, so shall ye be established; of the + brook, before the wilderness of Jeruel. believe his prophets, so shall ye prosper.
17 · Ye shall not need to fight in this battle: 21 And when he had consulted with the set yourselves, stand ye still, and see the sale people, he appointed singers unto the LORD, ration of the LORD with you, O Judah anda and 5 that should praise the beauty of holiJerusalem : fear not, nor be dismayed; to-mor- ness, as they went out before the army, and row go out against them: * for the Lord will to say, "Praise the LORD; o for his mercy enbe with you.
dureth for ever. 18 And Jehoshaphat y bowed his head with 22 4 6 And when they began 'to sing and his face to the ground: and all Judah and the to praise, the LORD set ambushments against inhabitants of Jerusalem fell before the LORD, the children of Ammon, Moab, and mount Seir, worshipping the LORD.
which were come against Judah ; and they 19 And the Levites, of the children of the were smitten. Kohathites, and of the children of the Kor- 23 For the children of Ammon and Moab hites, stood up to praise the LORD God of stood up against the inhabitants of mount Seir, Israel with a loud voice on high.
utterly to slay and destroy them: and when 20 1 And they rose early in the morning, they had made an end of the inhabitants of and went forth into the wilderness of Tekoa : Seir, every one helped o to destroy another. and as they went forth, Jehoshaphat stood and 24 And when Judah came toward the watch
3 Heb. ascent. - Or, valley.
Exod. xiv. 13. — Num. xiv. 9; Chap. xv. 2; xxxii. 8. - Exod. iv. 3).- Isa. vii. 9. * 1 Chron. xvi. 29. - Heb. praisers.bi Chron. xvi. 34 ; Psalm CIIXV. I.
el Chron. xvi. 41 ; Chap. v. 13; vii. 3, 6. Heb. And in the time that they, &c.- .? Heb. in singing and praise.
_d Judg. vii. 22; 1 Samuel xiv. 20.-* Or, they smote one another. 'Heb. for the destruction.
Four own strength, that you engage; the battle is ty, to praise him as they did in the temple, that God's—And he doth and will interest himself in your beauty of holiness, “with that good old doxology, favour, as you have desired, and will fight for which eternity itself,” as Henry says, “will not wear you. To-morrow go ye down-From Jerusalem, threadbare, Praise the Lord, for his mercy endureth where he and his army now were, which stood upon for ever." By this strange advance to the field of high ground. Ye shall not need to fight in this bat-battle, Jehoshaphat showed his firm reliance on the tle–The work shall be done to your hands, and you word of God, which enabled him to triumph before will not need to strike a stroke, nor shall you be the the battle, to animate his own men, and confound the iastruments, but only the spectators of the defeat of enemy. the enemy. O Judah and Jerusalem, fear not- Verse 22. When they began to sing and to praise Thus does he encourage them to trust in God, though ||--So acceptable are the fervent prayers and praises the danger was very threatening, and to expect cer- of God's people to him, and so terrible to their enetain victory and deliverance.
mies! The Lord set ambushments-Hebrew, Verses 18, 19. Jehoshaphat bowed his head with D80, mearebim, insidiantes, persons lying in his face to the ground—In token of his reverence | wail, or plotting, and laying snares. The meaning for God and his message, his belief of the promise, || seems to be, as appears from the next verse, that and his thankfulness for so great a favour. The Le- God raised jealousies and animosities among their tites stood up to praise the Lord-By Jehoshaphat's enemies themselves, which by degrees broke forth, appointment. With a loud voice on high-With first into secret plots, snares, and ambushments, heart and voice listed up, whereby they showed | which one party contrived and laid for another, their confidence in God, and assurance of the ac- || against which they had conceived some grudge; and complishment of the prophet's prediction.
then into a general confusion, and open hostilities Verse 20. Believe in the Lord your God-Believe and outrages, to the destruction of one another God's proniise delivered to us by this prophet, and throughout the whole army. So vain are all men's consequently all other predictions of the prophets. attempts against God, who needs none to destroy his So shall ye prosper–Take heed lest by your unbe- enemies but themselves, and their own mistakes and lief you frustrate God's promise.
passions, which he can, when he pleases, arm against Verse 21. When he had consulted with the people them. - That is, with the elders and heads of the tribes, Verses 23, 24. The children of Ammon and of who represented the rest. He called a council of Moab, &c.— These fell foul upon the Edomites, and war, and it was resolved to appoint singers to go cut them off; and then fell out with one another, and out before the army, who had nothing to do but to cut one another off. Thus God often makes wicked praise God, to praise his holiness, which is his beau- people instruments of destruction to one another. Jehoshaphat and all Judah
magnify God for their victory.
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unto the multitude, and behold, they | of Judah and Jerusalem, and Jehoshawere dead bodies fallen to the earth, and to none phat in the 12 fore-front of them, to go again to escaped.
Jerusalem with joy; for the LORD had made 25 And when Jehoshaphat and his people them to rejoice over their enemies. came to take away the spoil of them, they 28 And they came to Jerusalem with psalfound among them in abundance both riches || teries and harps and trumpets unto the house with the dead bodies, and precious jewels, | of the LORD. which they stripped off for themselves, more 29 And f the fear of God was on all the than they could carry away: and they were kingdoms of those countries, when they had three days in gathering of the spoil, it was so heard that the Lord fought against the enemuch.
mies of Israel. 26 7 And on the fourth day they assembled 30 So the realm of Jehoshaphat was quiet : themselves in the valley of 1 Berachah; for for his God gave him rest round about.
31 g h And Jehoshaphat reigned over Judah : name of the same place was called, The valley he was thirty and five years old when he began of Berachah, unto this day.
to reign, and he reigned twenty and five years
there they blessed the Lord: therefore the
10 Hebrew, there was not an escaping:- - That is, blessing. || 'Chap. xvii. 10.- Chap. xv. 15; Job xxxiv. 29.01 Kings 11 Heb. head. - Neh. xii. 43.
xxii. 41, &c.
When Judah came toward the watch-tower—Which camp, before they drew their forces out of the field: stood upon the cliff of Ziz, mentioned verse 16, and but in the fourth day they assembled in a valley, and looked toward the wilderness, where their enemies blessed God with so much zeal and fervency, that a lay encamped, whose numbers, and order, and con- name was thereby given to the place, and the rememdition, they could descry from thence. They looked | brance of that work of wonder perpetuated for the unto the multitude, and behold they were dead bodies | encouragement of succeeding generations to trust in -When they came to the view of this vast army, God. Of Berachah—Hebrew, of blessing, so called, instead of finding living men to fight with, they found from the solemn blessings and praises given to God them all dead men, and their carcasses spread as on that occasion. dung upon the face of the earth. And none es
escaped Verses 27, 28. Jehoshaphat in the fore-front of -Or rather, none remained, because those who them— They marched all in a body, in solemn prowere not killed, made the best of their way home; || cession, and Jehoshaphat at their head, that the for it cannot be supposed that they were absolutely country, as they passed along, might join with them all killed.
in their praises. To go again to Jerusalem with Verse 25. They found among them in abundance | joy-That they might give thanks for the mercy both riches and jewels, &c.—Which they had there, where by prayer they had obtained it. Unto brought with them to corrupt any of Jehoshaphat's the house of the Lord–To renew their praises in the officers as they saw occasion: to procure necessaries | court of the temple, the proper and usual place for for their vast army from time to time: and because it. Praising God must not be the work of a day they came as to triumph rather than to fight, being only; but our praises, when we have received merconfident of the victory on account of their numbers, cy, must be often repeated, as our prayers were, and especially because they thought to surprise Je- || when we were in pursuit of it. Every day we must hoshaphat ere he could make any considerable pre-bless God; as long as we live, and while we have parations against them; God also permitting them any being, we must praise him, spending our time in to be puffed up to their own destruction. See how that work, in which we hope to spend our eternity. rich in mercy God is to them that call upon him in Verses 29, 30. The fear of God was on all the truth, and how often he out-does the prayers and ex- | kingdoms, &c.-Which were near, or which heard pectations of his people. Jehoshaphat prayed to be these things. They were afraid to attack or molest delivered from being spoiled by the enemy, and God the worshippers of a God who was able to help his not only did that, but enriched them with the spoils | people in so wonderful a manner. So the realm of of the enemy. Now it appeared what was God's Jehoshaphat was quiet—Those that were displeased end in bringing this great army against Judah ; it at the destroying of the images and groves, were was to humble them, and prove them, that he might now satisfied, and obliged to own, that since the God do them good in their latter end. It seemed, at first, I of Israel could deliver after this sort, he only ought to be a disturbance to their reformation, but it proves to be worshipped, and in that way which himself to be a recompense of it.
had appointed. So that they were quiet among Verse 26. On the fourth day, &c.-Undoubtedly themselves; and they were also quiet from the fear many thanksgivings were offered to God immediate- of insults or injuries from their neighbours, God ly, and perhaps even a day of praise was kept in the l having given them rest round about.
Jehoshaphat dies, and
Jehoram reigns in his stead.
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name was Azubah the daughter of shaphat king of Judah join himself Shilhi.
with Ahaziah king of Israel, who did very 32 And he walked in the way of Asa his fa- wickedly : ther, and departed not from it, doing that which 36 15 And he joined himself with him to make was right in the sight of the LORD.
ships to go to Tarshish: and they made the 33 Howbeit, i the high places were not taken ships in Ezion-geber. away: for as yet the people had not k prepared 37 Then Eliezer the son of Dodavah of Maretheir hearts unto the God of their fathers. shah prophesied against Jehoshaphat, saying,
34 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoshaphat, Because thou hast joined thyself with Ahaziah, first and last, behold, they are written in the the LORD hath broken thy works. And the 13 book of Jehu the son of Hanani, 'who it is ships were broken, that they were not able to go mentioned in the book of the kings of Israel. ° to Tarshish.
Chapter xvii. 6. * Chap. xii. 14; xix. 3.- Heb. words.
11 Kings xvi. 1, 7.- 14 Heb. was made to ascend.
m 1 Kings xxii. 48.
1 Kings xxii. 49.
_15 At first, Jehoshaphat was unwilling,
1 Kings xxii. 48. — Chap. ix. 21.
Verse 33. Howbeit, the high places were not taken from the easiness of Jehoshaphat's temper, which auay-Not universally; the fault was not in Je- could not resist the solicitations of others, in such hoshaphat, but in the people, who, though they did things as might seem indifferent. For he did not worship the true God, yet would not be confined to join with him in war, as he did with Ahab, but in a the temple; but, for their own convenience, or from peaceable way only, in a matter of trade and comtheir affection to their ancient customs, chose to wor
And yet God reproves and punishes him ship him in the high places.
for it, (verse 37,) to show his great dislike of all Verse 35. After this did Jehoshaphat join him familiar conversation of his servants and people with Ahaziah—This is mentioned as an aggravation with professed enemies of God and of religion, of his sin, after so great an obligation laid upon him as Ahaziah was. Who did very wickedly-Or, by God, and after he had been so sharply reproved who did industriously, and maliciously, and conby a prophet, yet he relapsed into the same sin; stantly, work wickedness, as the Hebrew phrase which proceeded partly from that near relation which implies, giving himself up to idolatry, and all wickwas contracted between the two families, and partly || edness.
CHAPTER XXI. Jehoram succeeds, 1-3. His wickedness, 4–7. Edom and Libnah revolt, and Jehoram is still more wicked, 8-11. The
prophecy of Elijah against him, 12–15. The success of his enemies, 16, 17. His sickness and death, 18–20. A M. 3108.
Jehoshaphat slept with his | all these were the sons of Jehosha- A. M. 3108. B. C. 896.
B. C. 896. fathers, and was buried with his | phat king of Israel. fathers in the city of David. And Jehoram his 3 And their father gave them great gifts of son 'reigned in his stead.
silver, and of gold, and of precious things, 2 And he had brethren the sons of Jeho- with fenced cities in Judah: but the kingdom shaphat, Azariah, and Jehiel, and Zechariah, gave he to 2 Jehoram; because he was the and Azariah, and Michael, and Shephatiah : |firstborn.
2 1 Kings xxii. 50-Alone.
-> Jehoram made partner of the kingdom with his father, 2 Kings viii. 16.
NOTES ON CHAPTER XXI.
Verse 3. With fenced cities of Judah-Over which Verse 2. And Azariah—Hebrew, 177'niy, Azaria-| he made them governors. This he seems to have hu, distinguished by the last syllable, hu, from the done prudently; thus providing well for them, that Azariah mentioned in the former clause. Of Je- they might not be tempted to envy their brother the hoshaphat king of Israel-So he is called, either, kingdom, nor to quarrel among themselves: but Ist, Because he was so by right: or, 2d, Because he “things excellently designed,” says Strigelius, from was king not only of Judah and Benjamin, but of a Cicero, “have often a very ill event.” This wealth great number of Israelites, who had come and set- and authority of theirs, made their brother first fear tled in his kingdom.
them, and then, through his wicked covetousness, The wickedness of Jehoram.
Edom and Libnah revolt.
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A. M. 310€ 4 Now when Jehoram was risen 9 Then Jehoram went forth with A. M. 3115. B. C. 896.
up to the kingdom of his father, he his princes, and all his chariots with strengthened himself, and slew all his brethren him : and he rose up by night, and smote the with the sword, and divers also of the princes Edomites which compassed him in, and the of Israel.
captains of the chariots. b Jehoram was thirty and two 10 So the Edomites revolted from under the
years old when he began to reign, and hand of Judah unto this day. The same time he reigned eight years in Jerusalem.
also did Libnah revolt from under his hand; 6 And he walked in the way of the kings because he had forsaken the LORD God of his of Israel, like as did the house of Ahab: for he fathers. had the daughter of « Ahab to wife : and he 11 Moreover, he made high places in the wrought that which was evil in the eyes of the mountains of Judah, and caused the inhabitants LORD.
of Jerusalem to commit fornication, and com7 Howbeit the LORD would not destroy the pelled Judah thereto. house of David, because of the covenant that 12 And there came a 5 writing to him from he had made with David, and as he promised to Elijah the prophet, saying, Thus saith the give a " light to him and to his d sons for ever. LORD God of David thy father, Because thou B. C. 889.
8.1 In his days the Edomites re- | hast not walked in the ways of Jehoshaphat
volted from under the dominion of thy father, nor in the ways of Asa king of Judah, and made themselves a king.
• In consort, 2 Kings viii. 17, &c. Le Chapter xxii. 2. e 2 Kings viii. 20, &c.—4 Heb. hand. Leviticus xvii. * Heb. lamp, or, candle.- _d 2 Samuel vii. 12; 1 Kings xi. 36; || 7 ; xx. 5; Verse 13. -5 Which was written before his death, 2 Kings viii. 19; Psa. cxxxii. 11, &c.
2 Kings ii. 1.
contrive to cut them off, that he might get possession an idolater. While he adhered to God, they adhered of their riches and power. Because he was the to him; but when he cast God off, they cast him off. firstborn—Whom Jehoshaphat supposed he ought | Whether this would justify them in their revolt or to prefer on account of the law, recorded Deut. xxi. not, it justified God's providence which suffered it. 15, though otherwise, it is probable, he would not Verse 11. He made high places-Not to the Lord, have done it, having doubtless, before this time, ob- whose sworn enemy he was, but to Bauls, or false served his perverse and wicked inclinations, and how gods. Caused the inhabitants of Jerusalem to commuch he was swayed by his idolatrous wife. mit fornication-Spiritual whoredom, or idolatry,
Verse 4. He strengthened himself-Hardened his seducing them to eat things sacrificed to idols, (Rev. heart, as the word pin, chazak, often signifies; and ii
. 20,) not only by his counsel and example, but, as slew all his brethren with the sword-Either by false it follows, by force, by threats, and penalties. accusation, under colour of law, or rather by assas- Verse 12. And there came a writing to him from sination, pretending, it is likely, that he could not Elijah—It is certain, Elijah was taken up into heathink himself safe in the government till they were ven in the time of Jehoshaphat. Therefore Josephus taken out of the way. Those that mean ill them- || and the LXX. imagine (as Grotius observes) that selves, are commonly, without cause, jealous of those from thence he sent a letter. Dr. Lightfoot is of about them. And divers also of the princes of Is- | opinion, that it is not meant of that Elijah who was rael-Either, 1st, Of Judah, here called Israel, as carried up to heaven, but of another of his name, in verse 2. Or rather, 2d, of Israel properly so who sent this letter. Kimchi is of opinion that Elicalled; not the princes of all Israel, or of the seve- jah, foreseeing, by the spirit of prophecy, before he ral tribes thereof, but the chief of those Israelites went to heaven, the wickedness of Jehoram, spake who, out of love to God and the true religion, had these words to one of the prophets, and charged him forsaken their estates in the kingdom of Israel, and to put them down in writing, and send them in a were now incorporated with the kingdom of Judah: letter to Jehoram, when he grew so impious, as is these he slew, because he thought they would be here related; and let him know that Elijah commost zealous for that religion which he was resolved manded this writing to be delivered to him: that so to oppose.
Jehoram, being affected with it, as if it had been sent Verse 5. Jehoram was, &c.-Of this and several from heaven, might be moved to repent of the evil of the following verses, see notes on 2 Kings viii. | he had done. And indeed the passage will bear this 17, &c.
He did not send a writing, but it was sent as Verse 10. The same time did Libnah revolt- || his writing. For there is nothing in the words to Libnah seems to have set up for a free state. And intimate that this was written after his death, but the reason is here given, both why God permitted it, only delivered after his death. So that it might have and why they did it
, because Jehoram was become | been written (for any thing that appears to the con