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dually, let him join hand in hand with others no stronger than himself, and he shall generate a strength which shall remove mountains. Let the forces unite and concentrate their efforts upon the fortress, however well garrisoned it be, and at last the beseigers shall carry it.
The various factions of radical reformers in the country, more or less numerous as the case may be, are powers, which to produce a grand result, requires consolidation and an unswerving determination to fulfil their designs. They want combination and judicious direction. They are the stone-borers of society—the political pioneers “to remove obstacles that stand in the way of popular progress. And there are many “rocks" to be thoroughly “honey-combed" and ultimately demolished, before the channel is clear for the ocean-tide of democratic liberty and constitutional regeneration to break through and find its level. "The process is very slow, but it is sure.” Aristocratic obstinacy is a “rock” that must yield eventually to the influence of the “numberless stone-borers.” The tyranny of wealth is another “rock” which the political “stone-borer" must utterly destroy, ere social peace and happiness can be attained. Religious bigotry and narrow-minded prejudice against the people are monstrous “rocks” that education and general advancement will finally dissipate. But the “stone-borers" must work together hand and heart, nor be diverted from their task by the jesuitry of governments, ministers, and monarchs ; and then in due time they will “effect their destined purpose."
“ The hearts of old gave hands;
But our new heraldry is-hands, not hearts.”-SHAKSPERE. UPON few subjects are there more erroneous opinions afloat amongst mankind, than on that of marriage. The vitiating notions of rank and wealth intrude themselves into this and every other subject.
A couple, each possessing a competency of wealth, are united together in wedlock, and, though their dispositions are totally different, the whole parish declares, “ It is a capital good match !" A young woman, possessing no property, nor likely to inherit any, but rich in feeling and intellect, is led to the hymeneal altar by a man of wealth,-one well to do in worldly substance,“ dressed in purple and fine linen, and faring sumptuously every day;" but whose mind is as uncultivated as his own barren hoaths, and whose heart at best is but a bog, whence nought valuable was ever known to spring: and all the relatives and acquaintances of this poor prostituted young woman declare, that “Maria has done well!” A young heiress is caught by a lover of her fortune; the priest declares that they twain are one flesh;" and their neighbours exclaim to each other, in presence of their children—“What a happy man Mr. Reckless is !" thus poisoning the ductile minds of the rising generation with false notions of human happiness. An old baronet's only daughter marries with an honest tradesman, and is disowned by her parents, who invariably look upon her as guilty of some heinous offence. “She has disgraced her family !" say they, “we will never look at her again.” As though she had ceased to be their daughter; or God had not "made of one blood all the nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth," and the courageous eloquence of St. Paul, on Mar's Hill, before the Areopagites, was a mere democratic lie!
Again, a nobleman marries the blooming daughter of an upright working. farmer; and a wealthy country squire allies himself “in holy matrimony" to the fair sister of some poor peasant; and they are excluded for ever from what is termed “polite society.” They have married beneath their rank; they have degraded their order! The noble blood of the patrician must not be polluted by mixing with the puddle that flows in plebeian veins !!! With regard, however, to the union of hearts—the sameness of mannersthe congeniality of mind—and the relationship of spirit, all is mute as Death-as silent as the grave. The moral and intellectual fitness of the espoused pair, is considered as a thing of trifling or no importance.
True, that mighty master of the human heart, the player Shakspere, has told us that,
“ Marriage is a matter of more worth,
And is a pattern of celestial peace.” And Saul of Tarsus, writing to the Corinthian disciples of Christ, says—"Be ye not unequally yoked together:" not, mark ye, reader, in worldly gear, but as regards the more important elements of man's happiness on earth, the thoughts of the mind, and the feelings of the throbbing heart. Yet that many are “unequally yoked together," the domestic strifes and miseries daily to be seen, bear awful witness : whilst the tyrant, Custom, proscribes the choice of both man and maid to that circle, or caste of society, in which some lucky or unlucky accident may have placed them.
Did people but well consider that the marriage tie is one for life; that upon it, in no small measure, depends their happiness and prosperity; we think that more consideration would be bestowed upon this important subject than is usually the case. What are riches ? what is rank; nay, what is beauty itself compared to the enlightened mind, and the kind and gentle heart? Is not the poor, but careful, industrious, honest, well-behaved damsel, without one farthing in her purse, and with scarce a change of raiment for her Sunday's dress in all her wardrobe; is not such an one-(poor in pocket but a dowry in herself)—worth fifty thousand idle, ignorant, proud, extravagant, and ill-natured coquettes, though they be possessed of the wealth of Crasus, and his rank to boot? But such, however, is the corrupt state of public morals, to which the unhallowed systems of monopoly and competition have reduced the human race, that marriages are regarded as mere marketable bargains, to gratify the animal passions of mankind. Even the pulpit, whose especial province it should be to attend to the morals of mankind, seems on this alarming evil to be entirely mute.
It is true, some noble minds will always be found, to whom such fetters of Custom are as mere spider's threads to bind an elephant. The noble of Nature is not to be bound by the slavish chains of caste, or station. He walks erect in the dignity of manhood, in the paths of Knowledge and Integrity; and wealth, and rank, and power, are to him as nothing. The “ iron opinions" of the world, and its arbitrary customs, cannot bow his mind, nor bend his spirit to its will. But so long as these mock-marriages continue in vogue—these weddings of wealth, and not of heart, of rank and title, not of mutual love-every species of vice, every species of misery, will undoubtedly prevail : for legal prostitutions are they, and not true marriages, where the two hearts have never melted into one.
May the onward march of mind-that sure pioneer of Virtuc-speedily
sweep this, and all other vices, from our pleasant earth, and bury them deep in the dark abyss of Eternal Oblivion.
“ Then let us pray, that come it may,
As come it will for a'that,
May bear the gree, and a' that.
It's coming yet for a' that,
Shall brothers be for a' that."
To Correspondents. *** Correspondents will please address,“ Thomas Cooper, 5, Park Row, Knightsbridge, London.”
L. M.-It was by an error in the printing that the “ Baron's Yule Feast" was advertised at 18., on the last page of No. 4 of this journal.
• Chartist of Sixteen'- Patience ! and your first request shall be realised. Your second depends on yourself and other young men: one Discussion Class in London would be only a drop in the ocean ; they ought to be formed in hundreds of districts throughout the metropolis.
F. A. W., Clerkenwell; J. D., Leicester ; J. W., Northampton ; J, R., Barnsley ; W. B., Birmingham. Their poetry is respectfully declined.
C. HOWARD.-I have no knowledge of the Poetical Effusion of Wrath, bearing the title of Little Horn.' It must have been either mis-directed, or lost in the Post-office.
CHARLES LANGLEY.-Exceedingly obliged by his communication. He will see, in time, that its hints are not slighted.
• Young Mechanic,' Ashford, Kent. Get any system of Arithmetic-Walkinghame's or any other you can find in a shop in Ashford. Nothing is easier than self-instruction in Arithm otic. Latin without a Master'is very cheap; and any bookseller can procure it for you.
MD., WILTRIE.--He had better consult one of the two eminent medical men I named : either of them would attend to the case with the greatest kindness.
M. PATTINSON.-I am surprised by what he states, and cannot help thinking that his informant was not correct. It would be something unexampled in this country.
J. BLACK, North Shields. The biographies he mentions must, surely, be found in some Me. chanics' Institute Library, in his neighbourhood. Bernard Gilpin's Life has been often issued.
PROGRESS UNION.-Letters from the Secretary of the “Cambridge Mental Improvement Society" -Joseph Clark, Islington-R. Ramsay, of Heugh Hall-Frederick Bell, Potteries, and numerous others, offering co-operation if the Union can be formed, are received; but since there is nothing new in their contents, I do not think it advisable to occupy space by the insertion of them.
J. A., Coventry : Rest assured that George Fox's Journal is an old acquaintance.
Chas. Andrews, Soho. So soon as the 'Critical Exegesis' is completed, I purpose inserting, not only the Orations on the Commonwealth, to which he alludes, but many others.
Pamphlets received. “The Secular, the Religious, and the Theological _ What is Competition?'
PAONOPEN. As a system of shorthand it is unrivalled; but, for etymological reasons, I am not an entire convert to Phonetic Printing and Phonography.
J. JONES, Newark. Thanks for his communication ; but he will see, in the course of a few more numbers, why it should not be inserted.
Lectures, in London, for the ensuing Week. Sunday, Feb. 10, at 7, Literary Intitution, John-street, Fitzroy Square. “Perseverance,
and Independence of Character, as exemplified in the life-struggle of Daniel Defoe, the author of Robinson Crusoe'”—Thomas Cooper. At 7, Hall of Science, (near Finsbury Square, City Road.) “Vindication of Carlilo and Taylor against the imputations of the Westininster Review'"-G. J. Holyoake. South London Hall, Webber-street, Blackfriars : Southwark Debating Club-Question :
“ Which is the most important period of British History ?" Monday, Feb. 11, at half-past 8, Mechanics’ Intitute, Gould Square, Crutched Friars.
“ Chemistry of the Gases"-R. Williamson. At a quarter to 9, Finsbury Hall, 66, Bunhill Row. “Medical Aspect of Temperance and Total Abstinence"-Dr. Carpenter, F.R.S. At 8, Temperance Hall, Broadway, Westminster. “The Wrongs of England"-G. J. Holyoake. At half-past 8, Pentonville Athenæum, 17, Chapel-street. “Combination, the Progress of Society, &c., &c."-Richard
Hart. Wednes., Feb. 13, at 8, Hackney Literary and Scientific Institution. "Shakspcarc's Hain
let"-T. J. Serlo
THINKINGS, FROM JAMES BURGH,
(Author of " The Dignity of Iluman Nature.") The PBOPLE TIIE SOURCE OF Power.-All lawful authority, legislative, and executive, originates from the people. Power in the people is like light in the sun -native, original, inherent, and unlimited by any thing human. In governors, it may be compared to the reflected light of the moon; for it is only borrowed, delegated, and limited by the intention of the people, whose it is and to whom governors are to consider themselves as responsible, while the people are answerable only to God; themselves being the losers, if they pursue a false scheme of politics. “As the people are the fountain of power, so are they the object of government, in such manner, that where the people are safe, the ends of government are answered, and where the people are sufferers by their governors, those governors have failed in the main design of their institution, and it is of no importance what other ends they may have answered. As the people are the fountain of power, and the object of government, so are they the last resource when governors betray their trust ; and happy is that people, who originally have so principled their constitution, that they themselves can, without violence to it, lay hold of its power, wield it as they please, and turn it (when necessary) against those to whom it was entrusted, and who have exerted it to the prejulice of the original proprietors.
Ox RETIRING FROM BUSINE33. — As on the one hand it is o lious for a man of an overgrown fortune to go on in business to a great age, still striving to increase a heap already larger than is necessary, to the prejudice of younger people, who ought to have a clear stage and opportunity of making their way in life ; so it is vain for a person, who has spent his days in an active sphere, to think of enjoying retirement, before the time of retirement is come. He who resolves at once to change his way of life froin action to retirement, or from one state to another directly contrary, without being prepared for it by proper age and habit, for some continuance of time, will find, that he will no sooner have quitted his former way of life, than he will desire to be in it again.
It is on this, as well as other accounts, of great advantage, that a man have acquired some turn for reading, and the more sober entertainments of life, in his earlier days. There is not a much more deplorable sort of existence than that which is dragged on by an old man, whose mind is destitute of the materials proper for yielding him some entertainment suitable to the more sedate time of life; I inean, useful knowledge. For the remembrance of fifty years spent in scraping of moncy, or in pursuing pleasure, or in indulging vicious iuclinations, must yield but poor entertainment at a time of life, when a man can at best say, he has been.
THE VIRTUES PRACTISED BY THE IIEATHENS.—There is not a virtue which the IIeathens have not shown to be practicable. Do not pretend that it is impossible for a Christian to forgive injuries, when we know, that Phocion, going to suffer death unjustly, charged it upon his son, with his last breath, that he should show no resentment against his father's persecutors. Do not excuse yourself in giving up the truth, through fear of offending those on whom you depend, when you know that Attilius Regulus gave himself up to tortures, and death, rather than falsify his word even to his enemies. Do not excuse yourself from a little expense, trouble, or hazard of ill. will, for the general good, when you know, that a Leonidas, a Calpurnius Flamma, the Decii, and hundreds more, voluntarily devoted themselves to destruction, to save their country. If you pretend to be a Christian, that is, to profess the most pure and most sublime principles in the world, do not infamously fall short of the perfection of unenlightened Heathens.
TIMES AND OPPORTUNITIES.-As we ought to be more frugal of our time than our mouey, the one being infinitely more valuable than the other, so ought we to be particularly watchful of opportunities. There are times and seasons proper for every purpose of life; and a very material part of prudence it is to judge sightly of them, and make the best of them. If you have, for example, a favour to ask of a phlegmatic, gloomy man, take him, if you can, over his bottle. If you want to deal with a covetous man, by no means propose your business to him immediately after he has been paying away money, but rather after he has been receiving. If you know a person, for whose interest you have occasion, who is unhappy in his family, put yourself in his way abroad, rather than wait on him at his own house.
«OH, GIVE US REST." Oh! give us rest ! the idler cries,
Ay, let us rest! the traitor's voice Why all this turmoil, all this din !
Then swells the burden of the song. This useless work! Our energies
Come eat and drink, laugh and rejoice ; Are vain; removeless is the sin.
For man is weak, and death is strong. Come let us rest, why moil and toil;
Let dreamers prate of race and kind, Too many weeds choke up the soil.
And labour on, while rest we find. Come, let us rest; the coward's tongue Rest! rest! O God, that such there are, Ro-echoes back the craven cry;
Who ask for rest upon this earth! Improveless is the vulgar throng;
While wealth exists with want and woe, That let the wild enthusiast try.
And every hour new crimes have birth. Yes, let us rest; I have no pride,
Oh, rest not! till removed each wrong! In stemming thus against the tide.
The weak yet suffer from the strong. Come let us rest, the despot says,
'Tis sacrilege to talk of rest, And freely joins the dulcet strain;
While man's humanity is stained; O give us rest! few are our days;
While still oppressors and opprest, Why lessen them with needless pain ?
Against each other are arraigned. Come sit thee down, the easiest way,
On such an earth no rest I crave, Is, still unquestioned, to obey.
Until I sleep within the grave. Birmingham.
JOHN ALFRED LANGYORD.
Thine is the shortning of the shadows bleak.
The vernal tinge, full-rosy, on thy cheek.
e bither, little lightsome fairy !
Quickens the moss-beds; and the feeble bleat
peasant children, gathering fuel, meet :
When the dark storm-cloud, rising from its seat,
From baleful factory far, to roam among
To give each season, as it rolls, a song ;
Tis bliss for which a cloistered saint might long ;
On the pale primrose, first-born of the spring,
Ere the fond boy and girl knew suffering!
Now, gentle as his dove, thou peace dost bring :
And changeth fast the landscape's every feature ;
Creeps, like a dismal nightmare, o'er all nature ;
Of summer's presenee blesseth every creature !