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Nebuchadnezzar carries away


the treasures of Jerusalem.

B. C. 599.

B. C. 599.

4. N. 3105. any more out of his land : forb the 11 And Nebuchadnezzar king of A. M. 3405.
B.C. 549.

king of Babylon had taken from the Babylon came against the city, and
river of Egypt unto the river Euphrates all that his servants did besiege it.
pertained to the king of Egypt.

12 ' And Jehoiachin the king of Ju-
892 i Jeboiachin was eighteen years old dah went out to the king of Babylon, he,
when he began to reign, and he reigned in Je- and his mother, and his servants, and his princes,
rusalem three months. And his mother's name and his officers : mand the king of Babylon
was Nehushta, the daughter of Elnathan of took him in the eighth year of his reign.

13 P And he carried out thence all the trea9 And he did that which was evil in the sight | sures of the house of the LORD, and the treaof the LORD, according to all that his father had sures of the king's house, and ? cut in pieces all done.

the vessels of gold which Solomon king of Israel 10 9 At that time the servants of Nebuchad- had made in the temple of the LORD, 'as the bezzar king of Babylon came up against Jeru- Lord had said. salem, and the city 3 was besieged.

14 And she carried away all Jerusalem, and

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Verse 8. Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when Babylon, but might have held out with courage, he began to reign-In 2 Chron. xxxvi. 9, it is said honour, and success. But, wanting the faith and that he was eight years old when he began to reign. | piety of an Israelite, he had not the resolution of a But as both the Syriac and Arabic versions in that man. place read eighteen, it seems most reasonable to be- Verse 13. He carried out thence all the treasures of liere that the transcriber of the book of Chronicles the house of the Lord-Nebuchadnezzar carried away made a mistake, and wrote eighi for eighteen. Poole, | the treasures and rich furniture of the temple at however, and many other commentators, suppose three different times: First, In the third year of the that both places are correct, and that in his eighth reign of Jehoiakim, when he first took Jerusalem, he year he began to reign with his father, who made carried a part of the vessels of the house of God into him king with him, as divers other kings of Israel the land of Shinar, and put them in the house of his and Judah had acted in times of trouble; and that in god, Dan. i. 2. These were the vessels which his son his eighteenth year he reigned alone. Jehoiachin's Belshazzar profaned, (Dan. v. 2,) and which Cyrus succeeding his father in the throne of Judah may restored to the Jews, (Ezra i. 7,) to be set up in the seem to disagree with the threat which the prophet temple again, when rebuilt: Secondly, In the reign denounces against his father, Jer. xxxvi. 30, He shall of this Jehoiachin he took the city again, and cut in hare none to sit upon the throne of David; but as pieces a great part of the vessels of gold which SoloJehoiachia's reign lasted little more than three mon had made, and which, through some means, months, during which time he was absolutely sub- had escaped his former plunder, and the plunder of jeet to the Chaldeans, a reign of so short continu- the kings of Egypt and Israel, who had rifled the ance, and of so small authority, may well be looked city and temple more than once ; perhaps being preupon as nothing: see Ezek. xix. 6, &c.

served from them by the care of the priests, who hid Verse 10. The servants of Nebuchadnezzar came them, or by the special providence of God, disposing up against Jerusalem--Either, Ist, Because the their hearts to leave them. Or if these vessels had people had made Jehoiachin king without his con- | been taken away by any of these kings, they might sent: or, 20, Because he had some notice, or at least afterward be recovered at the cost of the pious a suspicion, of his intentions to rebel and join with kings of Judah: Thirdly, in the eleventh year of Egypt against him, as Zedekiah his successor did. Zedekiah he pillaged the temple once more, when But whatever was the second and immediate cause he broke in pieces the pillars of brass, &c., and took of it, the chief cause was God's commandment, or away all the vessels of silver and gold that he could the direction of his providence, as was said verse 3. find, and carried them to Babylon, chap. xxv. 13. It

Verse 12. Jehoiachin went out to the king of Ba- | is something strange, that among all this inventory, bylon—Yielded up himself and the city into his no mention is made of the ark of the covenant, hands; and this by the counsel of Jeremiah, and to which, of all other things, was held most sacred. his own good. In the eighth year of his reign-of But it is very probable that it was burned, together Nebuchadnezzar's reign, as appears by comparing with the temple, in the last desolation ; for what this with chap. XXV. 8; and because Jehoiachin reign- some say of its being hidden by the Prophet Jereed not half a year. Had he made his peace with miah in a certain cave in mount Nebo, is a mere faGod, and taken the method that Hezekiah did in the ble. See Calmet's Comment. and Dissert, on the Ark. like case, he needed not to have feared the king of Verse 14. He carried away all Jerusalem-That VOL. II. ( 15 )


The wicked reign


of Mattaniah.


B. C. 599.

B. C. 599.

A. M. 3405. all the princes, and all the mighty 17 1 And a the king of Babylon A. M. 3405.

men of valour, * even ten thousandmade Mattaniah, his father's brother, captives, and all the craftsmen, and smiths : king in his stead, and changed his name to none remained, save * the poorest sort of the Zedekiah. people of the land.

18 d Zedekiah was twenty and one years old 15 And , he carried away Jehoiachin to Ba- || when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven bylon, and the king's mother, and the king's years in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was wives, and his 6 officers, and the mighty of the Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. land, those carried be into captivity from Jeru- 19 f And he did that which was salem to Babylon.

evil in the sight of the LORD, accord16 And 2 all the men of might, even sevening to all that Jehoiakim had done. thousand, and craftsmen and smiths a thou- 20 For through the anger of the Lord it came sand, all that were strong and apt for war, even to pass in Jerusalem and Judah, until he had them the king of Babylon brought captive to cast them out from his presence, 8 that ZedeBabylon.

kiah rebelled against the king of Babylon.

B. C. 593.

+ Jeremiah lii. 28.-ul Samuel xiii. 19, 22. Chapter XXV. 12; Jeremiah xl. 7.-Y2 Chronicles xxxvi. 10; Esther ii. 6; Jeremiah xxii. 24, &c.—Or, eunuchs.- Jeremiah lii. 28.- a Jeremiah xxxvji. 1.

bi Chron. iii. 15; 2 Chron. xxxvi. 10.- -c Chapter xxiii. 34; 2 Chron. xxxvi. 4. _d 2 Chron. xxxvi. Il ; Jer. xxxvj. l; lii. I. Chap. xxiii. 31. 12 Chron. xxxvi. 12.- % 2 Chron. Xxxvi. 13; Ezek. xvii. 15.

is, the inhabitants of Jerusalem; not simply all, but getting for what cause he changed his name. Unto the best and most considerable part, as the following this revolt, it is probable, he was persuaded by the words explain and restrain it. Even ten thousand ambassadors which the kings of Edom, Moab, AmcaptivesWhich are more particularly reckoned mon, Tyre, and Zidon, sent unto him, to solicit him up verse 16, where therc are seven thousand to throw off the yoke of the king of Babylon, Jer. mighty men, and a thousand smiths; and those | xxvii. 2-4, &c.; which was the greater crime, bementioned verse 15 make up the other two thou- | cause he had taken a solemn oath that he would be sand. Craftsmen and smiths-Who might furnish true to him, 2 Chron. xxxvi. 13. The king of Egypt them with new arms, and thereby give him fresh | also, it is likely, promised him help, Ezek. xvii. 15; trouble.

and Hananiah, a false prophet, assured him God Verse 17. And changed his name to Zedekiah would, in two years time, break the yoke of the - That he might admonish him of (what his name king of Babylon, and bring back all the vessels of signifies) the justice of God, which had so severely the house of God, with Jehoiachin and all the cappunished Jehoiakim for his rebellion; and would no tives: see Jer. xxviii. 1-4. Jeremiah indeed proved less certainly overtake him, if he should be guilty that he made them trust in a lie, by predicting his of the same perfidiousness.

death that very year, which accordingly came to Verses 18, 19. He reigned eleven years—In the pass, verses 15–17. But they still persisted in their end of which he was carried captive, Jer. i. 3. He vain hopes, there being other deceivers that prophedid that which was evil in the sight of the Lord sied falsely in God's name, Jeremiah xxix. 8, 9: and Not regarding the reproofs, exhortations, or predic- they most of all deceived themselves with proud tions of Jeremiah, but shutting him up in prison, Jer. conceits that they were the true seed of Abraxxxiii. 1, 2; 2 Chron. xxxvi. 12. And his servants, ham, who had a right to that land, Ezekiel xxxiii. and the people of the land, were as wicked and in- || 24. The people's sins, therefore, as Poole has corrigible as himself, Jer. xxxvii. 1, 2.

justly observed, were the true cause why God gave Verse 20. For through the anger of the Lord, &c. || them wicked kings, whom he suffered to act wick--God was so highly displeased with this wicked | edly, that they might bring the long-deserved and people, that he permitted Zedekiah to break his faith threatened punishments upon themselves and their with Nebuchadnezzar, and to rebel against him, for- l people.

Jerusalem is besieged, 1-4. Zedekiah taken ; his sons slain; and his eyes put out, 5–7. Nebuzar-adan burns the city

and temple, breaks down the walls, and carries away the spoils with most of the people, 8–17. The chief officers are
put to death, 18-21. The very remnant of the people is scattered, 22–26. Jehoiachin is countenanced, after thirty-seoon
years imprisonment, 27-30.

( 15* )


Nebuchadnezzar besieges


and takes Jerusalem.

A. V. 3416.
B. C. 588.

B. C. 588.

AN ND it came to pass a in the ninth || in the city, and there was no bread A. M. 3416

year of his reign, in the tenth | for the people of the land. month, in the tenth day of the month, that Ne- 4 T And · the city was broken up, and all the buchadnezzar king of Babylon came, he, and men of war fled by night by the way of the gate all his host, against Jerusalem, and pitched between two walls, which is by the king's garagainst it; and they built forts against it round den; (now the Chaldees were against the city about

round about ;) and a the king went the 2 And the city was besieged unto the eleventh | ward the plain.. year of King Zedekiah.

5 And the army of the Chaldees pursued after B. C. 588.

3 And on the ninth day of the the king, and overtook him in the plains of Jerifourth month the famine prevailed || cho: and all his army were scattered from him.

way to

* 2 Chron. xxvi. 17; Jer. xxxiv. 2 ; xxxix. 1 ; lii. 4; Ezekiel || - Jeremiah xxxix. 2; lii. 7, &c.- -d Jeremiah xxxix. 4-7; lii. xxiv, 1. _b Jer. xxxix. 2; lii. 6.

7; Ezek. xii. 12.


by storm, the besiegers having made a breach in the Verse 1. Nebuchadnezzar came, and all his wall

, at which they forced their way into it. AU host, against Jerusalem-To chastise Zedekiah for the men of war fledBeing unable any longer to his rebellion and perjury: for, contrary to the so- | defend the city, they endeavoured to quit it, which lemn oath he had taken, he had been contriving and many of them found means to do by the way of the endeavouring to revolt from the king of Babylon, I gate between the two walls— That is, between the and shake off his yoke. They built forts against it inward and outward walls of the city, or between round about—To keep all supplies of men and pro- the wall and the outworks, by a private way, having visions from entering into the city, and that from the advantage of the darkness of the night, and posthence, by such arts of war as they then had, they | sibly of some vault under the ground. Many howmight batter the walls, shoot arrows, and throw ever, no doubt, were put to the sword, the victorious darts or stones into it. Formerly Jerusalem was army being much exasperated by their obstinacy. compassed with the favour of God as with a shield, To account, in some degree, for the besieged making but now their defence is departed from them, and their escape, Josephus observes, that as the city was their enemies surround them on every side. The taken about midnight, the enemies' captains, with siege lasted two years. At first the besieging army the rest of the soldiers, went directly into the temretired for fear of the king of Egypt, who came to ple, which Zedekiah perceiving, took his wives, help Zedekiah; and then Jeremiah endeavoured to children, commanders, and friends, and they all get out of the city, to go into the land of Benjamin, slipped away together, by a narrow passage, toward but was hindered, seized, and imprisoned, Jer. | the wilderness, But what this narrow passage was, Ixxvi. 11. The Chaldeans, finding that Pharaoh is still a question. The Jews think there was a subwas not so powerful as they at first supposed, soon terraneous passage from the palace to the plains of returned, as Jeremiah had foretold they would, with Jericho, and that the king and his courtiers might a rezolution not to quit the siege till they had made endeavour to make their escape that way. And we themselves masters of the place.

learn from Dion, that in the last siege of Jerusalem Verse 3. The famine prevailed in the city-So || by the Romans, the Jews had covered ways, which that for a long time they ate their bread, as Ezekiel | lay under the walls of the city, to a considerable disforetold they should do, (chap. iv. 16,) by weight | tance into the country, out of which they were and with care, and drunk their water by measure wont to sally, and fall upon the Romans that were and with astonishment, perceiving the quantity of | straggling from the camp: but since neither Joseit lessening fast every day, and having no hope of a phus nor the sacred historian takes notice of any fresh supply. Thus they were punished for their such subterraneous passage at this siege, it is most gluttony and excess, their fulness of bread, and feed- | likely that the Chaldeans having made a breach in ing themselves without fear. At length there was the wall, many of the besieged escaped through it, na bread for the people of the land-For the com- | proceeding privately between the wall and the outmon people, who, upon the approach of the Baby- | works, by a passage which the Chaldeans did not lonian army, had flocked from all parts of the coun- | suspect. The king went toward the plain-Of Jetry, to secure themselves and their families, but only richo, as it follows. for the great men. Now they eat their own children Verse 5. The army of the Chaldees pursued after for want of food, as had been foretold by one pro- the king-Intelligence was soon given of his flight, phet, (Ezek. v. 10,) and is bewailed by another, | and which way he was gone, so that they soon overLam. iv. 3, &c. Jeremiah, in this extremity, ear-took him. And all his army-His guards; were Destly persuaded the king to surrender, but his heart | scattered from him-Every man shisting for his was hardened to his destruction.

safety. Had he made his peace with God, and put Verse 4. The city was broken up-It was taken himself under his protection, he would not have

Zedekiah and his sons are slain,


and the temple pillaged.

B. C. 588.

B. C. 588.

A. M. 3416. 6 So they took the king, and brought || year of King Nebuchadnezzar, king 4. M. 3416.

him up to the king of Babylon .to of Babylon,) came Nebuzar-adan, Riblah; and they 'gave judgment upon him. 3 captain of the guard, a servant of the king

7 And they slew the sons of Zedekiah before of Babylon, unto Jerusalem : his eyes, and 2 put out the eyes of Zedekiah, 9k And he burnt the house of the LORD, 'and and bound him with fetters of brass, and carried the king's house, and all the houses of Jerusahim to Babylon.

lem, and every great man's house burnt he with 8 1 And in the fifth month, s on the seventh fire. day of the month, (which is h the nineteenth 10 And all the army of the Chaldees, that were

• Chapter xxiii. 33; Jer. lii. 9.-- - Heb. spake judgment with him. - Heb. made blind.- Jer. xxxix. 7; Ezekiel xii. 13.

Jer. lii. 12-14.

1 Chap. xxiv. 12; Verse 27.-i Jer. xxxix. 9.
marshal. -k 2 Chron. xxxvi. 19; Psa. lxxix. 1.
8; Amos ii. 5.

-3 Or, chief 1 Jer. xxxix.

failed him now. It seems to have been the design | have reason to think the Chaldeans were much enof the king, and of those with him, to escape into raged against the city, for holding out with so much Egypt through Arabia Deserta.

stubbornness; yet they did not, therefore, put all to Verse 6. And brought him to the king of Babylon, fire and sword as soon as they had taken the city, to RiblahWhere Nebuchadnezzar stayed, that he which is too commonly done in such cases; but might both supply the besiegers with men and mili- | about a month after (compare verse 8 with verse 3) tary provisions, as their occasions required, and Nebuzar-adan was sent with orders to complete the have an eye to Chaldea, to prevent or suppress any | destruction of it. This space God gave them for commotions which might happen there in his ab- repentance after all the foregoing days of his pasence. They gave judgment upon himThe king's tience; but in vain; their hearts were still hardened, officers appointed thereunto examined his cause, and therefore execution was awarded to the utterand passed the following sentence against him. most.

Verse 7. T'hey slew the sons of Zedekiah before Verse 9. And he burnt the house of the Lord, The his eyes — Though they were but children, that this king of Babylon, it appears, did not design to send spectacle, the last he was to behold, might leave a any colonies to people Judea, and therefore ordered deep and durable impression of grief and horror Jerusalem to be laid in ashes, as a nest of rebels. upon his spirit. And in slaying his sons they in " At the burning of the king's house," says Henry, effect declared that the kingdom was no more, and and the houses of the great men, one cannot much that neither he nor any of his breed were fit to be wonder, the inhabitants had by their sins kindled trusted: therefore not fit to live. And put out his the fire of God's wrath against them; but that the eyes, and carried him to Babylon-Thus two pro- house of the Lord should perish in these flames, that phecies were fulfilled, which seemed contrary the that holy and beautiful house should be burned with one to the other. Jeremiah foretold, That he should | fire, (Isa. lxiv. 11,) is very strange; that house be delivered into the hands of the king of Babylon, | which David prepared for, and which Solomon and should speak with him mouth to mouth, and his | built, at such a vast expense; that house which had eyes should behold his eyes, and that he should go the eye and the heart of God perpetually upon it, to Babylon, chap. xxxii. 4, and xxxiv. 3; and Ezekiel (1 Kings ix. 3,) might not that have been snatched as prophesied, That he should never see Babylon, | a brand out of the burning? No, that will not be though he should die there, chap. xii. 13. This | fireproof against God's judgments; this stately strucseeming contradiction, Zedekiah the false prophet ture must be laid in ashes, and it is probable the ark could not reconcile, and therefore concluded that in it; for the enemies, probably having heard how both prophecies were false, and, if we may credit | dear the Philistines paid for the abusing it, durst not Josephus, Zedekiah the king stumbled at this diffi- || seize it; nor did any of its friends take care to preculty. Both, however, were literally accomplished. || serve it; for then we should have heard of it again The reflection which Josephus makes on this event, || in the second temple.” The temple was burned four is worthy of the reader's attention: “ This may hundred years after the time that it was built, says serve to convince even the ignorant, of the power | Sir John Marsham; four hundred and twenty-four and wisdom of God; and of the constancy of his years three months and eight days, says Archbishop counsels through all the various ways of his opera- || Usher; four hundred thirty years, says Abarbinel tions. It may likewise show us that God's fore- || and other learned Jews; but Josephus computes the knowledge of things is certain ; and his providence matter still higher; for he tells us that the temple regular in the ordering of events; and besides, it was burned four hundred and seventy years six holds forth a most exemplary instance of the dan- || months and ten days after the building of it; one ger of our giving way to the motions of sin and in- || thousand and sixty years six months and ten days fidelity, which deprive us of the means of discerning | from the time of the Israelites coming out of the God's judgments, even though ready to fall upon land of Egypt; one thousand nine hundred and fifty us." —Antiq., lib. 10., cap. 11.

years six months and ten days from the deluge; Verse 8. And in the fifth month, &c.—Though we three thousand five hundred and thirty years six The chief officers


are put to death.

B. C. 558.

B. C. 588.

A. V 3116. with the captain of the guard, “ brake || 16 The two pillars, one sea, and A. M. 3416.

down the walls of Jerusalem round the bases which Solomon had made about.

for the house of the LORD; u the brass of all 11 Now the rest of the people that were left these vessels was without weight. in the city, and the * fugitives that fell away to 17 The height of the one pillar was eighthe king of Babylon, with the remnant of the teen cubits, and the chapiter upon it was brass : multitude, did Nebuzar-adan the captain of the and the height of the chapiter three cubits; guard carry away.

and the wreathen work, and pomegranates 12 But the captain of the guard o left of the upon the chapiter round about, all of brass : poor of the land to be vine-dressers and husband- || and like unto these had the second pillar with men.

wreathen work. 13 S And P the pillars of brass that were in 18 qAnd the captain of the guard took the house of the LORD, and 'the bases, and 2 Seraiah the chief priest, and a Zephaniah the 'the brazen sea that was in the house of the second priest, and the three keepers of the LORD, did the Chaldees break in pieces, and door: carried the brass of them to Babylon.

19 And out of the city he took an 'officer that 14 And the pots, and the shovels, and the was set over the men of war, and bfive men of snuffers, and the spoons, and all the vessels of them that 8 were in the king's presence, which brass wherewith they ministered, took they were found in the city, and the 'principal scribe away.

of the host, which mustered the people of the 15 And the fire-pans, and the bowls, and such land, and threescore men of the people of the things as were of gold, in gold, and of silver, in land that were found in the city: silver, the captain of the guard took away. 20 And Nebuzar-adan captain of the guard

- Veb. i. 3; Jer. lii. 14.- - Jer. xxxix. 9; lii. 15.—Heb. felen Chap. xxiv. 14 ; Jer. xxxix. 10; xl. 7; lii. 16. ? Chap. xx. 17; Jer. xxvii. 19, 22 ; lii. 17, &c. -9 1 Kings vii. 15.—1 Kings vii. 27.- 1 Kings vii. 23. Exod. xxvii. 3; 1 Kings vii. 45, 50.

• Heb, the one sea.-"1 Kings vii. 47.1 Kings vii. 15; Jer. lii. 21.------y Verses 52, 54, &c -21 Chron. vi. 14; Ezra vii. 1. - Jer. xxi. 1 ; xxix. 25. - Heb. threshold.? Or, eunuch. ob Jer. lii. 25. _ Heb. enw the king's face, Esth. i. 14.- Or, scribe of the captain of the host.

months and ten days from the creation; and he left of the poor of the land-So while the rich were mentions it as a very remarkable circumstance, that prisoners in a strange land, the poor had liberty and the second temple was burned by the Romans in peace in their own country! Thus Providence the same month and on the very same day of the sometimes humbles the proud, and favours them of month that this was set on fire by the Chaldeans, low degree. and, as some of the Jewish rabbis say, when the Verse 13. The pillars of brass, fc., did the ChalLerites were singing the very same passage, namely, dees break in pieces-Because they were too cunHe shall bring upon them their own iniquity, and bersome to be carried away whole. And carried shall cut them off in their own wickedness: yea, the the brass of them to Babylon-As was foretold Jer. Lord our God shall cut them off, Psa. xciv. 23. By xxvii. 21, 22. the burning of the temple, God would show how Verses 18, 19. The captain of the guard took little he cares for the external pomp of his worship, Seraiah, the chief priestThe high-priest, grandson when the life and power of religion are neglected. of that Hilkiah mentioned chap. xxii. 4, and father The people trusted to the temple, as is that would of Jehosadak, who, it seems, was taken with his protect them in their sins, (Jer. vii. 4,) but God by father; and when his father was slain, (verse 21,) this let them know that when they had profaned it, was carried away to Babylon, as is observed 1 they would find it but a resuge of lies.

Chron. vi. 13, 14. And Zephaniah the second priest Verses 11, 12. Now the rest of the people that - Who was the high-priest's deputy, when he was Sere left in the city-Whom neither the sword nor | by sickness, or any other means, prevented from the famine had destroyed, who were eight hundred and execution of his office. And five of them that were thirty-two persons, (Jer. lii. 29,) being members in the king's presence-Who constantly attended and traders of that city: for it is likely that there upon the king's person wheresoever he was, and were very many more of the country people fled | were his most intimate counsellors. And threescore thither, who were left with others of their brethren | men of the land that were found in the city-These to manure the land. And the fugitives that fell were some eminent persons, who had concealed aray to the king of Babylon—That is, all that fled | themselves in some private place; but before Nebu. to him, and put themselves under his protection; zar-adan lest Jerusalem, were discovered. with the remnant of the multitude of the inhabit- Verses 20, 21. Brought them to the king of Babyants of the country. For the captain of the guard | lon–That he might dispose of them as he thought


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