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to enter upon an otherwise unprofitable description of battles or Geges ; we leave this to the pen of the historian, whose object is to furnish a minute detail of every occurring circumstance, and only observe in general, that the many military atchievments performed by the Jersey foldiers, give this bate one of the first ranks among her filters in a military view, and entitie her to a share of praise in the accomplishment of the late glorious revolution that bears no proportion to her fize.

CHA P. XIII.

STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA.

Situation, Boundaries, Population, &c.

THIS State, which is one of the most important in the American Union, is situated between o° 20' East and 50° W ft longicude ; and between 39° 43 and 42° North latitude. Its length is 288 miles and its breadth 156, bounded E. by Delaware river, which separates it from New Jersey; N. by New-York, and a territory of about two hundred and cwo thouland acres on Lake Erie, purchased of congress by this State ; N. W'eft by a part of Lake Erie, where there is a good post ; W. by the Wefiero territory ; and a part of Virginia, S. by a part of Virginia, Maryland and Delaware. The ftate lies in the form of a parrallelogram, containing 44,900 square miles and about 450,000 inhabitants, li is divided into twenty-three counties, viz. Philadelphia, Chesler, Delaware, Bucks, Montgomery, Berks, Lancaster, Dauphin, Northampton, Luzerne, York, Cumberland, Northumberland, Franklin, Bedford, Huntingden, Mifflin, Weftmoreland, Somerfit, Fayetta, Wafhington, Alleghany and Lycoming.

Chief Town)

THE city of Philadelphia capital of this Siase, and the present Seat of government of the United States of America, lies in larieude 39° 56' N. and long. 75° 8' 46" W. from Greenwich, upon the Western bank of the river Delaware, which is here about a mile in breadth, about 120 miles from the ocea:. It was laid out by W. Penn the full proprietary and foundes of the province in the year 1683. The ground plot on the Delaware front, occupies a {pace near three miles in length North and South, and in the middle the buildings where they are most extended reach a mile from the Dee kware. It is intersecied by a number of ilreers at right angles with each other, forming one hundred and eignty four Squares of lois for buildings. The city is governed by a Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen and Common Councilmen.

There is not perhaps in the world a more liberal plan of city government : every class of citizens have an opportunity of refrelenting and being repre. lented. The body is sufficienty numerous to contain some of every descripe tion, and of every species of talents and information necessary for deliberation and execution, and yet not so large as to be incumbered with its own weight; Il possesses the powers of legislation and taxation in all cases necellary for the Well-governing and improving the city, except in contradiction to alts of the Vol. IV.

TE

General Assembly ; and from the many improvements already introduced, there is reason to hope that its police will be equal to that of any modern City.

A city court is held by the mayor, recorder, and aidermen four times in a year, and holds cognizance of all crimes and misdemeanors committed within the city

d court of aldermen, having cognizance of debts above forty fhillings, and not exceeding ten pounds, is held every week, beginning on Monday morning, and fitting by adjournments until the business of the week is finished.

Each alderman has separate cognizance of debis under forty shillings.

The number of inhabitants within she city and suburbs, including the dif triềt of Southwark and the compactly built part of the Northern liberties; which, to every purpose but as to their government, are considered as parts of the city, is between 70 and 80,000.

The houses for public worship are numerous, and are as follows :
The Friends or Quakers, bave 5* The Swedish Lutherans,
The Presbyterians and Seceders 6 The Moravians,
The Episcopalians,

The Baptists,
The German Lutherans, 2 The Universal Baprifts,
The German Calvinilts,

The Methodists
The Catholics,

The Jews, The other public buildings in the city, besides the university and collega, are the following: A flace house and offices,

Two incorporated banks, Two city court houses,

A house of correction, A county court house,

A dramatic theatre, A carpenters hall,

A public observatory, A philosophical society's hall, A medical ebeáire and elaboratory, A dispensary,

Three brick market houses, Hospitals, and offices,

A filh market, An alms house,

A public gaol, &c. The ftate house is in Chesnut street, between Fifth and Sixth streets, and was erected as early as 1735. The building is rather magnificent than elegant, but when it is remembered that it was built within fifty-three years after the first European cabin was erected in Pennfyluania, its architecture is juft. ly admired. The Slade house yard is a neat, elegant, and spacious public walk, ornamented with rows of irees ; but a high brick wall, which encloses it, limits the prospect.

In 1987, an elegant Court house was erected on the left of the State house; and on the right, the town hall or new Court house, and a philosophical hall. These add much to the bcauty of the fquare.

South of the State house is the public gaol, built of stone. It has a ground half story, and two stories above it. Every apartment is arched with lonc against fire and force. It is a hollow square, one hundred feet in front, and is the neatest and most fecure building of the kind in America. To the gaot is annexed a work house, with yards to each, to separate the sexes, and crimi. nals from debtors. There have lately been added apartments in the yards for Lolitary confinement of criminals according to the new penal code. Of four thousand and Gixty debtors, and four thousand criminals, in the whole eight housand and fixty who were confined in this new gaol, between the 28th of September, 1780, and the fifth of Sepsember, 1790, twelve only died a naral death in the gaol.

* One of these houses is for those Quakers who took up arms in defence of their country in the late war, contrary to the citablished principles of the Friends. They call themselves Free Quakers.

+ This is the oldest church in or near the city, and bas lately been annexed to the Lpiscopalian order:

The hospital and poor house, in which are upwards of three hundred poor people, whether we confider the buildings, or the designs for which they were credted, are unrivalled in America.

The market house in High street is acknowledged by Europeans to exceed any thing they have seen of the kind ; it is one thousand five hundred feet in length, and in the exient, neatness, variety and abundance of provisions, is not equalled in America. There are two others at different parts of the city, which do honour to the citizens and their police.

The city is provided with a number of public and private charitable inlitutions ; the principal of which are, the house of employment, a large commodious building, where the poor of the city and some adjoining townships are supported and employed in coarse manufactures to aid in defraying their expenses, under the care of the overseers and guardians of the poor, who are a corporate body created for this purpose by act of Allembly, with power la lay taxes for its farther support.

The Pennfyluania hospital.

The Quakers’alms house is supported by that society for the use of their owo poor ; it is divided into a number of separate houses and rooms for famia lies or fingle persons who have fallen into decay ; most of them contribute by their industry towards their own support, but are supplied with whatever their induftry falls short of procuring, by a committee of the society, and live more comfortably than many who in full health, and unhurt by accident, provide for their own subsistence ; there is a considerable garden belonging to this house, from which the city is supplied, at very moderate prices, with every kind of medicinal herbs common to the climate.

The hospital for lunaticks is a fine elegant building, and well kept ; it has a library, in which there is an elegant bust of Franklin. The hall on the first floor is appropriated to fick men, and the second floor to women, The lunatics have each a cell furnished with a bed and table, and a stove for the conveniency or warming the cell in winter.

A house founded by the late Dr. John Kearsley the elder, for the support of twelve elderly widows of the Protestant Episcopal communion, in which a number of persons of that description, who have seen better days are very comfortably and decently provided for

The humane society for recovering persons supposed to be dead by drowning, established upon similar principles with those of the same name in mot ica ports in Europe : it is under the care of twelve managers, annually chosen by the subscribers ; the physicians afford their aid to this inftitution gratis, a number of these being appointed for the purpose by the inanagers.

Almost every religious fociety has a fund under proper direction, some of which are incorporated for the relief of the widows and chiidren of their clergy, or other distressed members of their conimunion.

There are also societies formed for the relief of particular descriprions of persons, with funds raised by subscriptions otherwise, for the purpose, such as the sea captains society, the Delaware pilues society, separate societies for the relief and allmance of emigrants and other direiled persons, from England, Scotland, Ireland, Germany, &s, some of which are incorpse

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