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army, and in a sair way of obtaining a just proportion '778* of his countrymen's confidence. He clearly saw the meaning of the stroke: but the order made ifnecefiaryfor him to obtain leave of absence for some weeks, tocollect materials for his justification.

When intelligence of Sir Henry Clinton's having eva-* cuated Philadelphia and marched to Haddohfield, reached the American head quarters, the next measure to be taken by gen. Washington was apparent. Gen. Greene, by his conduct and industry, as quarter-master general,' had effected such a happy change in the line of his department, as enabled his excellency with great sacility to move with the whole army and baggage from Valley Forge in pursuit of the enemy. The troops proceeded to, and crossed the Delaware at Corriel's ferry; when a select corps of 600 men were immediately detached under col. Morgan to reinforce gen. Maxwell. The flow advance of Sir Henry led his excellency to suspect, that he had a design of bringing on a general action, could he draw the Americans into the lower country. This consideration, and a desire of refreshing the troops after the satigues they had endured from rainy and excessive hot weather, determined the American general to hak about five miles from Princeton. While there he stated June to the general officers the following sacts—" The enemy's force is between 9 and 10,000 rank and file—the American army on the ground is 10,684 rank and file, beside the advanced brigade under gen. Maxwell of about 1200, and about 1200 militia"—on which he proposed the question, t( Will it be advisable to hazard a general action?" The answer wasr—" Not advisable, but a detachment of 1500 to be immediately sent to act as

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T778.occision may serve, on the enemy's left flank and rear, in conjunction with the other continental troops and militia already hanging about them, and the main body to preserve a relative position, to act as circumstances may require—Lee, Stirling, Greene, Fayette, Steuben, Poor, Paterson, Woodford, Scott, Portail, Knox." The detachment was immediately made under gen. Scott. The same day Sir Henry concluding that gen. Washington, who had alway hitherto avoided a general action, would not now give into it against every dictate of policy, and that the American views were directed against his baggage, in which part he was indeed vulnerable, determined to take the right hand road leading to Sandy Hook, instead of making for the Rariton, where he suspected gen. Gates with the northern army might join that under gen. Washington. Gates arrived at Fishkill about the middle of May to take the command in that quarter. The troops under him were so few, that he could not answer for the defence of the pass through the highlands with which he was intrusted; and was persuaded, that if the enemy made a sudden and determined push to carry it, the militia would not come in time to save it. On the 17th of June draughts arrived, and militia Were hourly expected; after mentioning this in a letter to congress, he exclaims—" Thank heaven for the precious time the enemy have so foolishly lost!" He had no idea of marching for the Rariton: but his cavalry, and a considerable body of insantry, was at this period so posted, as to give the,alarm of an attack upon New York; and he proposed moving the main body of his army to White Plains, and taking' a strong camp in that neighbourhood, to iceep up the alarm; which

was was highly approved of by gen. Washington, and pro-1778. cured his thanks. On the 25th his excellency moved JTM' his army to Kingston. Upon receiving intelligence that Sir Henry was prosecuting his route toward Monmouth court-house, he dispatched 1000 select men under brigadier gen. Wayne, and sent the Marquis de la Fayette to take the command of the whole advanced corps, with orders to seize the first fair opportunity of attacking the enemy's rear. Gen. Lee declined the command, as he was against attacking, on which it was offered to the marquis, who accepted it with pleasure. In the evenT ing of the same day, the whole army marched from Kingston, intending to preserve a proper distance for supporting the advanced corps, and arrived at Cranberry early the next morning. The intense heat of the wea- 26. ther, and a heavy storm coming on, made it impossible to resume the march that day without great injury to the troops. The advanced corps being in consequence hereof too remote from the main body, and too far upon the right to be supported, the marquis had orders sent him to file off by his left toward English-town, which he executed early in the morning of the 27th. Sir Henry being sensible of the approach of the American army, changed the disposition of his troops, and placed in the rear what were deemed the best, consisting of all the grenadiers, light insantry, and chasseurs of the line; at the fame time gen. Knyphausen was requested to take the baggage of the whole army under the charge of his division, which made the first column. Under the head of baggage was comprised, not only all the wheel carriages of every department, but also the bat-horses'rra train which, 35 titf country ad.mitted. but of one route

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x778- for carriages, extended near twelve miles. The alteration made by Sir Henry laid gen. Washington under the necessity of increasing the number of the advanced corps. His excellency embraced this opportunity of gratifying gen. Lee, with the consent of the marquis. Lee observing that his having declined the command of the advanced corps had lessened him in the opinion of officers and soldiers, wished to be appointed afresh. Washington would not consent to remove the marquis; but a reinforcement being wanted, he detached Lee with two brigades, to join the marquis at English-town, and of course to take upon him the command of the whole. The main body marched the same day, and encamped within three miles of that place. Morgan's corps was left hovering on Sir Henry's right flank, and the Jersey militia, amounting to about 700, under gen. Dickinson, on his left. The royal army was strongly encamped in the neighbourhood of Monmouth courthouse, where they halted till the morning of the 28th. When once arrived at the heights of Middle-town, about twelve miles in advance, there would have been no possibility of attempting any thing against them with a prospect of success, the American general therefore determined to attack their rear the moment they moved from their present ground, and communicated his intention to Lee, who was ordered to make the necessary disposition, and to keep his troops in readiness for the shortest notice. The like was done with respect to the troops under his own immediate command. •

General Knyphausen moved at day break: Sir Henry

28. that he might not press upon him, did not'follow rill

near eight o'clock, with the other division, composed.of

:' the the 3d, 4th, and 5th brigades of British, two battalions 1778. of British grenadiers, the Hessian grenadiers, a battalion of light insantry, the guards, and the 16th regiment of light dragoons, a body of troops not easily to be equalled. About one o'clock in the morning, gen. Lee received a letter from gen. Washington, and in pursuance of the directions it contained, wrote to gen. Dickinson to select some hundreds of his best men, and detach them as nigh to the British rear as he could. These troops were to act as a corps of observation, and to forward the earliest intelligence respecting the enemy. He also ordered col, Morgan to advance with the men under his command so near as to attack them on their first movement: but it was left to him how to act, only he was to take care and not expose his troops, in that manner as to disable him from acting in conjunction with Lee should there be a necessity for it. Orders were likewise sent to Grayson, as the commanding officer of the two brigades (of Scott and Varnum,) consisting of about 600 men, to get them instantly in readiness to march. By day light they entered English-town; but it was not till between five and six that they marched from thence toward Moni mouth court-house, having been detained for want of guides. Nearly at the same time, Lee gave orders to the several detachments and Maxwell's brigade, to prepare for marching immediately, leaving their packs behind under proper guard: they followed the two just mentioned brigades about seven o'clock. About five Dickinson sent an express to gen. Washington, informing that the front of the enemy had began their.march. His excellency instantly put the army in motion, and sent orders to Lee to-move on and attack, them, junless


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