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of terror, whose agency is to be dreaded. We would ask, if it is not an essential mistake to represent the Supreme Being by a term conveying such ideas, and whether old' impressions will not adhere so closely to the name, as to embarrass the natives exceedingly, in their attempts to gain a correct notion of the true God? To us this appears probable, and we see no good reason, why the words denoting the Supreme Being in the Bible should be rendered by the names of heathen deities, more than by words of any other import. Is it not better to employ a term, which has no prescriptive meaning to the natives, and to which is to be attached a set of new ideas? In this case you have only to sow the seed, but in the former, you must first submit to the infinitely more laborious and troublesome task of clearing away the rubbish, and preparing the soil. Why should not the word Jehovah be used invariably, as it is in some instances, to signify the Supreme Being ? Other words, such as God, Lord, when they do not mean the same as Jehovah, and also angel, spirit
, may preserve their original Greek orthography, so far modified as to admit of an easy pronunciation by the natives. We venture these remarks with deference, but we deem the subject to be of no little importance, and one which demands the very serious attention of the Missionaries, in the first stages of their labors. The main thing is to find out the shortest and plainest road to truth, and to remove at the outset every stumblingblock, which may contribute to increase confusion and perpetuate error. apostle to the Indians, Eliot, was in our opinion more judicious. In his translation the names of the Deity are preserved as in the English Bible. The prominent words in the title page of his Indian Bible are Up Biblum God, meaning, we suppose, the Book of God. Sometimes he uses the word Jehovah, where in the English it is Lord or God, but we have discovered no instance in which he employs the names of the heathen deities to denote the Supreme Being.
It has been a theory, in which geographers and philologists have universally concurred, that the Malayan and Polynesian languages were from the same stock, or rather that the latter was only a branch of the former. The investigations of the Missionaries have shown this theory to have no foundation in fact, and that few languages are more diverse in their radical principles. The theory, that the Polynesians migrated from Asia, or the Asiatic islands, falls at the same time to the ground. It is quite as likely that the Asiatics are emigrants from Polyne
The great sia, and whoever pursues the subject, with the degree of knowledge that at present exists upon it, we apprehend will find himself in circle. That our readers may form some comparison between the Malayan and Polynesian, as they affect the eye and ear, we shall here quote in the Roman character a passage
of Malayan poetry, as we find it in Marsden's Grammar of the Malayan Language. Kuda putith etam kuku-nia
A white horse, whose hoofs are Akan kuda sultan iskander
black, is a horse for Sultan IskanAdenda etam baniak chumbu-nia der; my love is dark, various are Tidak bulih kata iang benar. her blandishments; but she is in
capable of speaking the truth.' Burong putih terbang ka-jati
A white bird flies to the teak Lagi tutur-nia de makan sumut tree, chattering whilst it feeds on Biji mata jantong ati
insects. Pupil of my eye, subSurga de-mana kita menurut. stance of my heart, to what heaven
shall I follow thee.' With what immediate success the Missionaries will meet, in communicating religious impressions, cannot be with certainty predicted. A few. highly encouraging examples have already occurred, among which may be reckoned that of Keopuolani, the late queen. That all the notions of heathenism can be at once removed, and their place supplied by a pure christian faith, is too much to expect. The generation now on the stage must ever be very dark minded christians at best; yet the Hawaiians are a docile people, and they may doubtless be made to understand some of the doctrines, as well as the moral precepts and injunctions of the Scriptures. But the brightest harvest is in a future season, when the children of the schools shall go out into society, with minds properly stored, and habits rightly trained. Much has been done in the Society Islands, during the thirty years since the Missionaries first visited them. Wars have ceased, the horrors of a shocking barbarism have vanished, mild governments are established, the arts of civilized life are eagerly cultivated, stated religious worship is kept up in many places, and, according to the best accounts, it is hardly too much to say, that this region, so lately sunk in the deepest gloom of a savage heathenism, is now a christian land. * Schools are planted in the villages with native teachers, reading and writing are common attainments, and books are written, printed, circulated, and used. These are noble achievements, and they have been made, let it be understood, by the sole efforts of the Missionaries, whose sacrifices and sufferings have been greater than can be well imagined, but whose constancy has borne them through to the end. In their success they have a rich reward.
We may safely expect as rapid and complete success, from the American Missionaries at the Sandwich Islands. They receive protection, and even encouragement from the chiefs ; about one thousand children attend their different schools ; houses for public worship are erected, some of them at the expense of the chiefs themselves, and a good degree of attention is paid to the religious services. It is impossible, that such a system of instruction should not work its way into the thoughts and habits of the people. The king, Rihoriho, who died in England, was friendly to the Missionaries, and bestowed his patronage, but his death has caused no perceptible change in their condition. Karaimoku, the present ruling chief, who, for his talents as a politician and statesman, is familiarly called Billy Pitt by foreigners, has from the beginning favored their objects and is still their firm supporter. He had himself been their pupil in learning to read and write, and he speaks the English language; as does also Kuakini, otherwise John Adams, governor of the island of Hawaii. This is a rare accomplishment, as few will apply themselves to the severe labor of learning a new language, although they are eager to acquire the knowledge of reading and writing their own.
Six years ago the language of these islands was a fleeting sound, existing only in the mouths of the natives; it is now a written, unchanging vehicle of thought, suited to communicate ideas to the people, which they had before no power of attaining. The advantage of this single improvement in their condition is not to be estimated. Vessels belonging to the natives, and manned wholly by them, ply regularly from one island to another, and it is rare that they do not convey letters. * This writing is a wonderful thing,' said a chief to Mr Ellis, when he had just finished reading a letter from his sister on another island; formerly my sister would entrust her message to a third person ; before he reached me he would forget half that was told him, and divulge the other half; now she writes it on paper, and it is as if she whispered it in my ear.' The benefits of commerce begin to be understood. Rihoriho sent a cargo of salt to Kamtschatka, which yielded a profitable return. Karaimoku afterwards fitted out a brig, belonging to himself and the young princess, on a sealing voyage, which produced twelve thousand dollars. Tamahameha once sent a cargo of sandal wood to Canton on speculation, probably by the recommendation of foreigners, but the voyage proved unsuccessful, and he never renewed the enterprise. The state of things has since changed, and it will continue to change, and the work of civilization will go forward. The different branches of human improvement will act reciprocally upon each other, intelligence will spread and be an excitement and a guide to industry, and, in process of time, laws, morals, religion, and social order will be established, and the blessings of civilized life secured.
ART. V.A Treatise on Christian Doctrine, compiled from
the Holy Scriptures alone. By John Milton. Translated from the Original, by CHARLES R. SUMNER, M. A. Librarian and Historiographer to his Majesty, and Prebendary of Canterbury. From the London edition. 2 vols. 8vo. Boston. Cummings, Hilliard, and Co. 1825. It is a general axiom in literary history, that a work is to be ascribed to the author whose name it bears, unless there are strong circumstances to excite suspicion of fraud. But this axiom is founded in the supposition, that the work gains some publicity during the author's lifetime, or that it comes to light soon after his decease. In the present instance, therefore, a century and a half having expired since the death of the supposed author, it is not unreasonable to demand the proofs of the authenticity and genuineness of the work. Of these proofs we shall endeavor to give the substance, as we gather them from the translator's preliminary observations."
It appears from the statement of Mr Lemon, deputy keeper of the state papers of the king of England, that Milton retired from active, official employment as secretary for foreign languages, about the middle of the year 1655; and it is mentioned by several of his biographers, that after he retired from public business, among other literary enterprises, he commenced the composition of a body of divinity, compiled from the Holy Scriptures. This, says Wood (Fasti Oxonienses), is, or was lately in the hands of Cyriack Skinner. The same fact is mentioned by several others, and fully established. It remains therefore to be shown, that the original of the present work is
the same treatise, which has been so often mentioned, and which, before its recent discovery, had generally been supposed to be lost.
In the latter part of the year 1823, a Latin manuscript, bearing the title, Joannis Miltoni Angli de Doctrina Christianâ, ex Sacris duntaxat Libris petitá, Disquisitionum Libri Duo Posthumi, was discovered by Mr Lemon, while he was searching in the old state paper office, Whitehall.
• It was found,' says Mr Sumner, ' in one of the presses, loosely wrapped in two or three sheets of printed paper, with a large number of original letters, informations, examinations, and other curious records relative to the Popish plots in 1677 and 1678, and to the Rye House plot in 1683. The same parcel likewise contained a complete and corrected copy of all the Latin letters to foreign princes and states, written by Milton, while he officiated as Latin Secretary; and the whole was inclosed in an envelope superscribed, To Mr Skinner, Merch'.' This Skinner was a favorite pupil, and afterwards a personal friend of Milton.
In what way this manuscript was deposited in the state paper office cannot be determined with certainty, from the investigations of the translator. It is a conjecture of Mr Lemon, that Cyriack Skinner, from his well known republican principles, might have been suspected of partaking in some of the political conspiracies, which prevailed during the last ten years of the reign of Charles the Second, and that his papers were consequently seized. On this supposition, the manuscript of Milton, which had so long been supposed to be lost, would have come into possession of the principal secretary of state for the southern, or home department; in which case, as the secretaries of that period bequeathed their voluminous collections of manuscripts to his Majesty's state paper office, it was there securely deposited. Without going further into detail, we shall leave the history of the manuscript with this general view, considering it as a fact established beyond any reasonable doubt, that Milton was its author.
It is easy to account for his undertaking a treatise of this kind. His father intended that he should be educated for the church, and at an early period of life he gave full demonstrations of the interest he took in religion. But connected as were the affairs of church and state at that period, it was impossible that one who had any strong republican tendency, should bear any good will to episcopacy. In correspondence with his poliVOL. XXII.-NO. 51.