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Cape Hatteras is in latitude 35° 15'. At the time of Sir Walter Raleigh's Epproaching the American shores, the fh als in he vicinity of Hatieras were found to be extremely dangerous, and no velleis in that latinde ventured withio feven leagues of the land. From a survey of the ancient drats of thrs part of the coast chere can be no doubt but the fears of former navigators were not without foundation, as these shoals are laid down very large in ex. tent, and in many places covered with not more than five or lux feet water, a a great distance from the land.
Cape Fear is remarkable for a dangerous shoal, called from its form the Fry. ing-pan. This shoat lies at the entrance of Cape Fear river, the touch part of it, six miles from Cape Fear pitch, in latitude 33° 32'.
Soil, Productions, &c. V the banks of some of the rivers, particularly of the Roanoke, the land is fertile and good, interspersed through the other parts are glades of rich fwa up, and ridges of oak land of a black feriile fuil.
Wheat, rye, barley, oats, and flax, grow well in the back hilly country. Indian corn and pulse of all kinds in all parts. Ground peas run on the surface of the earth, and are covered by hand with a light mond, and the pods grow under ground; they are eaten raw or roasted, and calle much like an bazle put. Cotton and hemp are also conliderably cultivated here, and might be raised in much greater plenty. The curron is planted yearly : the Halk dies with the front. The labour of one man will produce one thousand pouads in the seeds, or two hundred and fifty, fit for manufacturing. The Country is generally friendly to the railing of shrep, which yield from three quarters of a pound to two pounds and a half of wool, which is short and not Tery one.
The large natural growth of the plains in the low country is almost universally pitch pine, which is a tall, hand fome tree, far superior to the pitch pine of the northern states. This free may be called the staple commodity of North Carolina. It affords pitch, tar, turpentine, and various kinds of lumber, which cogether constitute at least one half of the exporis of his flare. This pioe is of iwo kinds, che common and ine long-leaved. The larer has a leaf shaped like other pines, but is nearly half a yurd in length, hangi in large cluliers. No country produces finer white and red oak for flaves. The swamps abound with cyprus and bay trees. The latter is an evergreen, and is food for the cattle in the winter. The leaves are shaped like those of the peach tree, but larger. The most common kinds of inber in the back country are, oak, walnut, and pine, A species of oak grows in the moist, fandy soil, called black jack. It seldom grows larger than eight or nine in. ches diaineter. It is worthy of remark, thai the trees in the low country, near the sea coast, are loaded with vast quarties of a long species of mols, which, by absorbing the noxious vapour hat is exhaled from flagrated wa. ters, contributes much, it is supposed, in the healthiness of the crimale. This hypothesis is confirmed by experience, since it is commonly oblerved, that ihe country is much less healihy for a few years after having been clcared, than while in a state of nature.
The principal wild fruit are plums, grapes, strawberries and blackberries.. The country is generally covered with herbage of various kinds, and a Species.of wild grass. It abounds with medicinal planis and roots; anong abers are the ginseng Virginia snake root ; Sencia snake root, an herb of
the emctic kind, like ipecacuana ; lion's lieart, which is a sovereign rentedy for the bie of a ferpeni. A species of the lenfitive plant is also found here; ji is a furt of brier, the talk of which dies with the froll, but the foot lives through the winter, and shoors again in the spring. The ligi.teft touch of a leaf cauf:s it to turn and cling clufe to the task. Although it so easily takes the alarm, and apparently thrinks from danger, in the space of two minutes after it is touched, it perfectly recovers its former fi:ua.ion. The mucipula prise alto found here. The rich bottoms are overgrown with canes ; the darw die mees all he winter, and afford an excellent food for caule; they are of a sweetilh calle, like the talks of green coso, which they in many respolisielemble.
here is a long ridge of limestone, which, extending in a fouth-westerly diction, en el s the whole fluie of North Carolina. I crosses Dan mer to the westward of th- Sawiotowns, cuiffes the Yadkin about hity eniles birid-well from Sulisbury, and thence proceeds by the way of King's mountain to the louthern itale. No limestone has been found to the cailwad of thai ridge. A species of rock has been found in several places, of which Dime is made, which is obviously a concretion of marine shells. The State is zravcríed nearly in the same direction by an other Braium of rocks which pita sesi ei torrenton. It is a circumstance worthy of observation, ibat ile fyrirson! naier on the N. W. side of the ridge are apt to tail in dry sea jous, un .be S. W. Gide they feldom fail.
Religion and Characlcr.
İ HE western parts of this state, which have been seurled within the Jaft forty years, are chicfiy inhabited by Presbyterians form Penngylvania the descendants of people from the north of Ireland, and are exceedingly ziv io ched to the doctrines, discipline and usages of the church of Scotland. They are a regular, industrious people. Almost all the inhabiants between the Cae tawba and Yudkin rivers are of this denomination, and they are in general well supplied with a sensible and learned miniflry. There are inteciperled some feillements of Germans, both Lutherans and Calvinills, but they have very few minillers. The Moravians have also several flourishing settlement in this Siate.
The Friends, or Quakers, have a sertleinent a: New-Garden, in Guilferd county, and several congregations at Perquimins and Pajquotank. The Methodists and Baptills are numerous and increasing. Belides the denomi. nations already mentioned. there is a very numerous body of people in ibis, and in all the Southern States, who cannot properly be clased with any lcat of Chriftians, having never made any profeflioa of Christianity.
The North Carolinians are molly planters, and live from half a mile to three and four miles from each other on their plantations ; they have a plentiful country, no ready market for their produce, lite intercourse with Itrangers, and a natural fondness for society, which induce ibem to be hospicable to ftrangers.
The general topics of conversation among the men, whea cards, the boule, and occurrences of the day do not intervene are negroes, the prices of indigo, rice, tobacco, &c. They appear to have live tage for the sciences, PoliuLical inquiries and philosophical oisquisitions are atiended to but by a few men of genius and induiry, and are loo laborious at present for the minds of the people at large in this face. Le's attention and respect are paid to the women
bere, than in those parts of the United States where the inhabitants have made greater progress in the arts of civilised life ; indeed ius a truth confirmed by observation, that in proportion to the advancenent of civilization, in the fame proportion will respect for the women be increased; fo that the progress of civilizacion in countries, in states, towns, and in families, may be marked by the degree of attention which is paid by husbands w their wives, and by the young men to the young women.
Temperance and industry are not to be reckoned among the virtues of ihe North-Carolinians; the time which they walte in drinking, idling and gambling, leaves them very littleopportunity to improve their plantations or their minds; che improvement of the former is left io their overseers and negroes; . the improvement of the latter is too often negle&ted. W'ere the time which is thus wasted spent in cultivating the soil, and in treasuring up knowledge, they might be both wealthy and learned : for they have a productive coun. try, and are by no means deftitute of genius.
Trade and Manufa&tures.
I great proportion of the produce of the back country, confifiing of tobacco, wheat, Indian corn, &c. is carried to market in South-Carolina and Virginia. The southern interior countries carry their produce to Charleyton; and the northern to Petersburgh in Virginia. The exports from the lower parts of the State are car, pitch, turpentine, rofin, indian corn, boards, scantling, staves, shingles, furs, tobacco, pork, lard, tallow, bees-wax, myrilewax, and a few other articles. Their trade is chiefly with the il'olIndies and the northern faces. From the latter they receive flour, cheese, cider, apples, potatoes, iron wares, cabinet wares, hats, and dry goods of all kinds imported from Great Britain, France and Holland, teas, &c. From the Weft-Indies, rum, sugar and coffee.
li is no uncommon thing for the farmer to mark from five hundred to one thousand calves in a year. No farther attention is paid to them till they are fit for slaughter ; then they are taken up, killed, barrelied and sent to the WestIndia market. Their pork is raised with as lile trouble; large quantiles of which before the war, were sent to New-England particularly to Bosion and Salem.
The late war, by which North-Carolina was greatly convulsed, put a ftop to several iron works. Al present there are four or five furnaces in the Staic that are in the blast, and a proportionable number of forges. There is one in Guilford county, one in Surty and one in Il’ilkes, all on the Yadkin, and one in Lincoln. The qualiiy of the iron is excellent.
One paper mill has lately been crecled at Salem by the Moravians to greai advantage
Colleges and Academics.
* HE General Assembly of North-Carolina, in Decemler, 1789 palled a law incorporating forty gentlemen, five from cach district, as (rullees of the university of North-Carolina; 10 this univerliiy they gave, by a subsequent law, all the debıs due to the State from theriffs or other holders of punsic money, and which had been due before the year 1783 ; they also gave at all escheated property within the state. Whenever the trustees thall have collected a sufficient sum of the old debis, or from the sale of elchcated prue perty, the value of which is considerable, to pay the expense of erecting buildings; they are wu tix on a proper place, and proceed in the finishing of them; a coniiderab e qarty of land has a ready been given to the university, and the General Assembly,, in December, 1791, loaned five houfand pounds to the trustees, to enable them io procved immediately with the bui.dings.
I here is a very good academy at Warrenton, another at Wilimsborougk in Granville, and three or four others in the State, of confiderable nute.
HE Legislative Authority in this State, is vefted in two diftrict branches, a Senate and a Houfe of Commons; who are annually chosen by the people. The Execu.ive power is velted in a governor; who is ch sen anuua iy by the Senate and House of Commons joinily. He is not eligible to that ifice loyer than ihrce, nu lix fucceilive years. The governor is also captanı genies and commander in chief of the siltia. The conftitution ellows of no religious eltablishments.
C HA P. XXII.
STATE OF TENNESSE E.
Siuation, Extent, and Boundaries.
T HIS Siare, which till 1796 was called the Territory South of the Ohio is usualei beween 6° 20' and 16' 30' weft longitude from Philadelphia, and 35 and 36 30' ourth latitude ; 11 extends four hundred mes in lengihand one hundred and five miles in bread:h, and contains th“ whole of the iract of country ceded to ihe United States by the State of North-Caro. lina in the year 1789. It is bounded on the north by the State of Ken. tucky and part of Virginia, on the call by a range of mountains, which lepa. sales it from North-Carolina on the south by South-Carolina and Georgis. and on the west by the Milhappi.
It is divided into three districts, viz. Washington, Hamilton and Mere, which are subdivided into thirteen counties, which contain upwards of 100,000 inhabitants.
Nashville, is the chief town in Mero district, ftuated on the south bank of Cumberland river. The coures are held here. It contains about eighty houses, two houses for public worship and a handsomely endowed acaderny, It is : 20 miles E. of the Minppi, and 1000 miles S. W. from Philadtlphia. 36° N. latitude, 87° 6' w. longitude.
Knoxville, is the Metropolis of this ftare, bcautifully fituated on the N. bark of Holston river. It is regularly laid out and enjoys a communication with every part of the United States by poll. This place is in a very flou.