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Description of the temple

I. KINGS.

built by Solomon.

B. C. 1005.

B. C. 1005.

A. M. 2999. 24 And five cubits was the one other cherub touched the other wall; A. M. 2999.

wing of the cherub, and five cubits and their wings touched one another the other wing of the cherub: from the utter- | in the midst of the house. most part of the one wing unto the uttermost 28 And he overlaid the cherubims with gold. part of the other were ten cubits.

29 And he carved all the walls of the house 25 And the other cherub was ten cubits: both round about with carved figures of cherubims, the cherubims were of one measure and one size. and palm-trees, and 16 open flowers, within and

26 The height of the one cherub was ten without. cubits, and so was it of the other cherub. 30 And the floor of the house he overlaid with

27 And he set the cherubims within the inner gold, within and without. house: and "they 15 stretched forth the wings | 31 | And for the entering of the oracle he of the cherubims, so that the wing of the one made doors of olive-tree: the lintel and side touched the one wall, and the wing of the posts were 17 a fifth part of the wall.

* Exod. xxv. 20; xxxvii. 9; 2 Chron. v. 8. .15 Or, the cheru.

bims stretched forth their wings.

16 Heb. opening of flowers.

17 Or, five square.

gold, and arose out of each end of the mercy-seat, of Moses were only so long as to cover the mercy. being of one piece with it, and looking one upon seat, which was but two cubits and a half in length. the other, Exod. xxv. 18, 19. But these made by And the other cherub was ten cubits-So that they Solomon were of olive-wood, or, as it is in the He- filled the whole breadth of the house, which was brew, of tree of oil; many sorts of which wood twenty cubits. The heightwas ten cubitsThat there were besides olive; as pine, cedar, &c. The is, half as high as that most holy place, verse 20. heathen set up images of their gods, and worship- For they stood on their feet upon the floor of it. ped them. These cherubim were designed to repre- Verse 27. He set the cherubims within the inner sent the servants and attendants of the God of Is- house–With their faces toward the sanctuary, so rael, the holy angels; not to be worshipped them that they looked upon him that entered the orarle. selves, but to show how great he is whom we wor- T'hey stretched forth the wings of the cherubimsship.

Or, rather, the cherubims stretched forth their Here it may be proper to note, that the word 737, wings. So that the wing of one touched one wall, debir, (which our translation constantly renders &c.—That is, they touched the south and north oracle,) comes from 737, dabar, which signifies to walls of the house. Whereas the wings of those speak; because God, who dwelt between the che- cherubim that Moses made, stretched themselves rubim of the ark in the Mosaic tabernacle, declared from east to west. For they looked one upon the his mind from thence, when he was consulted by other over the mercy-seat. Their wings touched the high-priest with Urim and Thummim. And it one another in the midst of the house-Where they still retained this name, though we never read of must needs meet, being five cubits long on each any answer by Urim and Thummim in this temple. side, and the house twenty cubits wide. It is highly probable that, upon their rejecting the Verses 28, 29. He overlaid the cherubims with government of God, and turning the theocracy into a goldIt must be observed, there were four cheruhuman government by kings, God ceased to direct bim in the most holy place of Solomon's temple ; and govern them by that divine oracle. During the two lesser made by Moses of massy gold, and two reign of David, indeed, there are some footsteps of larger made by Solomon, overlaid with gold. Those it, their new government by kings being not well made by Moses were part of the mercy-seat, and established. So that we may suppose there was a inseparable from it; these of Solomon seem to have mixture of the theocracy still with it, as may be spread their wings over it and them, being added gathered from 2 Sam. ii. 1, and xxi. 1. But after only for the greater ornament of God's house. He that there is not the least glimpse of it; but they carred all the walls with figures of cherubimsinquired of God by the prophets, 1 Kings xxii. 3 ; 2 As signs of the presence and protection of the angels Kings iii. 11. 20. And, what is very remarkable, in vouchsafed by God to that place. And palm-treesthe days of Josiah, when the high-priest was sent Emblems of that peace and victory over their eneby that king to inquire of God, he applied to Huldah mies, which the Israelites duly serving God in that the prophetess for that purpose: w ch is a demon- | place might expect. W и hin and wilhoul-Within stration that the answer by Urim and Thummim the oracle, and without it in the holy place. The ceased when God's government was cast off by floor of the house he overlaid with gold— That is, them; to which that oracle properly appertained. of the whole house, both within the oracle and And therefore in all these places it would be more | without it, both of the most holy, and the holy place; properly rendered, the most holy place. For though which rendered it wonderfully splendid and magthe ark was placed there, no oracles or words of the nificent. Lord were given from thence.

Verse 31. The lintel and side-posts were a fifth Verses 24-26. Were ten cubils—Whereas those ll part of the wall— The original text here is very

Description of the temple

CHAPTER VI.

built by Solomon.

A V. 2999.
B. C. 1005.

B. C. 1005.

32 The 18 two doors also were of with gold, fitted upon the carved A. M. 2999.

olive-tree; and he carved upon them work. carvings of cherubims, and palm-trees, and 36 | And he built the inner court with three 19 open flowers, and overlaid them with gold, rows of hewed stone, and a row of cedar and spread gold upon the cherubims, and upon beams. the palm-trees.

37 4 * In the fourth year was the founda33 So also made he for the door of the tion of the house of the Lord laid, in the temple, posts of olive-tree, 20 a fourth part of month Zif : the wall.

38 And in the eleventh year, in the B. C. 1005 31 And the two doors were of fir-tree : the month Bul (which is the eighth 'two leaves of the one door were folding, and month) was the house finished 21 throughout the two leaves of the other door were folding. all the parts thereof, and according to all the

35 And he carved thereon cherubims, and fashion of it. So was he "seven years in buildpalm-trees, and open flowers; and covered them ing it.

992.

** OT, leazes of the doors.- -1° Or, openings of flowers.for square.

-- Ezek. xli. 23, 25. i Verse 1.

20 Or,

41 Or, with all the appurtenances thereof, and with all the ordi

nances thereof. cu Compare verse 1.

obscure, there being nothing in it for the words, of wall. Or, 2d, or the height of the wall, which was the vall; but only, The lintel and side-posts were only three cubits high, that the people might see a fifth, which may be understood to signify, that the priests sacrificing upon the altar, which was in they held the proportion of a fifth part of the doors. | their court; each row of stones being about a cubit, Bat some think the meaning is, that this gate was | and, possibly, of a colour different from the rest, the fifth in number belonging to the house. The and all covered with cedar. Or, 3d, He is to be unfirst

, they say, was that which led into the court of derstood of so many galleries, one on each side of the people; the second, that which led into the court the temple, whereof the three first were stone, and of the priests; the third was the door of the porch; || the fourth of cedar, all supported with rows of pilthe fourth, that of the holy place; and this fifth, of | lars, upon which there were many chambers for the the oracle, or most holy. And in this way they in- uses of the temple, and of the priests. terpret a similar expression, (verse 33,) which we Verses 37, 38. In the fourth year, &c.— This was render a fourth part of the wall, the words, of the mentioned verse 1, and is here repeated to subjoin, tall, being not in the Hebrew, they understand it || in the next words, how long the house was in buildof the fourth gate; namely, that of the holy place. ing. In the eleventh year, in the month Bul- As But the most probable meaning is, as our translators the second month was called Zif, for the reason behave understood it to be, that the doors, including fore given, so the eighth month was called Bul, the lintel and side-posts, here mentioned, as well as which signifies to wither, because then the leaves the valves, took up a fifth part of the wall or parti- of the trees began to wither and fall off, and the tion, being four cubits in breadth.

whole vegetable creation to droop and die. So he Verse 32. The tico doors also were of olive-tree was seven years in building—“That is,” says Mr. -Or, The leaves of the doors ; signifying what | Locke, “speaking in a round number, for he was sort of doors they were, namely, folding-doors, as is seven years and six months; neither is this mode more particularly observed verse 34. He carved of speaking unusual in Scripture.” It is not strange apon them carvings of cherubims, fc., and over-that this work took up so much time; for though laid them with gold-When the veil, which covered the temple, properly so called, was but a small edithis whole partition, with the doors of it, was drawn fice, yet the many courts, offices, chambers, and aside to give entrance to the high-priest into the other buildings about it, above ground and below, boly of holies on the great day of atonement, then made the whole a vast pile; and the exquisiteness these beautiful doors of olive-tree, thus overlaid of the art, and fewness of the artists that could be with gold, and curiously engraved, were displayed employed, made a longer time requisite. Indeed, to his view, and the view of such priests as might | all things considered, it must be acknowledged Solobe in the holy place; but otherwise they were sel- mon made an extraordinary despatch ; for, if the dom seen, and never but by the priests only. building of Diana's temple at Ephesus employed

Verse 36. The inner courtThat wherein the all Asia for two hundred years ; and no fewer than priests officiated, (2 Chron. iv. 9,) so called because three hundred and sixty thousand men were occuit was next to the temple, which it encompassed. pied for twenty years together in erecting one pyraWith three rows of hewed stone, and a row of cedar | mid, as Pliny affirms, lib. 36, chap. 12, no reasonbsans-It is difficult to ascertain the precise mean- | able man can wonder that this temple was seven ing of the sacred historian here. He may be under- || years and a half in building. See Calmet, and stood as speaking, either, Ist, or the thickness of Univ. Hist., vol. iv. octavo. Now let us see what the wall, the three rows of stones being one within this temple typifies: moother, and the cedar innermost, as a lining to the 1. Christ himself is the true temple. He himself Description of the houses

I. KINGS.

built by Solomon.

spoke of the temple of his body: and in him dwelt || but with the gifts and graces of the Spirit. Angels all the fulness of the Godhead. In him all the are ministering spirits, attending the church, and all Israel of God meet, and through him have access the members of it, on all sides. with confidence to God.

4. Heaven is the everlasting temple; there the 2. Every believer is a living temple, in whom the church will be fixed, and no longer moveable: the Spirit of God dwelleth: we are wonderfully made cherubim there always attend upon the throne of by the divine providence, but more wonderfully glory. In the temple there was no noise of axes or made anew by the divine grace; and as Solomon's hammers : every thing is quiet and serene in heaven. temple was built on a rock, so are we built on All that shall be stones in that building, must here Christ.

be fitted and made ready for it; must be hewed and 3. The church is a mystical temple, enriched squared by the divine grace, and so made meet for and beautified, not with gold and precious stones, la place in that temple.

CHAPTER VII. Solomon builds several other houses, 1-12. He furnishes the temple with two pillars, 13–22. With a molten sea, 23–26.

With ten bases and ten laders of brass, 27–39. With all other utensils, and the things David had dedicated, 40–51. 8. M: 2009: BUT Solomon was building his | 3 And it was covered with cedar 4. M. 2999.

own house a thirteen years, and above upon the beams that lay on he finished all his house.

forty-five pillars, fifteen in a row. 2 He built also the house of the forest of 4 And there were windows in three

rows,

and Lebanon ; the length thereof was a hundred 2 light was against light in three ranks. cubits, and the breadth thereof fifty cubits, and 5 And all the 3 doors and posts were square the height thereof thirty cubits, upon four rows of with the windows : and light was against light cedar pillars, with cedar beams upon the pillars. in three ranks.

a Chap. ix. 10; 2 Chron. viii. 1.

Heb. ribs.

Or, sight against sight.

-3 Or, spaces and pillars were square in prospeci.

NOTES ON CHAPTER VII.

there, (chap. x. 17, and xiv. 25-28,) which no wise Verse 1. Solomon was building his own house- || prince would have put in a place at the extremity The royal palace, for himself and for his successors, of his kingdom, and at such a distance from his which he did not begin to build till he had finished royal city as mount Lebanon was from Jerusalem. the house of God, that nothing might hinder that the length thereof-of the principal mansion ; to holy work, chap. ix. 10. Thirteen years—Almost which, doubtless, other buildings were adjoining. double the time to that in which the temple was Was a hundred cubitsWhich was not longer built ; because, neither were the materials so far than the house of God, if we take in all the courts provided and prepared for this as they were for the belonging thereto. The height thereof thirty cubits temple, nor did either he or his people use the same -The same as the height of the holy place in the diligence in this as in the other work, to which they temple. Upon four rows of cedar pillars-Which were quickened by God's express command. supported the building, and between which there

Verse 2. He built also the house of the forest of were four stately walks. With cedar beams upon Lebanon—The house mentioned in the foregoing the pillars-Which were laid for the floor of the verse was in Jerusalem, and was probably the place second story. of Solomon's residence during the winter. This Verses 3–5. Fifteen in a row-So in this second seems to have been built for his summer residence, story there were only three rows of pillars, which on some cool, shady mountain near Jerusalem, and were sufficient for the ornament of the second and to have been called the house of the forest of Leba- for the support of the third story; and we may connon, because it was situated in a lofty place, bear- | jecture from hence that there were threescore piling some resemblance to mount Lebanon, and pro- lars below. Light was against light-One directly bably was surrounded with many tall cedars, such as opposite to another, as is usual in well-contrived grew there. That it was near Jerusalem, and not buildings. In three ranks-One exactly under anon mount Lebanon, properly so called, seems evi- other in three rows. All the doors, fc., were square dent, because there was the throne of judgment, | with the windows—That is, the figures of the doors (verse 7,) which it was most proper should be in the land windows were one and the same, namely, place of his constant and usual residence; and be- square. And light was against light, &c.—This cause there was the chief magazine of arms, (Isa. is meant of the smaller windows or lights which xxii, 8,) and Solomon's golden shields were placed I were over the door, and which were also square.

Description of the houses

CHAPTER VII.

built by Solomon.

A V. 2999.
B. C. 1005.

B. C. 1005.

6 1 And he made a porch of pil- || saws, within and without, even A. M. 2999.

lars; the length thereof was fifty cu- from the foundation unto the copbits, and the breadth thereof thirty cubits: anding, and so on the outside toward the great the porch was * before them: and the other || court. pillars and the thick beam were 5 before them. 10 And the foundation was of costly stones, 7 ? Then he made a porch for the throne even great stones; stones of ten cubits, and where he might judge, even the porch of judg- || stones of eight cubits. ment: and it was covered with cedar 6 from 11 And above were costly stones, after the one side of the floor to the other.

measures of hewed stones, and cedars. 8 & And his house where he dwelt had 12 And the great court round about was another court within the porch, which was of with three rows of hewed stones, and a row the like work. Solomon made also a house for of cedar beams, both for the inner court of the Pharaoh's daughter, whom he had taken to house of the LORD, and for the porch of the vife, like unto this porch.

house. 9 All these were of costly stones, according 13 4 And King Solomon sent and fetched to the measures of hewed stones, sawed with | Hiram out of Tyre.

*OT, according to them.

5 Or, according to them. Heb. from
floor to floor.

• Chap. iii. 1; 2 Chron. viii. 11. - John x. 23; Acts iii. 11.

2 Chron. iv. 11, Huram; Verse 40.

d

Verse 6. And he made a porch of pillars—That commonly are, which are often very great. Sawed. is, supported by divers pillars: this was for his them with saws, within and without-Both on the guard, and for people to walk in who came upon | inside of the buildings, which were covered with business, as well as for the more magnificent en- || cedar, and on the outside also. From the foundatrance into the house. Upon this also it is probable | tion unto the coping–From the bottom to the top there were other rooms built as in the house. The of the building. So on the outside toward the great porch ras before them—That is, before the pillars court-Not only on the outside of the front of the of the great house before spoken of. And the other house, which, being most visible, men are more pillars, &c.—Or, and pillars, that is, fewer and careful to adorn, but also of the other side of the Lesser pillars for the support of the porch. Were house, which looked toward the great court belongbefore them-Or, according to them; (see the mar- | ing to the king's house. gin;) that is, they were directly opposite one to an- Verses 10, 11, The foundation was of costly other.

stones—By costly stones, mentioned here, and in Verse 7. He made a porch for the throne, even the foregoing and following verses, are not meant the porch of judgment-So it was called, because precious stones, but stones that, being larger, firmer, here he sat to judge and determine the causes that and better polished than others, were of greater were brought before him. But some think it un- | price: probably they were large blocks of marble, ikely that this porch was adjoining to the house of squared and polished on all sides. Stones of ten the forest of Lebanon. They judge it more proba-cubits—Not ten cubits square, which would have ble that it was built in some place near the royal been unnecessary, and would have rendered them palace in Jerusalem, and is here mentioned because unportable and unmanageable, but of such measure the writer was speaking of other porches. And it as is generally used in measuring stones and timEu covered, fc., from one side of the floor to the ber; and thus also the following eight cubits are other–Hebrew, from floor to floor; from the lower to be understood. And above-- That is, in the roof, door on the ground, to the upper floor which cover- or upper part; for this is opposed to the foundation. ed it.

Were costly stones and cedars-Intermixed the one Verse 8. His house where he dwelt had another with the other. Thus the roof was finished after Court within the porch-That is, between the porch the same manner with the lower parts. and the house, called therefore the middle court, Verse 12. And the great court-Namely, of Solochap. XX. 4. Solomon made also a house for Pha-mon's palace, mentioned verse 8. Was with three ragh's daughter-Of which, see 2 Chron. ii. 11. rows of hewed stones, &c.—Just like the inner court Like unto this porch-Not for form or size, but for of the Lord's house, (chap. vi. 36,) and so the followthe materials and workmanship, the rooms being ing words are to be understood. Both for the inner covered with cedar and the like ornaments.

court-Or, rather, as for the inner court, &c.; for Verse 9. All these were of costly stones—Namely, so the particle 1, vau, sometimes signifies. And for the buildings described here, and in the former chap- the porch of the house-Namely, Solomon's own ter According to the measures of hewed stones- house. Either, Ist, Which were hewed in such measure Verses 13, 14. Solomon sent and fetched Hiram and proportion, as exact workmen use in hewing |—Though he was an Israelite by birth, yet he dwelt ordinary stones: or, 2d, As large as hewed stones || at Tyre; and, it is likely, had the privileges of that VOL. II. ( 3 )

33

2

Further description of the

I. KINGS.

temple buill by Solomon.

7

A. M. 2999.
B. C. 1005.

B. C. 1005.

14 He was a widow's son of the round about upon the one net-work, A. M. 2999.

tribe of Naphtali, and his father was to cover the chapiters that were upon a man of Tyre, a worker in brass; and 8 he the top, with pomegranates: and so did he for was filled with wisdom, and understanding, the other chapiter. and cunning to work all works in brass. And 19 And the chapiters that were upon the top he came to King Solomon, and wrought all his of the pillars were of lily-work in the porch, four work.

cubits. 15 1 For he cast h two pillars of brass, of 20 And the chapiters upon the two pillars had eighteen cubits high apiece: and a line of pomegranates also above, over against the belly twelve cubits did compass either of them about. which was by the net-work: and the pome16 And he made two chapiters of molten granates were

i two hundred in rows round brass, to set upon the tops of the pillars: the about upon the other chapiter. height of the one chapiter was five cubits, and 21 And he set up the pillars in the porch the height of the other chapiter was five cubits: of the temple: and he set up the right pillar,

17 And nets of checker-work, and wreaths of and called the name thereof 9 Jachin: and he chain-work, for the chapiters which were upon set up the left pillar, and called the name the top of the pillars; seven for the one chapiter, thereof 1° Boaz. and seven for the other chapiter.

22 And upon the top of the pillars was lily18 And he made the pillars, and two rows work: so was the work of the pillars finished.

e 2 Chron. ii. 14. -> Hebrew, the son of a widow woman. 1 2 Chr. iv. 16.- - Exod. xxxi.3; xxxvi. l. -8 Heb. fashioned. h 2 Kings xxv. 17; 2 Chron. iii. 15; iv. 12; Jer. lii. 21.

1

i 2 Chron. ii. 16; iv. 13; Jer. lii. 23.- Lk 2 Chron. iii. 17. Chap. vi. 3.- -9 That is, He shall establish.

-10 That is, In it is strength.

city, and so was one of King Hiram's subjects. And encompassed, either covering, and, as it were, retherefore (2 Chron. ii. 13) that king says he had ceiving and holding the pomegranates, or being sent him to Solomon, that is, had granted Solomon's mixed with them. And he made-Or, so he made, request, who had requested that this man might or framed, or perfected, the pillars, and two come and serve him. His father was a man of | rows round about-Of pomegranates, or some other Tyre-Whom his mother, when a widow, had mar- curious work, which took up one of the five cubits, ried. A worker in brass-And in gold, and stone, whereof the chapiter consisted. And the chapiters, and purple, and blue, 2 Chron. ii. 14. But his skill | 4-c., were of lily-work-Were made in imitation in brass is only mentioned here, because he speaks of lilies. In the porchOr, as in the porch ; such only of the brazen things which he made. And he work as there was in the porch of the temple, in was filled with wisdom, &c.—He had an excellent which these pillars were set, (verse 21,) that so the genius for and great skill in this work.

work of the tops of these pillars might agree with Verses 15, 16. He cast two pillars of brass-Of that in the top of the porch. which see 2 Kings xxv. 16, 17; Jer. lii. 21. Of Verse 20. Over against the belly-So he calls eighteen cubits high apiece—It is said, 2 Chron. the middle part of the chapiter, which jetted fariii. 15, that these pillars were thirty-five cubits high, thest out. The pomegranates were two hundred which relates to the height of both of them to- — They are said to be ninety and six on the side of gether without their pedestals, whereas the height a pillar, in one row, and in all a hundred, (Jer. lii. of each is given here with its pedestal. A line of 23,) four pomegranates between the several checktwelve cubits did compass either of them— The dia- || er-works being added to the first ninety-six. And meter, therefore, was sour cubits, which, consider- | it must needs be granted that there were as many ing the chapiter of five cubits, added to the height on the other side of the pillar, or in the other row, of each pillar, (2 Chron. iii. 15,) was only in due pro- | which makes them two hundred upon a pillar, as is portion to the height. In 2 Kings xxv. 17, indeed, here said, and four hundred upon both pillars, as it is said, that the height of the chapiter was only they are numbered, 2 Chron. iv. 13. three cubits. But it must be observed, that the word Verse 21. He set up the pillars in the porchchapiter may either be taken more largely for the Where they were placed for mere ornament and whole, in which case, it was five cubits; or more magnificence, for they supported nothing. Called strictly, either for the pommels, as they are called, | the name thereof Jachin—Which signifies, He, that 2 Chron. iv. 12; or for the cornice or crown, and is, God, shall establish, his temple, and church, and so it was but three cubits, to which the pomegran- || people: and Boaz signifies, in it, or rather, in him ates being added, made it four cubits, as it is verse (to answer the he in the former name) is strength. 19, and the other work upon it took up one cubit | So these pillars, being eminently strong and stable, inore, which in all made five cubits.

were types of that strength which was in God, and Verses 17-19. Nels of checker-work, fc., for the would be put forth by God for the defending and chapiters-Which chapiters those nets and wreaths | establishing of his temple and people, if they were

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