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EPUB to Scotland, which was violently opposed. The opposition originated in Gasgow, the inhabitants of which are almost all on the fide of administration in the American contest *. The general indignation against the design showed itself in the different riots that happened at Edinburgh and Glasgow in February. In the metropolis, an attack was made upon a new house, in which the principal popish clergyman or bishop, with four other families of the fame persuasion dwelt, and in which a room was laid out for a chapel, about 34 feet long. The house was set on fire, and the flames continued until noon of the following day. The inhabitants with difficulty escaped alive. During the demolition of this "main pillar of popery," as it was called, a detachment from the main body of the people resorted to the old chapel. The house containing it was inhabited by several families (agreeable to custom, and the nature of many buildings in that city) whose property and effects, as well as the inside of the house and chapel, were totally destroyed, together with a considerable library belonging to the popish bishop. The rioters afterward directed- their violence against the papists in other parts of the town, and totally destroyed the stock in trade and effects of two or three tradesmen of that profession. One or two ladies of fashion of that communion were obliged to take refuge in the castle. They at length concluded upon the punishment or destruction of those gentlemen, of whatever rank or religion, who had been supposed to favor the late design of obtaining a relaxation of the laws against papists. Their first fury was pointed against Dr. Robertson the celebrated historian, * Dr. John Erikine's Considerations on the Spirit of Popery, p. 31.

and and to that os Mr. Crosbie an eminent advocate. The 1779* mob found the houses of these gentlemen so well armed, and guarded with so determined a resolution by their numerous friends, that they proceeded not to extremities, but retired without any further outrage than the breaking of some windows. The magistrates did not exert themselves for the suppression of the riots, till the last day of the week. The conduct of the magistrates in Glasgow was widely different. The populace made their first and principal attack upon Mr. Bagnal, an 9. English papist from Staffordshire, who had for several years established and conducted a considerable manusactory of stone ware. They burnt his house, totally destroyed all the works for carrying on his business, and obliged him and his family to fly to the fields for their lives. But the measures pursued by the magistrates and principal inhabitants soon restored order and security. Mr. Bagnal was also speedily acquainted, that he should be reimbursed for every part of his losses to the utmost farthing. Toward the end of March, the citizens of Edinburgh agreed to make full restitution to the sufferers in that city. Through this religious combustion, and the circumstances attending it, administration have lost that firm hold of the temper and disposition of the people in Scodand, which perhaps nothing else could have loosened.

The British cruisers seized and carried into port the Dutch vessels bound for France, when laden with either naval stores or supposed French property. The merchants, owners and insurers, complained to their high mightinesses, by whose order a memorial was presented to the British court, which was far from having the de

,7-g. fired effect. The answer proposed the purchasing of the naval stores, the paying of the freight, and the indent nifying the proprietors; but expressed a determination to prevent, as much as possible, all naval and military stores being transported into the French ports, accompanied however with an assurance, that all possible regard for the rights of their high mightinesses should be exercised, and that the stipulations and spirit of the treaties between the king and their high mightinesses would be adhered to in the strongest manner as far as it Jhculd be practicable—of which the British court would be judges. The merchants. of Dort, Rotterdam and Amsterdam, not being satisfied with the answer, petitioned their high mightinesses for redress against the British treatment of their flag, and the violences committed against their property. The States General concluded upon such measures as should meet the wishes of the petitioners, and determined upon an augmentation of the fleet for their protection. Sir Joseph Yorke after that, on the 22d of last November, proposed in a memorial by his sovereign's order, a conference with their high mightinesses upon v/hat was most proper to be done respecting the articles of complaint. The States General declined the . offer, and insisted upon the literal and strict observance of the treaty between them and Great Britain. The French king had in a regulation of the preceding July, concerning the navigation of neutral vessels, reserved to himself the power of revoking the advantages granted by the first article, in cafe the belligerent powers should not grant the like within the space of six months. The like not being granted on the part of Britain, the king ordered such revocation, with respect to the subjects of


the Dutch republic; but excepted the cities of Amster- J779* dam and Haerlem, because of their patriotic exertions to persuade the republic to procure from the court of London the security of unlimited liberty to their flag. This measure was considered by that court, as designed to cause the republic to quarrel with Great Britain, and occasioned the presentment of a memorial by Sir Joseph April Yorke, in the name of his sovereign, to the States Ge- 9* neral; in which the literal and strict observance of the treaty insisted upon by them is pronounced incompatible with the security of Britain, and contrary to the spirit and stipulations of all the future treaties between the two nations. His majesty also declares in it, that he cannot depart from the necessity he is under of excluding the transportation of naval stores to the ports of France, and particularly timber, even if they are escorted by men of war; but flatters himself, that he shall never be obliged to take other measures toward the republic, than those which friendship and good harmony may dictate.

The capture of the Dutch vessels occasioned a great dearth of naval stores at Brest, so that the repair of count d'Orvilliers' fleet has been exceedingly hindered. The Ville de Paris, which suffered much in the engagement with admiral Keppel, will not be ready for sea, much before the time for the fleet's sailing. Till April there was not a mast fit for her in all Brest *. A number of store ships however got in from Holland, so that "about the beginning of the year, several small squadrons were prepared and flipped out from different ports nearly at the fame time; one under Mr. de Grasse for Marti

* Advocate M'l 's Political Memoirs,

,779, nico, to reinforce count d'Estaing. Another under the marquis de Vaudreuil, with a land force, sailed for Africa, and has taken the British forts, settlements, factories and property, at Senegal and other parts of that coast.

1778. The English East India company, foreseeing actual hostilities, resolved, very soon after the delivery of the French rescript, on a bold and decisive measure, for the final reduction of the French power in India, and conducted the business with unusual secrecy. Their instructions were happily conveyed with uncommon expedition, and preparations were immediately made for besieging Pondicherry. Gen. Munro invested the fortress closely on the 21st of last August, with an army of 10,500 men, including 1500 Europeans. But before this had taken place, there was a warm engagement between Sir Edward Vernon, with a small squadron, and Monsieur Tronjolly commanding the like, in which the French were so roughly handled, that to escape a second action they abandoned the garrison to their fate on the day Pondicherry was invested. The garrison amounted to near 3000 men, of which 900 were Europeans. They were commanded by Mr. de Bellecombe, who disputed every point of his ground, and persevering to the last extremity in a determined and noble defence, held out to the 16th of October. An honorable capitulation was allowed in testimony of the garrison's gallantry, and every requisition that did not interfere with the public benefit was agreed to. The factories at Chandenagor, Yaman and Karical, with the settlement at Masulipatam, had heen reduced before the capitulation,

1779. The New York, Quebec, and Newfoundland fleets, ^ay to the number of 300, under the convoy of adm. Ar


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