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458 Santa Fe. (New Mexico) 454
521 Saranac river
449 Senecca river
24 Southern states in general 357
441 Scioto river
405 South Carolina, history of
Sketch of the remarkable transac-
tions of the United States
St. Croix river, N England
483 St. Augustine
484 St. Christopher's island
272 Superior, lake
464 Susquehannah river
432 Starcn illand
305 Tennessee ftate
230 Territory S. of the Ohio
General account See Tenneffee
Terra del Fuego
266 Three rivers
324 Treaty of commerce, G. Britain
430 Tyoga river
HE Book-binder will take notice, that Page 208 of Ci. Vol. IV. is cancelled ; that Signature F f. is doubled, and that with a Star must be an Inset to half-sheet F f. between Page 228 ene 229, and that there are two Signatures H 1. alike, the one should be A ?; and that on the one side of Signature L 3. is printed K 3; the dinla. bets are printed A a for 2 A. and what should be 3 A is printed A 2. The Maps are to be placed at the beginning of their respectice Coa ters, and the Chart of Coor's Voyage, to face page 521.
DESCRIPTION OF THE GENESEE COUNTRY_ITS RAPIDLY PROGRESSIPS
POPULATION, AND IMPROVEMENTS.
In the year 1790, the Legiflature of the State of New York formed into a county by the name of Ontario, all that part of the State lying west of a meredian linc drawn from the 820 mile-ftone on the Pennsylvania line to lake Ontario. Within this is included the tract known by the name of the Genefee country, bounded on the north by Lake Ontario, on the west by Niagara river and Lake Erie, on the South by the State of Pennsylvania, and on the cast by the counties of Tioga and Onondaga.
One year previous to the formation of this country, Oliver Phelps and Nathaniel Gorham, Esqs. of New-England, purchased from the State and from the Seneca India ans, their right to that part of the country which lies between the meridian line above mentioned and the Genesee river, excluding on the north part of the country twelve miles west of the siver, as will appear by the plan, forming a tract of country fortyfive miles from east to west, and eighty-four from north to south, containing abour 2,200,000 acres of land ; within these limits are contained the country now feteleing, Temarkable for its fertile foil and moderate climate. The more northern part of the country of Ontario, is watered by the Genesee river, its tributary Streams, Rundigut Creek, Flint Creek, Mud Creek, Salmon Creek and many other inferior ítreams, and by a number of lakes, some of which are from twenty to forty miles in length, whose outlets afford excellent navigations to Albany and Lake Ontario, and valuable millseats. The south part of the country is watered by different branches of the Susquehannah, viz. the Conhofton, Canifteo, Tuscarora and Cananisque, all of which are navigable from the middle of March to the first of July ; the Susquehannah empties into the Chesapeak Bay near Baltimore, to which place, in high water, rafts of lumber and large boats containing from two to five hundred barrels may be carried. For a country apparently so far distant from the coast, and until lately so little known, the situation is fingularly happy. The distance from Albany to New-York, Philadelphia or Baltimore, does not exceed in a direct course, one hundred and eighty miles, and by the road now in ufe, not much above two hundred miles ; to the Federal City not above two hundred and Gxty-five miles; the improvements in the intermediato
countries will not only facilitate the travelling, but by opening new roads leffen the distance; at prelent, if well mounted, you can ride from either of those cities except ing the Federal Ciry, in five days to the counties of Stuben and Ontario
The settlement of the country was began by Mr. Phelps in the year 1788, but Separated as it was at that time at such a distance from all other settlements,' on the fouth hemmed in by the Allegany Mountains, on the east by a wilderness of one hundred miles, on the north by Lake Ontario, and on the west by a wildernes extending to the South Sea, at the same time having no communication with settlemcots on the eastern coait, but by an Indian path froin the outlet of the Seneca Lake to Fort Schuyler, it is not to be wondered at if it made but little progrets ia population and improvements for feveral years.
We find by the cenfus taken two years afterwards, that there were only nine hundred and fixty fouls, including all travellers and surveyors, with their attendants, who happened at that time to be wihin the bounds of the county. It is however slow supposed that the population of the two counties amount to above 20,009 souls.
That you may form some idea what has been the progress of improvements in this country since ibat period, I thall give you an account of the journey día geallemon into the Genesee count:y in February, 1792, in bis own words:
" On the fifteenth of February, 1992, I left Albany ou my route to the Genesee river, but the country was thought to iemote, and so very little known, that I could not prevail on the owner of the stage to engage farther than Whitestown, a new settlement on the head of the Mohawk, one hundred mniles from Albany. The road as far as Whitestown had been made passable for waggons, but from that to the Genelec river, was little better than an Indian path, suihiciently opened to allow a fled to pass, and some impaliadhe streams bridged. Ai Whitettown I was obliged to change my carriage. On leaving Whiteņown we found only a few ftraggling huts, from ten to twenty miles from each other, affording nothing but the conveniency of fire, and a kind of thelter from the snow. Gn the evening of the third day's jounrey from Whiteftown we were very agreeably surprised to find ourselves on the east (de of the Seneca Lake, which we found perfe&iy open, free of ice and in the month of June; and what added to our surprise and adidiration, was to see a boat and canoe plying on the lake. After having pailed from Xeka York over three hundred and fixty miles of country completely frozen, the village of Geneva, though then only confiling of a few lag- houses, after the dreary wwilderness we had pall d through, adding not a little to the beauty of the praia pc@t; we forded the outlet of the lake, and arrived sale at Geneva." ." The fituation of this in and settlement on the barrks of a thect of water, fortyfour miles long, from four to fix wide, daily navigated by small craft and carees, was a light as gratifying as unexpected. It appeared that the inhabitants of this delightful country, would by the flight covering of snow on the ground have all the advantages of a northern wincr; and by the waters of the lake being free from ice, have all the advantages of this inland navigation, a combination of ad. vantages perhaps not to be experienced in any other country in the world. *
“ From Geneva to Canandraqua the road is only the lodian path a little improve rd; the county towe, fixieea tiles, was the greatest part of the diftance through timbered land ; on this road there were only two fainilies settled. Canandraque the county town,consisteduft wo small frame-houses and a few huts, surrounded with thick -woods; a few inhabitants received me with much hospitality, and I lourd abundance of excellent venison. From Canandragua to the Gerefee river, twenty-lex rudes, it is alınot totally uninhabited, only four families residing on the road; the country beautiful and very open, in many places the openings are free of all timber, appearing to contain al leattino or three hundred acres beautifully variegated with hill and dale; it seemed that by only inclosing any of etem with a proportioa. able quantity of linbered land, an inclosure might be made not inferior to the parks in England. At the Geneva liver I iound a small Indian fore and cavern; the
* Seven year's experience prove this to be literally true.
river was then so low as, to be fordable. Upon the whole, at this cime there were not any settlements of any consequence in the whole of the Gencfee country ; that chablished by the Friends on the west side of the Seneca Lake, was the most cone. siderable, consisting of about forty families. At this period the number of Indians in the adjoining country was so great, when compared with the few white inhabitants who ventured to winter in the congtry, that I found them under serious. apprehensions for their safety. Even in this state of nature the country of Ontario thews every sign of future respectability ; no man has put the plough in the ground without being amply repaid, and through the mildness of the winter, the cattle brought into the country the year before on very fiender provision for their sublitt ence, were thriving well."
Such it appears was the situation of the county of Ontario in the year 1792.
Mellus. Phelps and Gorham having sold to Robert Morris, F.[q. of Philadelphia, nearly two-thirds of their lands, Mr. Morris refold them in England, and the pure chafer from Mr. Morris having arrived in America, began in the summer of 1792, to put in execution the plan he had formed for the improvement of the country. His first object was to trace out the posibility of opening a cominunication across the Alleghany inonntains ; discouraged by every person he enquired of for information relative to the route, he determined to explore the country hiníell, and on the 3d of June, 1792, on the weft branch of the Susquehannah, entered the wilderncís, taking a northerly courfe. After a laborious exertion of ten days, he came to the Cawancsque creck, where he perceived that he was in the county of Ontario, The route, though very mountainous, was not impracticable for a waggon road : proceeding then towards the N. N. W. after six more days travelling, the party pitched their tents on an Indian clcaring, at the junction of the Canalcrago and Ge nelee rivers, n-ar the fpot where Williamsburg now stands. This route in the direction they now come, shortening the distance from Pennfylvania at least 100 miles. It was resolved without delay to open the road. As carly as the month of August, 1793, the road was completed to Williamíburg, a distance of 270 miles from the Susquehanna. '
It is from this period that we can trace the beginning of that singularly rapid progress in population and improvements, which has so eminently diftinguished the Genefee country. The opening of a road to the northward froin the Pennsylva.. nia settlements over the chain of mountains before reckoned impaflable, excited the curionty of the inhabitants in the adjacent country ; many were tempted to explore the Genelee lands, that previous to this had scarce ever given them a thought ; men of observation were pleafed with the country, others returved dir. guited with the extreine inconvenience of travelling through a country, almost deftitute of inhabitants, for the distance of 170 miles, and when tlicy, arrived at: Williamsburg, the ouły settlement in that part, found the few inhabitants who composed it, depending on the Indians for fubaitence...
In the spring of the year 1793, the great scarcity of provilions that was feli lo. feverely at the end of the preceding season, was considerably increased by the number of families that einigrated at that time into the county of Ontario. To keep the settlements together, an auditional stock of provisions, confifting of flour and pork, was procured from Philadelphia and Northumberland in Pennsylvania; several settlements were begun in the south part of this county, but the principle fettlement was commenced on the Cohoéton creek, on the road from Pennsylvania to Williamsburg. In this place, then the centre of a wilderness, the town of Bath was laid out, and before the end of the fealon, fifteen families were resident in the village. A law-mill had been finished, and previous to the setting ia of the winter, a grit-mill with a law-mill on the same dam, near the town.
In the year 1794, ready money markets were found for the produce, and many new settlements were begun, the principal, were those of Sodus, Honcoy Laké, Braddock's Bay, Canascraga, Tuscarora, and Pleasant Valley. At the fanic cirue the population in the old settlements were encreasing with rapidity, mills were building and roads makiog to every settlement; the whole country, icemed one icene of exertion - 1795The number of inhabitants increased witli akonishing rapidity ; every