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Topean power that has settlements in America; they being only Europeans who huve .itablished colonies in Africa; and from hence they import bei weer forty and fifty thousand negroes annually, all of which go into the amount of the cargo of the Brafil fleets for Europe. Of the diamonds, there is supe poled to be recurned to Europe to the value of one hundred and thirty (bou. {and pounds sterling.

This, with the sugar, tobacco, hides, and the valuable drugs for medicine and manufactures, may give some idea of the imporiance of this trade, not only to Portugal, but to all the trading powers of Europe.

A fifteenth part of the chief commodities the European ships carry thither in return, are not the produce of Portugal; they coulill of woollen goods of all kinds, from England, France, and Holand; linens and laces from Holland, France, and Germany; fiks from France and Italy; folk and thread stockings, hats, lead, rin, pewier, iron, copper, and all foris of wien. so's wrought in these metals, from England; as well as falt fith, beef, flour and cheese. Oil they have from Spain ; wine, with some fruit, is nearly all they receive from Portugal. England is al present most intereited in the trade of Portugal, both for home consumption and the use of the Brails. However, the French have become very dangerous rivals to them in this, as in many other branches of trade.

Brasil is a very wealthy and ilourishing seulement. Their export of fue gar, within forty years, is much greater than it was, though anciently it made almost the whole of their exportable produce, and they were without rivals in the trade. Their tobacco is remarkably good, though not raised in such large quantities as in North-dimerica. The northern and southern parks of Brasil abound with horned catile : these are hunted for their hides only, of which no less than twenty thousand are sent annually to Europe.

The Portuguese had been long in poflession of Brasil, before they discovered the treasures of gold and diamonds, which have fince made it so valuable. Their fleets rendezvous in the bay of All-Saints, to the amount of one hundred fail of large ships, in May or June, and carry to Europe a cargo liute inferior in value to the treasures of the Spanish flora and galeons. The gold alone, great part of which is coined in America, amounts to near four mil. lions sterling; but part of this is brought from their colonies in Africa, 10gether with ebony, and ivory.

This country was first discovered by Americus Vefpufo, in 1498 ; but the Portuguese did not plant it till 1549, when they fixed themselves at the bay of Al-Saints, and founded the city of Si. Salvador. They met with some interruption at firit from the court of Spain, who considered the whole continent of South-America as belonging to them. However, the affair was at length made up by treaty; and it was agreed that the Portuguese Should possess all the country lying between the two great rivers Amazon and La Plata, which they mill enjoy. The French albo made lome attempis to plant colonies on this coast, but were driven from thence by the Portuguese, who remained without a rival till the year 1580, when, in the very meridian of their prosperity, they fell under the dominion of Spain.

The Dutch, soon after this, having thrown off the Spanish yoke, not satisfied with supporting their independency by a successful defensive war, and flushed with the juvenile ardour of a growing commonwealih, pursued the Spaniards into the remoteft recesses of cheir extensive territories, and grew rich, powerful, and terrible, by the fpoils of Their former mallers. They particularly attacked the possessions of the Poriuguese; conquered almolt all their fortresses in the East Indies, and then turned their arms upon Brasil, where they took feven of the provinces; and would have subdued the whole colony, had not cheir career been flope by che archbishop, at the head of his monks, and a few scattered forces. The Dutch were, however, about the year 1654, entirely driven out of Brasil; but their West-India company till continuing their pretensions to this country, and harralling the Portaquefe at sea, the latter agreed, in 1661, to pay the Dutch eight tons of gold, to relinquilh their interest in that country, which was accepted; and the Portuguese have remained in peaceable polemion of all Branl from that time, till about the end of 1962, when the Spanish governor of Buenos Ayres, hearing of a war between Portugal and Spain, look, after a month's liege, the Portuguese frontier fortress called Si. Sacrament; but, by ibe treary of peace, it was restored.

French Poleflions in America.

I HE poflellions and claims of the French, before the war of 1756, as appears by their maps, consisted of almost the whole continent of Northe America; which vaft country they divided into two great provinces; the northern of which they called Canada, comprehending a much greater extent than the British province of that name, as it included a great part of the provinces of New York, Nezu-England, and Nova Scotia. The sou. ibern province they called Louisiana, in which they included a part of Ca. Tolia. This distribution, and the milliary difpofitions which the French made to support it, formed the principal cause of the war between Britain and France, in the year 1756 ; the flue of which is well known. While the French were rearing their infant colonies, and with the most fanguine hopes, forming valt designs of an extensive empire, one wrong step in their politics lost them the whole; for, by commencing hoftilities many years too foon, they were driven from Canada, and forced to yield to Britain, all that fine country of Louiñana eastward of the Miffalopi. At the treaty of peace, however, they were allowed to keep poffefliou of the weftern banks that river, and the finall town of New-Orleans, near the mouth of it; which territories, in 1769, they ceded to Spain.

The French, therefore, from being one of the greatest European powers in that quarter, and to the American colonies a very dangerous neighbour and rival, have now lost all footing in North-America; buc on the sourhera continent they have still a settlement which is called

Cayenne, or Equinoctial France. IT is situated between the equator and fifth degree of north latitude, and between the 15th and 20:h degree of east long. froin Philadelphia. It. extends two hundred and forty miles along the coast of Guiana, and dear three hundred miles within land ; bounded by Surrinam on the north ; by the Atlantic ocean, east ; by Amazonia south; and by Guiana, well. The chief town is Caen.

All the coast is very low ; but within land, there are fine hills, very proper for settlements. The French have, however, not yet extended them so far as they might ; but they raise the same commodities whiah they have from the West-India islands, and in no inconsiderable quantity, They hare allo

No. 28.

saken sofortion of the island of Cayenne, on this coast, at the mouth of the ri. verof ihar name, which is about foriy-five murs in Cincin fererice les vir ooh alchy ; but having some rod harbours, the Frenih have here some feticments, which alle luoda whid coilec,


TIIE DUTC!I SETTLEMENTS. THIS province, the only one belonging to the Dutch on the continent of America, is fouated beiween 5 and 7 o norih latitude, having the mou:h of the Oronuko and the Atlantic, on the north ; Cayenne, on the call; Amazonia, on the fouth ; ard Terra Firma on the west.

The Dutch claim ihe whole coast from the mouth of Oronoko to the river Marow'yne, on which are situated their colonies of El quibo, Dinerari, Bere

bice, and Surinam; The latter begins with the river Sıramui ha, and ends · with the Maruwyne, including a lengih of cualt of one hur.died and twenty miles.

A number of fine rivers pass through this country, the principal of which are EjJequibo, Surinam, Demerar., Berbice, and Cunya. Elegaibo is nine miles wide at its mouth, and is more than three hundred miles in leagih. Surinam is a beautiful river, three quariers of a mile wide, navigable for the lar. gefi vellols fuur leagues, and for imal er velicls fixty or seventy miles farther. Iis banks, quire to the water's edge, are covered with evergreen margrove trees, which render the passage up this river very delightful. The Dimera. ra is about three quarters of a mile wide where it emplies into the Surinam, is navigable for large vessels one hundred miles ; a bundied miles fariher are several falls of ealy alcent, above which it divides into the south-wcft and fouth-east branches,

The water of the lower parts in the river is brackish, and unfit for use : and the inhabitanis are obliged to make use of rain water, which is heie ulje commonly sweet and good. It is caught in cilderns placed under ground, and before drinking, is set in large earthen pois to feucie, by which means it becomes very clear and wholefome. Thefe cifterns are lo large and nunie. sous, that water is seldom scarce.

In the months of Sepiemiber, October, and November, the clima:e is in. healthy, particularly to thrangers. The common diseases are putrid and other fevers, the dry belly-ach, and the dropsy. One hundred miles back from the sea, the foil is quite differeni, a hilly country, a pure, dry, wholesome air, where a fire fometimes would not be disagreeable. Along the sea coaft he water is, unwholesome, the air damp ard suluy. The thermoinetor ranges from 75' to 90° through the year. A north-call breeze never fails to blow from about nine o'clock in the morning through the day, in the hotel lese Tons. As the days and nights throughout the year are very nearly of an equal length, the air can never become extremely heated, nor the inbabitants fo greatly incommoded by the heat, as those who live at a greater distance from the equator. The seasons were formerly divided regularly into rainy and dry ; bit of late years so much dependence canro: be placed upon them, owing probably to the country's being more cleaved, by which cans a fita

pasage is opened for the air and vapours. • Vol. IV,

Through the whole country runs a ridge of oyster shells, nearly parallel to the coall, but three or four leagues from ii, of a confiderable breadth, and from four 10 eight feet decp, composed of shellsexually of ihe same pature as those which form the present coaft : from this and other circumftances, there is great reason to believe that the lard, from thai dillance from the sea, is all new land, rescued from the water by foune revolution in nature, or other unknown caule.

On cach lide of the rivers and creeks are foruared the plantations, containing from five hundred 10 iwo thousand acres each, in number about five hundred and fifty in the whole colony, producing at present annually about fixieen thousand bogsheads of sugar, iwelve million pounds of coffee, seven hundred thousand pounds of cocoa, eight hundred and fifty thousand pounds of corion : all which articles, couron excepied, have fallen off within fifteen years, at least one third, owing to bad managemers, both here and in Hollans and to other causes. Of the proprietors of ibi se planiations, not above eighly reside here. The sugar plantations have many of them water mills, which being much more profitable than oihers, and the fuation of ibe colony admitting of them, will probably become general ; of the reft, fone are worked by mules, others by calie, but from the lov neis of the country none by the wind. The ellaies are for the greates pare morigaged for as much or more than they are worth, wbich greatiy diy vanes afiy improvements wbich might otherwise be made. Was it not for the unfortunate situation of the colony in this and other respects, it is ceriainly capable of being brought 10 a great height of improvement ; dves, gums, oi's, plants for medicinal purposes, &c. mighi, and undoubtedly will, ai some fuivie period, be found in abundance. Rum might be diftuled here ; indigo, ginger, rice and tobacco, have been, and may be farther cultivated, and many other articles. In the woods are found many kinds of good and durable timber, and si pe woods for orna

rental purposes, particularly a kind of mahogany called copic. The foil in · perhaps as rich ard as luxuriant as any in the world; it is generally a rich, fat,

loamy earth, lying in some places above the level of the rivers at high water, which rise about eight tect, but in most places below it. Whenever, fron a continued course of cultivation for many years, a piece of land becomes impoverished, for manure is not knows here, it is laid under water for a certain number of years, and thereby regains its feruility, and in the mean time a new piece of wood land is cleared. This country has never experienced those dreadful scourages of the West Indies, hurricanes and droughts ; from the lowness of the land it has not to fear, nor has the produce ever been destroyed by insects or by the blast. In short, this colony, by proper management, might become equal to Jamaica, or any other. Land is not wanting ; it is finely inserfected by noble rivers, and abundant creeks ; the soil of ihe beft kind; it is well situated, and the climate is not very unhealthy : it is cer. rainly growing better, and will continue so to do, the more ibe country is cleared of its woods, and cultivated. • The rivers abound with fish, some of which are good ; at certain seasons of the year there is plenty of turtle. The woods abound with plenty of dect, hares, ai d rabbits, a kind of buffaloe, and two species of wild hogs, one of which, the peccary, is remarkable for havirgiis navel on the back.

The woods are infcfied with several species of rigers, but with no other rze venous or dangerous animals. The rivers are rendered dangerous by alligafors, from four to sever feet long, and a man was a short time since crushed between the jaws of a file, but its name is not known. Scorpions and caras. arlas are found here of a large size and great venom, and other insects with out number, fome of them very dangerous and troublesome. The torporific eel, the couch of which, by means of the bare hand or any conducton, has che effect of a trong elecri al shock. Serpents also, foine of which are venomous, and others, as has been asseried by many credible persons, are from (wenty five to tifex feet long. In the woods are monkey's, the floth, and parrots in all their varieties ; allo so ne birds of beautiful plumage, among others the flamingo, but few or ro singing birds.

Paramarib), licuated on Surinam river, fo ir leagues from the sea, north latitude 6°, welt longiude 55° from Greenwich, is the principal town in Sun rinam. It contains about wo thousand whites, one half of whom are 7ews and eighthousand lives. The hous:s are principally of wood, fome few have glass windows, bure generally they have wooden shutters. The fireets are spacious and alranghi, and planted on cach Ide with orange or tamarind trees.

About seventy miles from he rea, on se fame river, is a village of about forty or fifty houses, inhabired by Jews. This village, and the town above mentioned, with the intervening plantations, contain all he inhabitants in this colony, which aime unto three thousand wo hundred whites, and forty-three thousand flaves. I be buildings on the plantations are many of thein coilly, convenient, and airy. The country around is thinly inhabited wi'h the native Indians, a harmless friendly race of beings. They are, in general, Short of flature, but remarkably well made, of a light copper colour, Itraighi black bair, without beards, high cheekbones, and broad shoulders. In their ears, poses, and hair the womea wear ornamenis of lilver, &c. Both men asid women go naked. One cation or tribe of them tie the lower part of the legs of the female children, when young, with a cord bound very tighi for the breadıh of six inches about the ancle, which cord is never afterwards ta. ken off but to put on a new one, by which means the flesh, which should otherwise grow on that part of the leg, increases the calf to a great Gze, and leaves the boge below nearly bare. This, though it must render them very weak, is reckoned a great beauty by then. The language of the Indians appears to be very sofi. They are mortal enemies to every kind of labour, but nevertheless manufa&ture a few articles, such as very fine cotton hammocks, earthen water pots, baskets, a red or yellow dye called roucau, and some other trifles, all which they exchange for such articles as they stand in need of.

They paint themselves red, and some are curiously figured with black. Their food consists chiefly of fish and crabs; and callava, of which they plant great quantities, and this almost the only produce they attend to. They cannot be said to be absoluteiy wandering tribes, but their huts being merely a few cross sticks covered with branches, so as to defend them from the rain and sun, they frequently quit their habitations, if they see occasion, and el, tablish them elsewhere.' They do not thun the whites, and have been serviceabie again it che runaway negroes.

The river Surinam is guarded by a fort and two redoubis at the entrance, and a fort at Paramaribo, but none of them of any firength, so that one er two frigates would be sufficient to make themselves masters of the whole colony.

The colony was forft poflelled by the French as carly as the year 1632 or 40, and was abandoned by them on account of its unhealthy climate. To the year 1650 it was taken by some Englishmen, and in 1662 a charter, grant was made of ic by Charles II. About this time ic was conliderably

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