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all sorts, he would raise a considerable body os forces, j to act under his .own separate command c but neither an address of his to the inhabitants of America, nor his proclamation inscribed to the officers and soldiers of the continental army, had any effect. . Notwithstanding the discontents among the American troops, through their various difficulties, Arnold's example and endeavours were so far from being the means of bringing over, even a small body or detachment, that they do not appear to have produced the desertion of a single soldier, much less of an officer.

Sir Henry Clinton in obedience to the orders sent him \ to prosecute the war with vigor in North Carolina and '3ct. Virginia, dispatched gen. Leslie from New York to the bay os Chesapeak, with near 3000 choice troops. He was to co-operate with lord Cornwallis, who was expected to have been far advanced toward, if not to have reached Virginia. Within a few days the fleet arrived in the bay. The troops were landed in different parts of Virginia. In the beginning of November, Leslie was engaged in establishing a post at Portsmouth, till he eoald hear from his lordship, according to whose orders he was to act in all eases. It was sometime before he learned for a certainty where Cornwallis was: but at length instructions were received from his lordship, for the fleet and troops to proceed without delay to Charlestown. While in Virginia they possessed themselves of some tobacco and stores; but the vessels seized in the harbours and rivers were the most valuable part of the booty. About the time that Leslie landed at Portsmouth, Sir H. Clinton-sent to Charlestown all the recruits belonging |o the southern army, amounting to near 8oo» £ which'

»780. which he reckoned would place under Cornwallis's orders full 11,306 effective rank and file, including Leslie's corps.

General Washington made a proposition to Sir H. Clinton for the exchange of a number of officers, which was not acceded to. A general exchange being what the other sincerely wished, a proposition to that purpose was returned. The British gen. Phillips, and the American gen. Lincoln, were employed for the fettling of a cartel. The former supposed, that the reason why the Americans declined the exchange cf privates, was an unwillingness to throw into the hands of their enemy, in the middle of an active campaign, such a reinforcement as they would receive by an exchange of all the privates. To obviate this difficulty, Phillips mentioned, that the exchange of the privates might be postponed to some future day that might be agreed on. Lincoln, on the 25th of September, expressed his desire in writing, that this might remove the objections which had existed against an exchange of privates. He wrote on October the 1st to the Massachusetts and the South Carolina delegates, and to gen. Sullivan, now one of the New Hampshire representatives in congress—" The enemy have made a proposition for a general exchange. I think policy, justice and humanity demand it on our part. I cannot but hope you will be with me in opinion: if so the proposition will have your support and interest." At length an exchange of all officers, prisoners of war^ on both sides, including such as were upon their paroles in New York or in Great Britain, was settled. The exchange comprehended also an equivalent of British and German soldiers, prisoners of war, for those Americans that were

at

at New York. In the course of the negotiation, an in- !78°effectual effort was made on the part of the British for the release of the privates of the convention troops.

On the 3d of November it was resolved, "That Nov. congress have a high fense of the virtuous and patriotic 3conduct of John Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac Van Vert: in testimony whereof, ordered, that each of them receive annually two hundred dollars in specie, or an equivalent in the current money of these states during life; and that the board of war be directed to procure for each of them a silver medal, on one side of which shall be a shield with this inscriptition FIDELITY, and on the other the following motto, VINCIT AMOR PATRIÆ, and forward them to the commander in chief, who is requested to present the same, with a copy of this resolution, and the thanks of congress for their .fidelity, and the eminent service they have rendered their country." The next day they recommended to the several states to levy a tax equal to six millions of silver dollars, to be paid partly in specific articles, and the residue in gold or silver, or bills of credit, emitted pursuant to the resolution of the 18th of March last. On the 2Sth, they had before them an account of major Tallmadge of the light dragoons, having surprised and taken fort St. George on Long Isiand, with the garrison; they extolled the enterprise as planned and conducted with wisdom and great gallantry, and executed with intrepidity and complete success by the officers and soldiers of his detachment. Such commendations not only reward, but excite to military adventures. The major crossed the found to the island with 80 men; left ao to guard the boats; made a circuitous route of 29

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•780. miles to the fort, and reduced it almost instantly. The enemy had 8 killed and wounded. He captivated 1 lieut. colonel, l captain, and 55 privates; destroyed 400 tons of hay, and returned without further loss than one private wounded. Congress have at length determined upon having a permanent army* They ought before to have gotten rid of an error, which the experience of all mankind has exploded, viz. the carrying on a was with militia, or which is nearly the fame, temporary le-> vies. America has been amused almost out of her liberties. The behaviour of the militia upon one and another occasion, has been unreasonably extolled, hf men who judge only from the surface, by others who had particular views in misrepresenting* and by visionary men whose credulity easily swallowed every vague story* in support of a favorite hypothesis. Some of the first generals in the American service, are ready solemnly to declare, that they never were witnesses to a single instance during this contest, that can countenance an opinion of militia or raw troops being fit for the real business of sighting. How little dependence can be had upon supplies by new levies, the last campaign may serve to show. By a return on the 16th of August it appeared, that gen. Washington had received from New Hampshire' to Pennsylvania inclusive, no more than 6,143 '> and that the deficiency within the same circuit was 10,397. Rhode Island was- the least deficient in proportion to its numbers, and Pennsylvania the most. Massachusetts had in the army double the number of any other of the state* north of Maryland. What sew troops the general had with him, pleased him "however by the rapid progress iljey made in military diseipfaie*

The absolute -necessity of a large and 'immediate fo-i^So. telgn aid of money, for the continuance of the war, came at length under the serious consideration of congress. Gen. Washington was so strongly convinced of its being an object of the utmost importance, that he gave his sentiments upon it to the minister of France in the most explicit manner. The recommendations of congress for specific articles were not sufficiently operative; On the 9th of'December the general said—" It is happy 9. for us, that the season will probably compel both armies to continue in a state of inactivity, since ours is so much reduced by discharging the levies which compose a con'siderable part of it, even before their time of service was expired. This expedient we were forced to adopt, from the present total want of flour, and the precarious prospect of a supply of that article." Had it not been for a most vigorous step that the American gov. Clinton ventured to take, the army must have disbanded for Want of bread, as the magazines were exhausted, and transportation by land was impracticable had there been any thing to act upon. The governor seized several hundred barrels in the hands of private merchants, Which they had purchased up to exchange for other articles. Gen. Washington, while travelling in the neighbourhood of 'Pitt's Town, fell in with a parcel of cattle that were going to be slaughtered and salted. 'Beside being immensely poor, they were so small, that they would not average 175 lbs. the nett quarters. Some could not exceed a hundredweight, and others'Were mere calves. These pass by the head, and the state or states that fup-nifh them will have the reputation of supplying, that number of merchantable bullocks, when the fact is, that

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