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,779* squadron consisted os three large ships, and a brig, (the" cutter was not now with them) made the Countess of Scarborough's signal to join him, which Was done about half past five. A little after seven, the Bon Homme Richard brought to within musket (hot of the Serapis, when the fight began, and was maintained with equal fury on both sides, each vessel using all possible means to gain an advantageous situation to rake the other. Capt. Pearson had infinitely the superiority over the Bon Homme Richard in working the Serapis, and obtained advantages in spite of every effort of Jones's to prevent it. Jones, to render such superiority useless, aimed at laying his ship athwart the hawse of the Other. Though he did not succeed to his wish, yet as the bow-sprit of the Serapis ran between his poop and mizen mast, he seized the opportunity of lashing the vessels together, when the wind driving the head of the Serapis against the bow of the Bon Homme Richard, they became so close fore and aft, that the muzzles of their guns touched each other's sides. In this position they engaged from half past eight till half past ten. But before it commenced, the Bon Homme Richard had received many 18 lb. shot between wind and water, and was become very leaky. Her tier of 12 pounders was entirely silenced and abandoned. Her six 18 pounders, which were old, were of no service, and were fired but eight times in all. During the succeeding action, Jones made use only of three nine pounders, whose fire was seconded by that of his men in the round tops. At the same time others threw such a quantity and variety of combustible matters into the decks, chains, and every part of the Serapis, • that she was on fire not less than to or 12 times in different ferent parts, and it was with the greatest difficulty that '779* the same could be extinguished. At half past nine, by some accident the Serapis had a cartridge of powder set on fire, the flames of which communicating from one to another all the way aft, blew up all the people and officers abaft the main mast, and rendered all those guns useless for the remainder of the action. When both ships were on fire together, as it happened at times, the spectacle was dreadful beyond expression. The Alliance repeatedly sailed round both while engaged, raking the Serapis fore and aft, and thereby killing or wounding many of her men on the quarter and main decks *. After ten she came up afresh, and renewed the fire; but through the dar-kness of the night, and both ships being so close along side each other, it was not poured into the Serapis alone, but also into the Bon Homme Richard, eleven of whose men were killed, beside art officer mortally wounded, by One of her broadsides. Capt. Pearson however, perceiving that it was impracticable to stand out any longer with the least prospect of success, struck after having (by his conduct and persevering bravery) secured to his convoy the opportunity of saving themselves. The Serapis was a much superior ship to the Bon Homme Richard, being built on an excellent model, and carrying 44 guns in two tiers, the lower 18 pounders. The number of men killed
* The account printed in the Courier de l'Europe of November £, T779, signed Paul Jones, states the matter so as to imply a denial of what is asserted in the Gazette account, signed R. Pearson; but from the known vanity of Jones, and the utter improbability of the Alliance's remaining totally inactive for so long a time, it is highly reasonable to conclude, that the first account iserraneous.
I775. and wounded on each side was necessarily great. Both ships suffered much: but the Bon Homme Richard was reduced to a wreck: she had near seven feet water in her hold, which kept increasing. The wounded were removed, and only the first lieutenant of the Pallas, with some men left on board to keep the pumps going, while the boats were disposed within call to take them in when occasion required. On the 25th, the water rose to her lower deck and she went down; but no body was lost with her*. It still remains to be mentioned, that the Countess of Scarborough engaged the Pallas for near two hours, when capt. Piercy was obliged to strike. Commodore Jones, with the remains of his flying squadron and prizes, made for Holland, and on the 3d of October anchored off the Texel. The commodore estimates the prizes taken and ransomed by the Bon Homme Richard, during her cruize, at more than 40,0001.
Sir Joseph Yorke soon applied to their high mighti0ct nesses for the delivering up of the Serapis and Countess
29. of Scarborough. On the 29th of October, he presented a memorial to them, in which by his majesty's order, he renews, "in the strongest and most pressing manner, his request that those ships and their crews may be stopped and delivered up, which the pirate Paul Jones, of Scotland, who is a rebel subject, and a criminal of the state, has taken." Jones is stiled a pirate upon the supposition that his letters of marque or commission are illegal for want of being granted by a sovereign power, which the British do not allow the congress to be. But it may be at length discovered, that * Captain Jones's account.
Jones "a Jones's letters are legal upon their own principles, and1779' have been granted by the French, whatever other letters he may possess. The whole of Jones's expedition was probably concerted at Versailles, with the design of catching the eastern fleet laden with naval stores, while the continental frigate the Alliance was borrowed for a cover, and the command of the whole given to Jones on account of his acquaintance with the Irish and British coasts. The memorial contains "a threatening insinuation of serious consequences in cafe of non-compli-, ance. The answer which their high mightinesses have given is in brief—" That they will, in no respect whatever, pretend to judge of the legality or illegality of the actions of those who have, on the open sea, taken any vessels which do not belong to this country, and bring them into any of the ports of this republic: that they only open their ports to them to give them shelter from storms or other disasters, and oblige them to put to sea again with their prizes, without unloading or disposing .of their cargoes, but letting them remain exactly as when they arrived: and that they are not authorised to pass judgment either on these prizes, or the person of Paul Jones." What would be the sate of Jones could the British once make him their prisoner, is hard to determine; considering that capt. Cunningham was brought in irons from New York to Falmouth and sent ironed to Pendennis-castle; from which, however, he was removed in a few weeks to Mill prison, Plymouth; and being a native American, he is now rated as an exchangeable prisoner.
1-779. The long continued embargo on provisions, the only staple export of that kingdom, has been viewed as particularly insulting, and most highly resented by the people; on their reflecting, that a set of contractors reaped the greatest benefit from it, while the interest of the country was sacrificed, and the whole nation distressed. Taxes became more numerous, and the national debt accumulated every session of parliament. Advantage was taken of these circumstances, and the peculiar situation of Great Britain, by the most sagacious among the Irish, for the obtaining of those privileges which might otherwise never be secured. The doctrines of taxation without representation, and of unconditional submission, which ministry applied to America, were urged as matter of apprehension to Ireland; and it was openly said, that the chains forged for the former, in cafe of success, would afford a mode for the fetters which would soon be fitted for the latter. The smothered / flame at length broke out with violence, en finding that parliament would afford them no effectual relief. Associations against the purchase and use of British manufactures, and for the encouragement of their own, became universal. But beside these, there were associations of a more effective and terrifying nature. Being alarmed with the danger of a French invasion, it was urged, that the defence of the kingdom must be placed in those who had the best interest in it. Military associations were therefore proposed and universally adopted. The asibciators declared, that they were intended for the double purpose of defending their safety against foreign enemies, and their rights against domestic ufurpa.Uon. In every part of the kingdom were seen instantly