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Daily provision for

I. KINGS.

Solomon's household.

A. M, 2990.
B. C. 1014.

22 | And Solomon's 11 provision | tree, "froin Dan even to Beer-sheba, A. M. 2990.

for one day was thirty 12 measures of all the days of Solomon. fine flour, and threescore measures of meal, 26 4 And * Solomon had forty thousand stalls

23 Ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the of horses for his chariots, and twelve thousand pastures, and a hundred sheep, besides harts, horsemen. and roe-bucks, and fallow-deer, and fatted fowl. 27 And ?

27 And 2 those officers provided victual for 24 For he had dominion over all the region King Solomon, and for all that came unto King on this side the river, from Tiphsah even to Solomon's table, every man in his month: they Azzah, over 9 all the kings on this side the lacked nothing. river: and he had peace on all sides round 28 Barley also and straw for the horses and about him.

dromedaries brought they unto the place 25 And Judah and Israel s dwelt 13 safely, where the officers were, every man according every man under his vine and under his fig- to his charge.

14

t

11 heb. bread.
_12 Heb. cors.

-4 Psa. lxxii. 11.-Chr. xxii. 9.-- Jer. xxiii. 6. — 13 Heb. confidently.

* Mic. iv. 4; Zech. ii. 10.

u Judg. xx. 1. * Chap. x. 26; 2 Chron. i. 14; ix. 25. , Deut. xvii. 16. 2 Verse 7. -14 Or, mules, or, swift beasts Esth. viii. 14; Mic. i. 13.

use.

empire, which Solomon also maintained in that ex- grew, which was most open to the incursions of tent. And so God's promise concerning the giving their enemies. the whole land, as far as Euphrates, to the Israel- Verse 26. Solomon had forty thousand stalls of ites, was fulfilled. And if the Israelites had multi-horses for chariots-In 2 Chron. ix. 25, it is said, plied so much that the land of Canaan would not he had but four thousand. And Bochart thinks have sufficed them, having God's grant of all the that the Hebrew word here used should be renderland as far as Euphrates, they might have seizeded four, not forty, or that some error has crept into upon it whensoever occasion required. The land the text in regard to the number here mentioned. of the Philistines-Which is to be understood in- It is justly observed, however, by Poole, that the clusively ; for the Philistines were within Solomon's Hebrew word translated stalls here, is not exactly dominion. The border of Egypt-Unto the river the same word which is used, and so translated, in Sihor, which was the border between Egypt and Chronicles; and that, therefore, there may well be Canaan. And served-By tribute, or other ways, allowed some difference in the signification ; the one as he needed and required.

signifying, properly, stables ; of such there were Verses 22, 23. Thirty measures of fine flour-four thousand ; the other stalls, or partitions for Hebrew, cors; each of which contained ten ephahs. each horse, which were forty thousand. For his So this provision was sufficient for near three thou- chariots—Both for his military chariots, which sand persons. Meal--Of a coarser sort for common seem to be those fourteen hundred, chap. x. 26, and

Ten fat oxen-Fatted in stalls. Out of pas- | for divers other uses, as respecting his great and vatures-Well fleshed, tender, and good, though not rious buildings; and merchandises, and other occaso fat as the former.

sions, which might require some thousands of other Verse 24. From T'iphsah even to AzzahEither chariots. And twelve thousand horsemen-Apthat Tiphsah (2 Kings xv. 16) which was in the pointed partly for the defence of his people in kingdom of Israel within Jordan ; or, rather, another peace, and partly for attendance upon his person, place of that name upon the Euphrates, even that and for the splendour of his government. eminent city which is mentioned by Ptolemy, and Verses 27, 28. Those officers-Named above, Strabo, and Pliny, called Thapsarum. And this best verse 7. They lacked nothing--Or, rather, they agrees with the following Azzah, which was the suffered nothing to be lacking to any man that came border of Canaan in the south and west, as Tiphsah to Solomon's table, but plentifully provided all was in the north and east. And so his dominion is things necessary. This is repeated to show their described by both its borders. Over all kings—Who | diligence, exactness, and care, which was remarkaowned subjection, and payed tribute to him. ble ; especially since they took care of his stables

Verse 25. Under his vine-Enjoying the fruit of as well as of his house, as it follows in the next his own labour with safety and comfort. Under verse. Barley also and straw-Barley was anthese two trees, which were most used and culti- ciently horse-corn, as appears by many places in vated by the Israelites, he understands all other Homer. For the horses and dromedaries—The fruit-bearing trees, and all other comforts. And Hebrew word, rechesh, signifies swift horses, as they are brought in as sitting or dwelling un-Abarbinel thinks; see Esther viii. 14; but others der these trees, partly for recreation or delight take them for mules. Where the officers were-Or, in the shade, and partly for the comfort or ad- | rather, Where the beasts were ; for there is no vantage of the fruit; and withal, to signify their word for officers in the Hebrew. Every man acgreat security, not only in their strong cities, but cording to his charge–Which lasted for a month even in the country, where the vines and fig-trees every year.

Daily provision for

I. KINGS.

Solomon's household.

A. M. 2990.
B. C. 1014.

B. C. 1014.

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22 | And Solomon's " provision stree, "from Dan even to Beer-sheba, A. M. 2990.

for one day was thirty 12 measures of all the days of Solomon.
fine flour, and threescore measures of meal, 26 | And * Solomon had forty thousand stalls

23 Ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the of horses for his chariots, and twelve thousand
pastures, and a hundred sheep, besides harts, || horsemen.
and roe-bucks, and fallow-deer, and fatted fowl. 27 And ? those officers provided victual for

24 For he had dominion over all the region King Solomon, and for all that came unto King
on this side the river, from Tiphsah even to Solomon's table, every man in his month: they
Azzah, over all the kings on this side the lacked nothing.
river: and he had peace on all sides round 28 Barley also and straw for the horses and
about him.

14 dromedaries brought they unto the place 25 And Judah and Israel dwelt 13 safely, where the officers were, every man according ' every man under his vine and under his fig- to his charge.

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11 heb. bread.
_12 Heb. cors.

- Psa. lxxii. 11. 11 Chr. xxii. 9.— Jer. xxiii. 6.— 13 Heb. confidently. - Mic. iv. 4; Zech. iii. 10.

u Judg. xx. 1. * Chap. x. 26; 2 Chron. i. 14; ix. 25. y Deut. xvii. 16. - Verse 7.- 14 Or, mules, or, swift beasts Esth. viii. 14; Mic. i. 13.

use.

empire, which Solomon also maintained in that ex- grew, which was most open to the incursions of
tent. And so God's promise concerning the giving their enemies.
the whole land, as far as Euphrates, to the Israel- Verse 26. Solomon had forty thousand stalls of
ites, was fulfilled. And if the Israelites had multi- horses for chariots-In 2 Chron. ix. 25, it is said,
plied so much that the land of Canaan would not he had but four thousand. And Bochart thinks
have sufficed them, having God's grant of all the that the Hebrew word here used should be render-
land as far as Euphrates, they might have seized ed four, not forty, or that some error has crept into
upon it whensoever occasion required. The land the text in regard to the number here mentioned.
of the Philistines-Which is to be understood in- It is justly observed, however, by Poole, that the
clusively; for the Philistines were within Solomon's Hebrew word translated stalls here, is not exactly
dominion. The border of Egypt-Unto the river the same word which is used, and so translated, in
Sihor, which was the border between Egypt and Chronicles; and that, therefore, there may well be
Canaan. And served-By tribute, or other ways, allowed some difference in the signification ; the one
as he needed and required.

signifying, properly, stables ; of such there were Verses 22, 23. Thirty measures of fine flour, four thousand; the other stalls, or partitions for Hebrew, cors; each of which contained ten ephahs. each horse, which were forty thousand. For his So this provision was sufficient for near three thou- | chariots-Both for his military chariots, which sand persons. Meal--Of a coarser sort for common seem to be those fourteen hundred, chap. x. 26, and

Ten fat oxen-Fatted in stalls. Out of pas- for divers other uses, as respecting his great and vatures-Well fleshed, tender, and good, though not rious buildings, and merchandises, and other occaso fat as the former.

sions, which might require some thousands of other Verse 24. From Tiphsah even to Azzah–Either chariots. And twelve thousand horsemen-Apthat Tiphsah (2 Kings xv. 16) which was in the pointed partly for the defence of his people in kingdom of Israel within Jordan ; or, rather, another peace, and partly for attendance upon his person, place of that name upon the Euphrates, even that and for the splendour of his government. eminent city which is mentioned by Ptolemy, and Verses 27, 28. Those officers-Named above, Strabo, and Pliny, called Thapsarum. And this best verse 7. They lacked nothing-Or, rather, they agrees with the following Azzah, which was the suffered nothing to be lacking to any man that came border of Canaan in the south and west, as Tiphsah to Solomon's table, but plentifully provided all was in the north and east. And so his dominion is things necessary. This is repeated to show their described by both its borders. Over all kings—Who diligence, exactness, and care, which was remarkaowned subjection, and payed tribute to him. ble; especially since they took care of his stables

Verse 25. Under his vine-Enjoying the fruit of as well as of his house, as it follows in the next his own labour with safety and comfort. Under verse. Barley also and straw-Barley was anthese two trees, which were most used and culti- ciently horse-corn, as appears by many places in vated by the Israelites, he understands all other Homer. For the horses and dromedaries- The fruit-bearing trees, and all other comforts. And Hebrew word, rechesh, signifies swift horses, as they are brought in as sitting or dwelling un- | Abarbinel thinks; see Esther viii. 14; but others der these trees, partly for recreation or delight take them for mules. Where the officers were-Or, in the shade, and partly for the comfort or ad- rather, Where the beasts were ; for there is no vantage of the fruit; and withal, to signify their word for officers in the Hebrew. Every man acgreat security, not only in their strong cities, but cording to his charge–Which lasted for a month even in the country, where the vines and fig-trees' every year.

Solomon's wisdom

CHAPTER V.

and understanding.

A M. 2900
B. C. 1014.

B. C. 1014.

29 | And God gave Solomon wis- 32 And & he spake three thousand A. M. 2990.

dom and understanding exceeding proverbs: and his songs were a thoumuch, and largeness of heart, even as the sand sand and five. that is on the sea-shore.

33 And he spake of trees, from the cedar30 And Solomon's wisdom excelled the wis- tree that is in Lebanon, even unto the hyssop dom of all the children of the east country, that springeth out of the wall: he spake also and all the wisdom of Egypt.

of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, 31 For he was d wiser than all men; e than and of fishes. Ethan the Ezrahite, fand Heman, and Chal- | 34 And i there came of all people to hear the col, and Darda, the sons of Mahol: and his wisdom of Solomon, from all kings of the earth, fame was in all nations round about.

which had heard of his wisdom.

* Chap. 111. 12-Gen. xxv. 6.-€ Acts vii. 22. Chap. 6; vi. 33 ; xv. 19; Psa. lxxxviii., title. - Prov. i. 1; Eccles. 111. 12. 1 Chron. xv. 19; Psa. lxxxix., title. li Chron. ii. xii. 9.—h Cant. i. 1.-i Chap. x. l; 2 Chron. ix. 1, 23.

Verses 29, 30. God gave Solomon wisdom andThat is, short, deep, and useful sentences, whereof understanding exceeding much--Knowledge of a a great part are contained in the books of Proverbs great variety of things, and prudence in the admin-|| and Ecclesiastes. Songs—Whereof the most divine istration of the government. And largeness of and chief are in the Canticles. And he spake of heart-Vastness of understanding, or a very com- trees—That is, of all plants, of their nature and qualiprehensive mind, capable of receiving the know- ties. From the cedar-tree unto the hyssop-From ledge of all things, both divine and human. As the the greatest to the least. That springeth out of the sand that is on the sea-shore-As the sand there wallDr. Waterland renders the original here, encloses a vast body of waters, so his mind contain- || Hyssop that runneth out to the wall: the wall of ed an ocean of knowledge, as the Lord Bacon some- | Jerusalem may be meant, which was encompassed where speaks. The wisdom of all the children of | with mountains that produced abundance of hysthe east country-The Chaldeans, Persians, and sop. He spake also of beasts and of fowl, &c.Arabians, who all lay eastward from Canaan, and This shows the vastness of his knowledge, which were famous in ancient times for their wisdom and comprehended the history of animals as well as of learning, the Arabians especially, as appears from | plants, whose nature and qualities he also underthe book of Job. And, in after ages, Porphyry re- stood. All these discourses of Solomon are lost, ports that Pythagoras travelled into this country to without any impeachment of the perfection of the improve himself in learning. And all the wisdom Holy Scriptures; which were not written to teach of Egypt — Which country was celebrated for wis- | men philosophy or physic, but only to make them dom in Moses's time, as appears from Acts vii. 22 ; | wise unto salvation. and, in after times, Macrobius calls Egypt the mo- Verse 34. From all kings of the earth- All the ther of arts. Indeed, such was their skill in arts neighbouring kings; a restriction grounded upon and sciences, that they despised the Greeks as the following words, where this is limited to such children in knowledge.

as heard of Solomon's wisdom. Let those who Verse 31. He was wiser than all men-Either of magnify the modern learning above that of the anhis nation, or of his time: or, of all times and na- cients, produce such a treasury of learning, anytions, whether of the East, or any other country, where in these later ages, as that was which Soloexcepting only the first and second Adam. Ethan, | mon was master of. Yet this puts an honour upon &C.-Israelites of eminent wisdom, probably the human learning, that Solomon is praised for it, and same mentioned i Chron. ii. 6; xv. 19; xxv, 4; | recommends it to the great ones of the earth, as Psalm lxxxviii., title, and lxxxix., title. Chalcol, &c. well worthy their diligent search. In all this Solo-01 whom see 1 Chron. ii. 6.

mon was a type of Christ, in whom are hid all the Verses 32, 33. He spake three thousand proverbs Il treasures of wisdom and knowledge.

CHAPTER V. Hiram congratulates Solomon on his accession, and agrees to furnish him with workmen and timber for the temple, 1-9.

The work is well done, and the workmen paid, 10–18.

Hiram, king of Tyre,

I. KINGS.

sends messengers to Solomon.

A. M. 2990.
B. C. 1014.

B. C. 1014.

AND

ND a Hiram king of Tyre sent || servants shall be with thy servants : A. M. 2990.

his servants unto Solomon ; for and unto thee will I give hire for thy he had heard that they had anointed him king servants according to all that thou shalt -apin the room of his father : b for Hiram was ever point: for thou knowest that there is not among a lover of David.

us any that can skill to hew timber like unto 2 And · Solomon sent to Hiram, saying, the Sidonians. 3 Thou knowest how that David my father 7 And it came to pass, when Hiram heard could not build a house unto the name of the the words of Solomon, that he rejoiced greatly, Lord his God, d for the wars which were about and said, Blessed be the LORD this day, which him on every side, until the LORD put them hath given unto David a wise son over this under the soles of his feet.

great people. 4 But now the Lord my God hath given me 8 And Hiram sent to Solomon, saying, I have rest on every side, so that there is neither considered the things which thou sentest to adversary nor evil occurrent.

me for: and I will do all thy desire concerning 5 f And behold, I purpose to build a house timber of cedar, and concerning timber of fir. unto the name of the Lord my God, s as the

he 9 My servants shall bring them down from LORD spake unto David my father, saying, Lebanon unto the sea : and I will convey them Thy son whom I will set upon thy throne in by sea in floats unto the place that thou shalt thy room, he shall build a house unto my || 4 appoint me, and will cause them to be dis

charged there, and thou shalt receive them: and 6 Now therefore command thou, that they thou shalt accomplish my desire, kin giving hew me cedar-trees out of Lebanon ; and my food for my household.

name.

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a Verses 10, 18; 2 Chron. ii. 3, Huram.—2 Sam. v. 11; 1 1 Heb. say.—5 2 Sam. vii, 13; 1 Chron. xvii. 12; xxii. 10. Chron. xiv. 1; Amos i. 9. 2 Chron. ii. 3. di Chron. h 2 Chron. ii. 8, 10.- Hebrew, say.- - Hebrew, heard. xxii. 8; xxviii. 3. Chap. iv, 24; 2 Chron. xxii. 9. 12 | 12 Chron. ii. 16.- - Heb. send. Ezra iii. 7; Ezek. xxvii. Chron. ii. 4.

17; Acts xii. 20.

NOTES ON CHAPTER V.

jurisdiction; and therefore he doth not desire that Verse 1. Hiram sent his servants unto Solomon | Hiram would give him the cedars, because they -Namely, as soon as he heard of his succession in were his own already, but only that his servants the throne, as the following words show, he sent to might hew them for him, which the ingenious Tycongratulate him, as the manner of princes is. For rians well understood. My servants shall be with Hiram was ever a lover of David-And therefore thy servants--Either to be employed as they shall was desirous to continue in friendship with his son direct, or to receive the cedars from their hands, This Hiram was probably the son of him who sent and transmit them to me. And unto thee will I give David timber and artificers to build his palace. Jo-hire for thy servants—Pay them for their labour sephus assures us, that in his time, the letters which and art. Sidonians–Or Tyrians; for these places passed between him and Solomon were preserved | and people, being near each other, are promiscuousin the archives of Tyre.

ly used one for another. This assistance, which Verses 3–5. A house unto the name of the Lord these Gentiles gave to the building of Solomon's -For his worship and service. For the wars which temple, was a type of the calling of the Gentiles, were about him on every sideWhich diverted and that they should be instrumental in building his cares and thoughts to other things, and occa- || and constituting Christ's spiritual temple. sioned God's denying him the honour of that work. Verses 7, 8. He rejoiced greatlyBeing a faithUntil the Lord put them under the soles of his sul friend to David and his house; and though it is feel--That is, made them subject to him, that he not probable he was a sincere proselyte, yet he had could trample upon them at his pleasure. Compare received much information concerning the nature Psa. viii. 6; 1 Cor. xv. 27. I purpose to build a and excellence of the God of Israel, and had honourhouse unto the name of the Lord–That shall be able thoughts of him. And Hiram sent to Solomon called by his name, namely, the house of Jehovah; || -A letter, 2 Chron. ii. 11. Timber of fir-The and be appropriated to his honour and glory. word which we translate fir, others think signifies

Verse 6. Now therefore command thou, that pine, or cypress; but their conjecture is the most theyThat is, thy servants, who are skilful in reasonable, who think it was a kind of cedar, and such work; hew me cedar-trees--Which, for their therefore comprehended under that name, verse soundness, and strength, and fragrancy, and durable- | 6, where Solomon desires of him only that his serness, were most proper for his design. of these vants might hew him cedar-trees. David had procured some, but not a sufficient num- Verse 9. From Lebanon unto the sea--The Mediher. Out of Lebanon--Which was in Solomon's || terranean sea, on which his city stood. I will con

Solomon makes a ledy

CHAPTER V.

of men in Israet.

B. C. 1014.

A. M. 2990. 10 4 So Hiram gave Solomon cedar- || all Israel; and the levy was thirty A. M. 2990. B. C. 1014.

trees and fir-trees according to all his thousand men. desire.

14 And he sent them to Lebanon ten thou11 ' And Solomon gave Hiram twenty thousand a month by courses; a month they were sand 5 measures of wheat for food to his | in Lebanon, and two months at home. And household, and twenty measures of pure - Adoniram was over the levy. oil : thus gave Solomon to Hiram year by 15 °And Solomon had threescore and ten thouyear.

sand that bare burdens, and fourscore thousand 12 And the LORD gave Solomon wisdom, Rashewers in the mountains ; be promised him: and there was peace between 16 Besides the chief of Solomon's officers which Hiram and Solomon; and they two made a were over the work, three thousand and three league together.

hundred, which ruled over the people that 13 [ And King Solomon raised a 6 levy out of wrought in the work.

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tey themin floats-Or rafts. It is thought the other, that there may be a mutual correspondence and pieces of timber were tied together in the water, dependance, to the glory of God our common parent. as now is usual, and so, by the help of boats or Verse 13. Solomon raised a lery-Which were ships, conveyed to the appointed place, which was to be employed in the most honourable and easy at no great distance. Unto the place thou shalt parts of the work welating to the temple, in the appoint me-Which was Joppa, a famous seaport manner expressed verse 14; and these were Isin the country of Israel, 2 Chron. ii. 16. Will cause 'raelites; but those one hundred and fifty thousand than to be discharged there—Hebrew, dispersed, or mentioned verse 15 were strangers. If it seem dissolved; which implies that they were tied to- strange that so many thousands should be emgether. In giring food for my householdMy fa-ployed about so small a building as the temple was, mily and court; which, most properly, is called his it must be considered, 1st, That the temple, all its household. Though they had plenty of money, parts being considered, was far larger than men being great merchants, yet they wanted corn and imagine: 2d, That it is probable they were emother provisions: and in after times, it appears, they ployed by turns, as the thirty thousand were, (verse were supported by provisions from Judea, Acts 13,) else they had been oppressed with hard and unIIl. 20.

interrupted labours: 3d, That the timber and stone Verses 10, 11. So Hiram gave Solomon cedar- i hewed and carried by them were designed, not only trees—That is, he agreed to give him all that he de- for the temple, but also for Solomon's own houses sired ; but the trees were not yet cut down and and buildings; because we read of no other levy prepared. Twenty thousand measures of wheat, of men, nor of any care and pains taken, after the Each measure spoken of here is supposed to con-building of the temple, for the procurement or pretain six hundred and forty-eight pounds weight, so paration of materials for his own houses, or his that the weight of the wheat yearly given to Hiram other buildings; nay, that this very levy of men was two millions one hundred and sixty thousand was made and employed for the building of the pounds. Twenty measures of pure oil-In the Lord's house, and Solomon's house, and Millo, and parallel place, 2 Chron. ii. 10, it is twenty thousand the wall of Jerusalem, and Hazor, and Megiddo, baths of oil, which has the sanction of many of the and Gezer, is expressed chap. ix. 15. Fersions, and seems the most probable reading in Verses 15, 16. That bare burdens— Namely, porthis place; and so in verze 16, instead of three hun- ters, carters, seamen, and such like. Fourscore thoudred, it is sir hundred in the Chronicles; a varia- i sand hewers in the mountains—That is, hewers of ting which it is not easy to reconcile without sup- stone, for timber was hewed by Hiram's servants in pozing an error, most probably in this place, as the Lebanon. Oficers over the work three thousand Serenty give their authority to the reading in the three hundred-Whereof three thousand were set Chronicles. But it is thought by some that the place over the one hundred and fifty thousand mentioned in Chronicles speaks of what was given to the work- verse 15, each of these over fifty of them, and the mea, who had other things, there mentioned, be- odd three hundred were set over these three thousides, to support them in their labour ; but that this sand; each of them to have the oversight of ten, place speaks of what was given for the use of Hi- to take an account of the work from them. But in ram's family. Thus gave Solomon to Hiram year | 2 Chron. ii. 18, these overseers are said to be three by year-Either for sustenance to the workmen du- thousand six hundred. The three hundred added ring the years wherein they were employed in cut- | in 2 Chron. ii. might be a reserve to supply the ting down or hewing of timber, or for the yearly places of the other three thousand; yea, or of the support of the king's house during the said time. three thousand six hundred, as any of them should Thus, by the wise disposal of Providence, one coun- | be taken off from the work by death, or sickness, or try has need of another, and is benefited by an- / weakness, or any necessary occasion; which was a

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