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1777. United States in congress assembled, unless such state be infested by pirates, in which cafe vessels of war may be 'fitted out for that occasion and kept so long as the danger shall continue, or until the United States in congress assembled shall determine otherwise.
Article 7. When land forces are raised by any state for the common defence, all officers pf or under the - rank of colonel shall be appointed by the legislature of each state respectively by whom such forces shall be raised, or in such manner as such state shall direct; and all var cancies shall be filled up by the state which first made the appointment.
Article 8. Al l charges of war and al l other expences that ssiall be incurred for the common defence or general welsare, and allowed by the United States in congress assembled, shall be defrayed out of a common treasury, which shall be supplied by the several states in proportion,to the value of all land within each state, granted to or surveyed for any person, as such land and the buildings aqd improvements thereon shall be estimated., ac/ cording to such mode as the United States in congress assembled shall from time to time direct and appoint.
The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the several states within the time agreed upon by the United States in congress assembled.
Article 9, The United States in congress assembled stiall have the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace and war, except in the cases mentioned in the sixth article--of sending and receiving ambassadors—entering into treaties and alliances, provided that no treaty of commerce stiall be made4 whereby the
legistalegislative power of the respective states shall be restrain- '77.7* ed from imposing such imposts and duties on foreigners as their own people are subjected to, or from prohibiting the exportation or importation of any species of goods or commodities -whatsoever—of establishing rules for deciding in all cafes, what captures on land or water shall be! legal, and in what manner prize's taken by land or naval forces in the service of the United States, shall be divided or appropriated—of granting letters of marque, and reprisal in time of peace—appointing courts for the trial of piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and establishing courts for receiving and determining finally appeals in all cafes of captures, provided that no member of congress shall be appointed judge of any of the said courts.
The United States in congress assembled shall also be the last resort on appeal in all disputes and differences now subsisting or that hereafter may arise between two or more states concerning boundary, jurisdiction, or any other cause whatever; which authority shall always be exercised in the manner following: whenever the legislative or executive authority or lawful agent of any state in controversy with another shall present a petition to congress, stating the matter in question and praying for a hearing, notice thereof shall be given by order of congress to the legislative or executive authority of the other state in controversy, and a day assigned for the appearance of the parties by their lawful agents, who shall then be directed to appoint by joint consent commissioners or judges to constitute a court for hearing and determining the matter in question -, but if they cannot agree, congress shall name three persons out of each of the United
a77^. States, and from the list of such persons each party shall alternately strike out one, the petitioners beginning, until the number shall be reduced to thirteen; and from that number not less than seven nor more than nine names, as congress (hall direct, shall in the presence of congress be drawn out by lot; and the persons whose names shall be so drawn or any five of them, shall be commissioners or judges to hear and finally determine the controversy, so always as a major part of the judges, who shall hear the cause, shall agree in the determination: and if either party shall neglect to attend at the day appointed, without showing reasons which congress shall judge sufficient, or being present shall refuse to strike, the congress shall proceed to nominate three persons out of each state, and the secretary of congress shall strike in behalf of such party absent or refusing; and the judgment and sentence of the court to be appointed, in the manner before prescribed, shall be final and conclusive; and if any of the parties shall refuse to submit to the authority of such court, or to appear or defend their claim or cause, the court shall nevertheless proceed to pronounce sentence or judgment, which shall in like manner be final and decisive, the judgment or sentence and other proceedings being in either cafe transmitted to congress, and lodged among the acts of congress for the security of the parties concerned: provided, that every commissioner, before he sits in judgment, shall take an oath to be administered by one of the judges of the supreme or superior court of the state, where the cause shall be tried, "well and truly to hear and determine the matter in question, according to the best of his judgment, without favor, affection or hope of reward:" provided also, that no
state state shall be deprived of territory for the benefit of the 1777* United States.
All controversies concerning the private right of soil, claimed under different grants of two or more states, whose jurisdictions as they may respect such lands and the states which passed such grants are adjusted, the said grants or either of them being at the fame time claimed to have originated antecedent to such settlement of jurisdiction, Hull, on the petition of either party to the congress of the United States, be finally determined, as near as may be in the fame manner as is before prescribed for deciding disputes respecting territorial jurisdiction between different states. ,
The United States in congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective states—fixing the standard of weights and measures throughout the United States— regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians not members of any of the states; provided that the legislative right of any state within its own limits be not infringed or violated—establishing and regulating post-offices from one state to another throughout all the United States, and exacting such postage on the papers passing through the fame as may be requisite to defray the expences of the said office—appointing all officers of the land forces in the service of the United States, excepting regimental officers—appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all officers whatever in the service of the United States—making rules for the government and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and directing their operations.
1777- The United States In congress assembled shall have ati-s thority to appoint a committee to fit in the recess of congress, to be denominated'" a committee of the Jrtttes" and to consist of one delegate from each state, and to appoint such other committees and civil officers as may be necessary for managing the general affairs of the United States, under their direction—to appoint one of their number to preside, provided that no person be allowed to serve in the office of president more than one year irt any term of three years—to ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of the United States, and to appropriate and apply the fame for defraying the public expences—to borrow money or emit bills on the credit of the United States, transmitting every half year to the respective states an account of the sums of money so borrowed or emitted—to build and equip a navy—to agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requisitions from each state for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such state; which requisition shall be binding, and thereupon the legislature of each state shall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men, and clothe, arm and equip them in a soldier-like manner, at the expence of the United States; and the officers and men so clothed, armed and equipped, shall march to the place appointed and within the time agreed on by the United States in congress assembled: but if the United States in congress assembled shall on consideration of circumstances, judge proper that any state should not raise men or should raise a smaller number than its quota, and that any other state should raise a greater number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, clothed, armed and equip