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Brunswick city, a poft town is situated on the south west side of Raritan river, over which a fine bridge has lately been built, twelve miles above Amboy. It contains about three hundred houses, and about two thousand eight hundred inhabitants, one half of whom are Dutch. Its situation is low and unpleasant, being on the bank of a river, and under a high hill which rises at the back of the town. The citizens have a considerable inland trade, and several Imall vessels belonging to the port, thirty-five miles south wef from New York, north lat. 40 deg. 30 min. W. long. 74 deg. 30 min.
Princetown is a pleasant poft-town of about eighty houses, fifty-two miles from New York, and forty-two from Philadelphia. Its public buildings are a large college edifice of stone, and a Presbyterian church built of brick. Its fituation is remarkably healthy.
Elizabeth-town a poft town is fifteen miles W. from New York. Its fituation is plealant, and its foil equal in fertility to any in the flate, la the compact part of the town there are about one hundred and fifty houses. The public buildings are a very handsome Presbyterian brick church lately built, an Episcopal church also of brick, and an Academy. This is one of the oldeft towns in the state. It was purchafed of the Indians as early as 1664, and was seuled foon after, fifteen miles south west of New York.
Newark a poft town is nine miles west from New York. It is a handsome flourishing town, about the size of Elizabeth-town, and has two Presbyterian churches, one of which is of stone, and is the largelt and most elegant building in the state. Besides these there is an Episcopal church, a court house, and a gaol. This town is celebrated for the excellence of its cider, and is the seat of the largest shoe manufactory in the face : the average number made daily throughout the year, is estimated at about two hundred pair. An academy was eltablished here in 1792, and promises to be a useful inftitution.
Religion and Character. I HERE are in this State about fifiy Presbyterian congregations, Subje&t to the care of three Prefbyteries, viz, ihal of New York, of Brunfwick and Philadelphia. A part of the charge of New York and Philadelphia Presbyterics lies in New Jersey, and part in their own respective ftates.
Besides these, there are upwards of forty congregations of Friends, thirty of the Baprifts, twenty-five of Episcopalians, twenty-eight of Dutch reformcd, besides Methodists and a settlement of Moravians.
All these religious denominations live together in peace and harmony, and worship Almighty God agreeably to the dictaces of their own consciences; they are not compelled to attend or support any worfhip contrary to their own faith and judgment. All protestant inhabitants of peaceable behaviour are eligible to the civil offices of the flate.
It may, in truth be said, that the people of New Jersey are generally industrious, frugal and hospitable. There are, comparatively, but few men of learning in the state, nor can it be said, that the people in general have a talle for the sciences. The poorer class, in which may be included a considerable proportion of the inhabitants of the whole fare, have been inattentive to the education of their children, who are but 100 generally left to grow up in ignorance. There are, however, a number of gentlemen of the first rank of abilities and learning in the civil offices of the dare, and in the several learned profellions.
Manufa&tures, Trade, &c.
I HE trade of this State is carried on almost folely with and from those two great commercial cities, New-York on one Gide, and Philadelphia on the other, though it wants not good ports of its own. Several attempts have been made by the legislature to secure to the state its own natural advan. tages, by granting extraordinary privileges to merchants who would seule at Amboy and Burlington, two very commodious ports. But the people having long been accustomed to send their produce to ihe markets of Philadelphia and New York, and of course having their correspondencies eslablished, and their mode of dealing fixed, they find it difficult to turn their trade from the old channel. Besides, in these large cities, where are so many able mer. chants, and so many wants to be fupplied, credits are more easily obtained, and a better and quicker market is found for produce than could be expected in towns less populous and flourishing. These and other causes of the same kind have hitherto rendered abortive the encouragements held out by the legillature.
The articles exported, besides those already mentioned, are wheat, flour, horses, live cattle, hams, which are celebrated as being among the best in the world, lumber, flax-seed, leather, iron in great quantities, in pigs and bars, and formerly copper ore ; but the mines have not been worked since the commenceinent of the late war. The imporis confit chiefly of Weft India goods.
The manufactures of this state have hitherto been very inconsiderable, not fufficient to supply its own consumption, if we excepi the articles of iron, Dails, and leather. A spirit of industry and improvemeni, particularly in manufa&ures, has, however, greatly increased some years since. Most of. the families in the country, and many in the populous towns, are clothed in strong, decent homespun; and it is a happy circumftance for the couniry, that this plain American dress is every day growing more fashionable, not on ly in this but in all the States.
In Trenton, Newark, and Elizabeth town are several very valuable tanyards, where leather in large quantities, and of an excellent quality, is made and exported to the neighbouring markets. - In Gloucester county is a glass-house. Paper: mills and nail manufactories are crecled and worked to good advantage in several parts of the State. Wheat also is manufactured into flour, and Indian corn into meal, to good accourt, in the western counties, where wheat is the staple commodity. But the iron maoufacture is of all others the greatest source of wealth to the Staie. Iron works are erected in Gloucester, Burlington, Sufjex, Morris, and other counties. The mouprains in the county of Morris give rise to a number of kreams necessary and convenient for these works, and at the same time furnish a copious supply of wood and ore of a superior quality. In this county alone are no less than seven rich iron mincs, from which might be iaken ore sufficient to supply the United States ; and to work it into iron are two furnaces, two rolling and fliucing mills, and about thirty forges, containing from two 10, four fires cach. These works produce annually above five hundred and for. ty ions of bar iron, eight bundred tons of pig, besides large quantities of hol. low ware, sheet iron and nail rods. In the whole Stare, it is supposed there is yearly made about eweive hundred tons of bar irer, iwelve hundred ions of pig, eight hundred tons of nail rods, exclutive of hollow ware, and various ouber castings, of which vast quantities are made,
Literature, Improvements, &c. HERE are two colleges in New Jersey ; one at Princeton, called Nasau-Hall ; the other at Brunjwick, called Queen's College. The college at Prince tou'n was first founded by charter from John Hamilton, Esq. President of the Council, about the year 1738 and enlarged by Governor
Belcher in 1747. The charter delegates a power of granting to “ the fudents of said college, or to any others though worthy of them, all fuch de grees as are granted in either of the univerfitics, or any orher college in Great Britain." Ti has ewenty-three trustees. The governor of the Siaie, and the president of the college are ex offuiis, two of them. It has an annual income of about nine hundred pounds currency, of which two hundred pounds arise from funded public securities and lands, and the rest from the fees of the flu. denis.
. The president of the college is also professor of eloquence, criticism and chronology. The vice-president is also professor of divinity and moral philosophy. There is also a professor of mathematics and natural philosophy, ond iwo mallers of languages. The four claffes in college contain commonly from seventy to one hundred students. There is a grammar School of about twenty scholars, connected with the college, under the fuperintendance of the pretident, and taught sometimes by a senior scholar, and fometimes by a gra. duate.
Before the war, this college was furojshed with a philofophical apparatus, worth five hundred pounds, which (except the elegant orrery confructed by Mr. Rittenhouse) was almost entirely deltroyed by the British army in the late war, as was also the library, which now coniults of between two and three thousand volumes.
The college edifice is handsomely built with sone, and is one hundred and eighty feet in length, fifty-fourin breadrh, and four flories high, and is divided into forty-ewo convenient chambers for the accommodation of the students, besides a dining hall, chap:1, and room for the library. Iis lituation is elevated, and exccedingly pleasant and healthful. It is remarkable, thar fince the removal of the college to Prince town, in 1756, there have been but five or fx deaths among the Itudents. The view from the college balcony is extensive and charming.
The college has been under the care of a succession of prefidents, eminent for piety and learning, and has furnished a number of civillians, divines and phylicians, of the file ank in America.
The charter for Queen's College, at Brunswick, was granted just before the war, in consequence of an application from a body of the Dutch church. Iis funds, raised wholly by free donations, amounted, soon after its establishmeni, to four thousand pounds, but they were considerably dininished by the war. The grammar-school, which is connected with the college, confifts of between thirty add forty fludents, under the care of the truffees. The college at present is not in a very flourishing flate.
There are a number of good academies in this fiare ; viz, one at Frechold in the county of Monmouth ; one at Trenton ; one in Hackinfack, in the county of Bergen ; one at Orangedale, in the county of Eflex ; one at Elizabeth rown ; one at Burlington; one at Newark, Besides there, there are grammar Schools at Spring jield, Morristown, Bordentown, Amboy, &c.
There is a medical society in this Siare, consisting of about thirty of their most respeclable physicians, who meciiwice a year. No person is admitted
to the practice of phyfac without a licence from the supreme court, founded 00 a certificate from this fociety, or at least iwo of its inembers, tellifying his kill and abilities. It is remarkable, that in the county of Cape May no regular phyfician has ever found support. Medicine has been administered by wouxen, except in fome extraordinary cases.
Confitution and Courts of Justice.
I HE government of this slate, agreeable to the conflitution, is velted 10 a governor, legillative comcil, and general Allembly. The governer is chosen annually, by the council and All-inbly jointly, and is Bord, “ Governor, and cominander in chief in and over the state of NewJerry, and the territories thereunto belonging, chance!lor and ordinary in the fine. The legiflative council is composed of one member from each county, chosen annually by the people. They must be worth one thousand pounds in real and personal estate, within the county, and have been fise. holders and inhabitants, of the counties they represent, for one year. The general affembly is composed of three members, from each couniy, chosen as above ; each of them muß be worth five hundred pounds, of real and persuaal eilae, within the county, and have been freebolders and inhabitants as above. Each of these, on taking his fcat in the legillature muk swear, “ that he will not aflent to any law, vote, or proceeding, which hall appear to bim injurious, to the public welfare of the flate, or thar fhall annul or repcal chat part of the conflitution which elablithes annual elections, por ihat part relpecting trial by jury, nor that part which fccuies liberty of conscience.”
The governor sus in and prefiries over the legillarive council ; and has a cafting vote in their debates. Ilis privy, or executive council, is coinposed of any three meinbers of the legislative council ; and the governor, and any seven members of the council, are a court of appeals in the last sefort, 28 to points of law in civil cales, and possess a power of pardoning criminals in all cases whatsoever. The council choose one of their members to be vice-President, who, when the governor is absent from the fate, poffels the supreme executive power. The council may originale any bills, except preparing and aitering any imney-bill, which is the fole prerogative of the alleinbly. In every other relpect their powers are equal. Every bill is read three times in each house. None of the judges of the fupreme court, or other courts, leuiffs, or any person poffelled of any poll of profit under the governor, except juslices of the peace, 'is entitled 10 a seat in the assembly. '
The courts of justice in this Rare are, first, Jollices courts. A coitin petent number of persons are appointed in each county by the Counert and Assembly in joint meeting who are called juflices of ihe peace, and continue in office five years; who, behides being conservators of inc peace, agreeably to the English laws, are authorized to hold courts for the trial of causes under twelve pounds. From this court, persons aggrieved may appeal to the quarter fellions.
Secondly, Courts of quarter sessions of the peace are held quarterly is every county, by at least three of the justices. This court lakes cognizance of breaches of the peace, and is generally regulaced by the rules of the English law,
Thirdly, Courts of Common Pleas, which are held quarterly by judges appointed for that purpose, in the saine manner as the jultices of the peace, and who are commonly of their number, and hold their commissions five years. This court may be held by a single judge, and has cognizance of demands to any amount, and is constructed on, and governed by the principal of the English laws.
Fourthly, Supreme Courts, which are held four times in a year, at Trenton, by three judges appointed for that purpose, who hold their offices three vears; but one judge only is necessary to the holding this court. This court has cognizance of all actions, both civil and criminal, through. out the flare, having the united authority of the courts of king's bench, common pleas, and exchequer in England. The courts of oyer and terminer and fini prius, commonly held once a year in each county, for the trial of causes arising in the county, and brought to issue in the supreme court, are properly branches of this court, and are held by one of ihe judges of it, except that in the courts of oyer and terminer, some of the gentlemen of the county are always added in the commillion as a liftants to the judge: · but they cannot hold the court without him.
Fifthly, Orphan's courts, lately established by act of Assembly, are held by the judges of the courts of common pleass, ex ofreies, and have cognizance of all matters relating to wills, adminiftrations, &c.
Sixthly, Court of Chancery, held by the government ex officio, always open. It is a court of law and equity, founded on the same principles, and governed by the same rules as the court of Chancery in England,
Seventhly, High courts of Errors and Appeals, composed of the governor and seven of the council, and is a court of appcals in the last resort in all cases of law.
All the English laws which have been practised upon in the state, and which are not repugnant to revolution principles, were adopied by the conftitution, and very few alterations of consequence have since been made, ex. cepe in the descent of the real estates, which inftead of descending to the eldest son, agreeable to the old feudal system, as formerly are now divided where there is no will, iwo shares to each son, and one share to each daughter, i. e. the sons have double the daughters portions, but all the fons have equal portion, and all the daughters.
THIS state was the seat of war for several years, during the con. teft between Great Britain and America. Here lolles both of men and property, in proportion to the population and wealth of the fate, was greater than any other of the thirteen states. When General Washington was retreating through the Jersey's, almost forsaken by all others, her milizia were at all times obedient to his orders, & for a considerable length of time, composed the arength of his army. There is hardly a town in the state that lay in the progress of the British army, that was not rendered signal by some enterprize or exploit. Ai Trenton the enemy received a check, which may be said with justice to have turned the time of war. Ai Princetown the seat of the muses, they received another, which, united obliged them to rerire with precipitation, and take refuge in disgraceful winter quarters. But whatever honor this Scace might derive from the relation, it is not our business