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JUR knowledge of the globe has been considerably augmented by discoveries of the Rufhans, and British and American navigators, which je been numerous and important. Belides those described in Vol. II. | re are in the Northern Archipelago, four groups of islands, lying beiween
castern coast of Kamtfcatka and the wellern coast of the continent of | erica. The first group, which is called by some of the islanders Scfig "n, comprehends, 1. Breering's island. 2. Copper island. 3. Otma. 4.
myra, or Shemiya. 5. Anakta. The second group is called Khao, and ş i nprises eight islands, viz. 1. Immak, 2. Kiska. 3. Tchetchia. 4. Ava.
Kavia, 6. Tschangulhk. 7. Ulagama, 8. Amtchidga. The third gene
name is Negho, and comprehends the islands known to the Ruffans us der iname of Andreanofffki Ostrova : fixteen of which are mentioned under
following names ; 1. Amarkinak. 2. Ulak. 3. Unalga. 4. Navot fha. 5. iga. 6. Anagin. 7. Kagula. 8. Illask, or illak. 9. Takaranga, upon
Shich is a volcano. io. Kanaga, which has also a volcano. 11. Leg. 12. i ehuna, 13. Tagaloon. 14. Goreloi. 15. Otchu. 16. Amla. The fourth i pup is called Kavalang, and comprehends fixteen illands, which are called
the Rufhans Lyfie Ostrova, or the Fox Isands; and which are named, Anuchta. 2. Tchsigama, 3. Tschegula. 4. Uniftra. 5. Ulaga. 6. Taualana. 7. Kagamin. 8. Kigalga. 9. Skelmaga. 10. Umnak. 11. Agunlashka. 12. Unimga. 13. Uligan. 14. Anturo-Leisume. 15. Smidit. 16. nagak. Some of these islands are only inhabited occasionally, and for some months the year, and others are very thinly peopled ; but some have a great numer of inhabitants, who constantly reside on them. Copper Island receives s name from the copper which the sea throws upon its coasts. The inhabi
ints of these islands are, in general, of a short Nature, with strong and ro? uft limbs, but free and supple. They have lank black hair, little beard, flat
le faces, and fair skins. They are, for the most part,, well made, and of rong constitutions, suitable to the boisterous climate of their isles. The in
abitants of the iwo firft groups, called the Aleutian illes, live upon roots Perihich grow wild, and upon lea-animals. They do not employ themselves in
arching hfh, though the river abounds with salmon, and the sea with curbor, wat Cheir cloches are made of the skins of fea-otters and birds.
T he Fox islands are so called from the great number of black, grey and ed foxes with which they abound. The dress of the inhabitants consists of a®
ap and a fur coat, which reaches down to the knee. Some of them wear i ommon caps of a party.coloured bird-skin, upon which they leave part of the
wings and tail. On the fore part of their hunting and filbing caps, they s place a small board, like a screen, adorned with the jaw-bones of sea-bears, Fi and ornamented with glass beads, which they receive in barter from the Rufiz fans. At their festivals and dancing-parties, they use a much more showy
fort of caps. They feed upon the flesh of sea-animals, which they generally eat raw. But when they dress their vi&tuals, they make use of i hollow flone ; having placed their flesh or fish therein, they cover it with another, and ciose the interfices with lime or clay. They then lay it horizontally upon two fones and light a fire under it. The provisions intended for prea ferving, are dried without falt in the open air. Their weapons confill of
bows, arrows, and darts ; and for defence ibey use wooden Shields, i Vol. IV.
The most perfe& equality reigns among these islanders. They are said to have neither chiefs nor superiors, laws nor puniliments. They live together in fam. lies, and societies of several families uniied, which form what they call a race, who, in case of attack, or defence, muluaily help and support each o:lier. The inhabitants of the same land always pretend to be of the farne race; and every person looks upon this island as a possession, the property of which is common :o all the individuals of the same society. Feafts are very common among them, and more particularly when the inhabitants of one island are vified by those of the others. The men ofthe village meer their guels beating drums, and preceded in the women, who fing and dance. At the conclufion of the dance, the hells serve up their best provisions and invite their guests to partake of ske fcant. They feed their children when very young with the courselt fleili, and for the molt part raw. If an infant cries, ihe mother immedia:ely carries it to the sea-side, and whether it be founder or winter, holds i: naked in the water until it is quiet. This cultom is so far from doing the children any harm, that it hardens them against the cold, and they accordingly go barefoored through the winter, wi:bout the lealt inconvenience. They seldom heat their dweilings ; but, when they are defirous of wariningihomselves, they lighi a bundle of hay, and liand over it; or elle they set fire to train oil, which they pour into a hollow fone. They have a good llare of plain natural sense, but are rather flow of urderstanding.
They seem coli and indifferent in most of their actions ; but when an injury, or even a fufpicion souses them from this pliegmatic flate, chcy become inflexible ard furious, taking ihe most violeni revenge, without regard to condi quences. The leasi alicrion prompis them to suicide ; even the apprehenfion of an uncertain evil often leads them to despair.
The discovery of an INLAND SEA, containing a great number of
ISLANDS in NORTH AMERICA.
T ROM the observations made by Captain Cook on the inhabitants of the welleru part of imerica, about the lariiude of 64° norih, it appeared that a strong finiliauiy appeared Leiween them and the Esquimaux on the eastern coait. Hence it was even ihen conjectured, that a communication by sea exifted between the castern and wellern sides of that continent.
in this pare of America, however, a most surprising discovery has lately been made, which, when properly authenticated, cannot fail to be of the ui. most ucility, not only to science in general, but to the commercial and politi. cal interells of mankind ; not to say, that it will undoubiedly contribuie, by giving an opporiunity for the advancement of civilization, to their moral interelts also. This, though not made by Capiain Cook himself, took place in confequence of his discoveries on the north-west coast of America. In these parts he found that such quantities of valuable furs might be purchased from the inhabitants, as promised to be a very profiable article of commerce, provided any regular connexion could be ellablished between that part of the world, and the British fendements in the Eajt-Indies. This task was quickJy undertaken by some spirited adventurers, who unluckily have found themseives opposed both by friends and foes, viz, the Eaft-India company, and the Spaniards; the former pretending that they had no right to dispose of furs in the Enlt-Indies, and ihe latter, that they had none to bring them from the western coail of Anrica. Mr. Eiches, who futed out thips for this pur
pose, discovered that all the western coast of America, from the latitude of 48 degrees to 57 north, was not a continued watt of land, but a chain of islands which had never been explored, and that these concealed the entrance to a vail inland sea, like the Baltic, or Mediterranean in Europe, and which seems likewise to be full of ihands. Among theíi. Mr. Etches' ship, the Princess Royal, penetrared several hundred leagues in a north.cait direction, till they came within two hundred leagues of Hudfon's Bay; but as the intention of their voyage was merely commercial, they had not lime fully to explore the Archipelago, just mentioned, nor did they arrive at the termination of this new Mediterranean sea. From what they really did discover, however, it is probable, that there may this way be a cominunicarion with Hudson's-Bay, in which case, the north-west pallage to the East-Indies will be found through seas much more navigable than those in which it has hitherto been attempted. The ilands, which they explorid, were all inhabited by tribes of Indians, who appeared very friendly, and well-disposed to carry on a commerce. Of these islands, vpwards of lifiy were visied, and we are informed, that some thips are now filling out at one of ile pors of England for the same place, so that farther discoveries may soon be expected.
NEW-ZE AL A N D.
T HIS country was first discovered by Tafman, in the year 1642, who gave it the name of Staten Land, though it has been generally divine guished, in maps and charis, by !he name of New Zealand, and was lupuled to be part of a fouthern continent : but it is now known, from the late dif. coveries of Captain Cook, who sailed round it, to consist of iwo large islands, divided from each other by a strait, four or five leagues broad. They are fituated between the lauludes of 34 and 48 degrees fouth, and between the longitudes of 166 and 180 deg. cat from Philadelphia. One of these ilands is, for the must part, mountainous, rather barren, and but thinly inhabited; but the other is much more feriile, and of a better appearanır. In the opinion of Sir Jofeph Banks, and of Dr. Solander, every kind of E1ropean fruiis, grain, and plants would flourish here in the utmost luxuriance. From the vegetables found here, it is supposed that the winters are milder than those of England, and the summers are houter, though more cqually warm ; so that it is imagined, that if this country was settled by people fron Europe, they would, with moderate industry, be foon fupplied, not only with necessaries, but the luxuries of life, in great abundance. Here are forests of valt extent, filled with very large timber trees; and near four hun. dred plants were found here that had not been described by the naturalists. The inhabitants of New Zealand are font and robusi, and equal in llarure to the largest Europeans. Their colour, in general, is browii, but in a few deeper than that of a Spaniard, who has been exposed to the fun, and in many not so deep; and both sexes have good features. Their dreis is very uncouth, and they mark their bodies in a manner similar to the inhabitants of TOtaheite. Their principal weapons are lances, darıs, and a kind of bautleaxes; and they have generally mown themselves very hoitile to the Europeans who have visited them. As to their religious principles, they believe that the fouls of such as are killed in bartle, and their Ilzth aficrwards eaten by the caemy, are doomed to perpetual fire ; while the souls of those who die a namural death, or whole bodies are preserved from such ignominious treatment, ascend to the habitations of the gods. - The common ucihod of difpoling of their dead is by interment in the earth; but if they have more flaughtered edenies than they can eat, they throw them into the sea. They have no such things as morais, or other places of public worship; nor do they ever assemble iogether with this view : but ihey have priests, who alone address the Deity in praver für ihe prosperity of their icinporal affairs, such as enterprise against a hollile tribe, a fishing party, or the like. Polygamy is allowed; anú is not uncommon for a man to have two or three wives.
NEW.GU IN E A.
UNTIL the late discoveries, was thought to be the north coaft of an extensive continent, and to be joined to New Holland; but Captain Cook discovered a ffrait between them, which ruos north-eas, through which he failed. Thus it was found to be a long narrow island, extending north-eal, from the ad degree of fouth latitude to the 12th, and from 56 10 75' wel Jongitude; but in one part it do-s not appear to be above Gifty miles broad. The country consists of a mixture of very high bills and vallies, interspersed with groves of cacoa-nut trees, plantains, bread-fruir, and most of the trees, shrubs, and plants, that are found in the other South Sea islands. It affords from the sea a variety of delighiful prospects. The inhabitants make nearly the same appearance as the New Hollanders on the other side of ihe firaits.
To the north of New Guinea, is New-Britain, which is fituated in the 4th degree of south latitude, and 75° 89' weft longitude from Philadelphia. I was supposed to be part of an imaginary continent, till Caprain Dampier found it to be an island, and failed through a strait line which divides it from New-Guinea. Captain Carteret, in his voyage round the world, in 1767, found that it was of much less extent than had till then been imagined, by sailing through another prait to the north, which separates it from a long island, to which he gave the name of New Ireland. There are many high hills in New-Britain, and it abounds with large and stately trees. To the eart. ward of New-Britain, and in both the above strails, are many islands, moft of which are said to be extremely feriile, and to abound with plaintains and Cocoa-nut treets.
New. Ireland extends in lengih, from the north-east to the south-east, about two hundred and levenig miles, but is, in general, very narrow. It abounds with a variety of trees and plants, and with many pigeons, parrots, rooks, and other birds. The inhabitants are black and woolly-headed, like the ne. groes of Guinea, but have not flat noses or thick lips. North-westward of New. Ireland, a cluster of islands was seen by Captain Carteret, lying very near each other, and supposed to consist of twenty or thirty in gumber. One of these, which is of very considerable extent, was named New-Hanover ; and the rest of the cluster received the name of the Admiralty Islar.ds.
Ingraham's Islands were discovered by captain Ingraham of the brigan. tine Hope, of Boston in 1991. They are seven in number, and lie between 8° 3' and 8° 55' south latitude, and berween 140° 19' and 141° 18' welt longitude,
TERRA-INCOGNITA, O, UNKNOWN COUNTRIES.
IN Vorth-America, towards the pole, are Labrador, or New-Britain, New North and South Wales, New-Dermark, &c. very little known, The inhabitants, like those of Nova Zembla, Greenland, Groenland, and the