Psychotropic Agents: Part I: Antipsychotics and Antidepressants

Capa
Springer Science & Business Media, 6 de dez. de 2012 - 736 páginas
The volumes on "psychotropic substances" in the Handbook of Experimental Phar macology series clearly show that the classical concept of this discipline has become too narrow in recent years. For instance, what substances are psychotropic is determined not by the criteria of the animal trial, i.e. by experimental pharmacology, but by their action on the psy che, which in the final analysis is only accessible to us in man. Psychotropic substances force experimental pharmacology (and thus also this Handbook) outside its tradition allimits, which have essentially depended on animal studies. The antipsychotics and antidepressants were not discovered in animal ex periments, but by chance (or more precisely, by clinical empiricism). Experienced psy chiatrists trained in the observation of patients recognised the efficacy of drugs, the beneficial effect of which nobody had dreamed of before: DELAY and DENICKER in the case of chlorpormazine, KLINE in the case of the monoamine oxidase inhibitors and KUHN in the case of imipramine. It was only after these discoveries that the pharma cologists developed experimental models of the psychoses in animal experiments. However, even today we still do not know with certainty which of the effects shown in animals is relevant for the clinical effect despite the vast abundance of individual investigations. For many years, this uncertainty led to the testing of antipsychotics (e.g. of the neuroleptic type) in models which actually produced the undesired effects.
 

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Conteúdo

CHAPTER 1
3
Nature of the Central Ring
18
CHAPTER 2
27
Central Actions of Reserpine
46
Effect of Reserpine on the Motor System
48
Effects of Reserpine on Bioelectric Signals
50
Comparison with Other Neuroleptics
51
Alleged DepressionInducing Effect of Neuroleptics
52
References
253
CHAPTER 12
266
Pharmacokinetics of Clozapine and Loxapine in Man
277
CHAPTER 13
287
Metabolism
296
CHAPTER 14
305
References
332
B Psychotherapeutic Drugs Affecting the Endocrine System
338

CHAPTER 4
59
Action of Antipsychotics on Spontaneous Behavior
61
Pattern of Action on Behavior
62
Conclusion
64
Muscle Relaxation and Ptosis
65
Excitation Conditions
66
Aggression
67
Reproduction
69
Prey Catching
70
Actions of Antipsychotics on Induced Behavioral Patterns
71
TryptamineInduced Convulsion
73
Withdrawal Syndrome
74
SelfStimulation
75
Brain Lesions
76
F Conclusions
80
References
81
CHAPTER 5
89
CHAPTER 6
97
References
104
CHAPTER 7
111
Presence of Monoamines in the Brain Stem
120
NigroNeostriatal System
127
E Mesolimbic System
141
H Concluding Remarks
150
CHAPTER 8
176
A Future Prospects
187
B Summary
190
Effects of Neuroleptic Drugs in Discrete Brain Structures
196
Atypical Neuroleptics
204
CHAPTER 10
213
E Conclusions
220
Phenothiazines
234
Reserpine
246
CHAPTER 16
350
B Conclusion
362
CHAPTER 17
369
E Use in Phobic Anxiety
381
H Management of Overdosage and Side Effects
387
CHAPTER 18
399
E Amine Uptake Inhibition
405
CHAPTER 19
415
B Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors MAOIs
425
Supplementary References
435
E EEG Findings with Antidepressants
442
Drugs Predicted to be Antidepressants by CEEG Alone But
459
References
466
Tricyclic Antidepressants and Other Drugs Which Affect Monoaminergic
473
Effect of Antidepressant Drugs on the Sensitivity of the NEReceptor
481
CHAPTER 3
491
Biochemical Effects of Antidepressants as Reflected in the CSF
495
CHAPTER
505
DrugInduced Behaviors Implicating Aminergic Stimulation in
514
References
521
CHAPTER 22
527
Conclusions
543
CHAPTER 23
550
Other Antidepressants
563
CHAPTER 24
573
Psychological Effects
578
Renal Elimination and Mechanism of Poisoning
584
CHAPTER 26
591
Influence of Neuroleptics and Reserpine on the Effects of Anticonvulsant
616
Author Index
623
Subject Index
713
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