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called) whereby he alarmed the liberty party most amaz-1777. ingly, and obliged them to exert all their influence to prevent fo dangerous and mortifying an event.

In the chair he so acquitted himself, that a member of congress wrote in May, when it was thought he would return to the Massachusetts—" This letter will go by president Hancock, for whose absence from congress I. am much toncerned, though his great fatigue and long attendance entitle him to some relaxation. How we shall do without him I know not, for we have never yet put in a chairman, on a comınittee of the whole house, that could in any measure fill his place. He has not only dignity and impartiality, which are the great requisites of a president of such a body, but has an alertness, attention and readiness to conceive of any motion and its tendency, and of every alteration proposed in the course of a debate, which greatly tends to facilitate and expedite business.” The chair is known to be his fort. As chairman of a committee, or any other body, he presides with much advantage to himself; but it has been and is observed, that the number at the head of whom he is, whether many or few, makes a wide difference in him: when great, he appears to be in his own element, and all is animation; if small, it is otherwise. This is common to public characters, especially where there is a fondness for popularity.

« Congress proceeded to the election of a president; Nov. 1 and the ballots being taken, the honorable Henry Laurens was elected.” He is a South Carolina delegate, a gentleman of a large estate and of an approved character. He was in England when the troubles were coming forward, and upon learning the intentions of ministry,

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3777. returned with a fixed determination to risk all in the

cause of his country and liberty. Gen. Washington has pointed out to him gen. Greene, 'as the most suitable person in his judgment to succeed in the chief com

mand of the American army, in case he himself should

i be taken off by death or in any other way. . Nov Colonel Wilkinson, who brought the dispatches from

gen. Gates, attended and delivered a message from him to congress in the following words, “ I have it in charge from major gen. Gates, to represent to the honorable congress, that lieut. gen. Burgoyne at the time he capitulated, was strongly intrenched on a formidable post with twelve days provision; that the reduction of fort Montgomery and the enemy's consequent progress up the Hudson's river, endangered our arsenal at Albany, a reflection which left gen. Gates no time to contest the capitulation with lieut. gen. Burgoyne, but induced the necessity of immediately closing with his proposals, hazarding a disadvantageous attack, or retiring from his position for the security of our magazine ; this delicate situation abridged our conquests, and procured lieut. gen. Burgoyne the terms he enjoys. Had our attack been carried against lieut. gen. Burgoynę, the disinemberment of our army must necessarily have been such as would have incapacitated it from further action. With an army in health, vigor and spirits, major gen. Gates now waits the commands of the honorable congress.”. Beside thanking Gates, Lincoln, Arnold, and the rest of the officers and troops under his command, the congress resolved the next day, that a medal of gold should be struck in commemoration of the convention, and in

S . . the


the name of the United States be presented by the pre-1777. fident to major gen. Gates.

Congress resolved, “ That major gen. Miffin's resig- % nation of the office of quarter-master general be accepted, but that his rank and commission of major general be continued to him, without the pay annexed to that office, until further order of congress.” In October they refolved, “ That a board of war be established, to consist of three persons not members of congress. They now took up that business and proceeded to the election of the board, when major gen. Mimin, col. Timothy Pickering, and col. Robert H. Harrison were elected. A fortnight after, in consequence of a conference between some of the members and Miffin, they resolved, “That two additional commissioners be appointed to execute the department of the war office;" and Harrison declining to serve, they on the 27th. proceeded to the election of three commiffioners, when major gen. Gates, Joseph Trumbull and Richard Peters esqrs. were elected; it was then resolved, “ That major gen. Gatęs be appointed president of the board of war.” Gates was to retain his rank as major general in the army, and to officiate at the board or in the field as occasion might require.

The great businefs of the CONFEDERATION calls for our next attention. It was on the i Ith of June 1776, that it was resolved to appoint a committee to prepare and digest the form of one. By the 12th of July. they brought in a draught, which was read and or. dered to be printed for the consideration of congress alone ; and no member was to furnish any person with his copy, or take any steps by which the said confedere C4


1777. ration might be re-printed. After having been before

congress nine and thirty times, on different days, a copy

of the confederation being made out, and sundry amend,,ments made in the diction, without altering the sense, 15: the same was agreed to on the 15th of last November,

and is as follows:

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PETUAL UNION between the states of New
Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Isand and
Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia,
North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia,

Article 1. The stile of this confederacy shall be “The
United States of America."

Article 2. Each state retains its fovereignty, freedom,
and independence, and every power, jurisdiction and
right, which is not by this confederation expressly dele.
gated to the United States in congress assembled.

Article 3. The said states hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defence, the security of their liberties and their mutual and general welfare; binding themselves to assist each other against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them or any of them on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretence whatever.

Article 4. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and intercourse among the people of the different states in this union, the free inhabitants of each of these states, (paupers, vagabonds and fugitives from justice excepted,) shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several states; and the

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people of each state shall have free ingress and regress 1777. co and from any other state, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions and restrictions as the inhabitants thereof respectively, provided that such restrictions shall not extend fo far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any state to any other state, of which the owner is an inhabitant; provided also that no imposition, duties or restriction, shall be laid by any state on the property of the United States or either of them.

If any person guilty of or charged with treason, felony or other high misdemeanor in any state, shall fee from justice and be found in any of the United States, he shall upon demand of the governor or executive power of the ftate from which he fled, be delivered up and removed to the state having jurisdiction of his offence.

Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these states to the records, acts and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other state.

Article 5. For the more convenient management of che general interests of the United States, delegates shall be annually appointed, in such manner as the legislature of each state shall direct, to meet in congress on the first Monday in November, in every year, with a power reserved to each state to recall its delegates or any of them, at any time within the year, and to send others in their stead, for the remainder of the year.

No state shall be represented in congress by less than two nor by-more than seven members; and no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six years; nor shall any person, be. ing a delegate, be capable of holding any office under


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