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Cape Mar Invest ini, l'armes broqraphi published by, Ver York .

11.Barker sculp Philad!!

trk, and the Raritan by Brunfwisk. The Hackinfack rises in Bergen county, runs a southwardly course, and ernplies into Newark bay. At the ferry, near its mouth, it is four hundied and Gxty yards wide, and is navigable fifteen miles.

Bridges have lately been erected over the Pasaik, Hackinfack, and Raritan rivers, on the post road between New-York and Philadelphia. These bridges will greatly facilitate the intercourse between these two great cities.

That part of the State which borders on the sea, is indented with a great number of small rivers and creeks, such as Great Egg-Harbour, and Little Egg-Harbour rivers, Navefink, Shark, Matticung, and Forked rivers, which, as che country is flat, are navigable for small craft almost to their Sources.

This state is remarkable for mill feats, eleven hundred of which are already improved ; five hundred with flour mills, and the rell with saw mills, fulling mills, forges, furnaces, fitting, and rolling mills, paper, powder, and

Sandy Hook, or Point, is in the township of Middletown : and on this point Itands a light house, one hundred feet high, built by the citizens of New-York. (See page 299.)

oil mills.

Soil and Productions, HIS Scate has all the varieties of foil from the worst to the best kind. It has a great proportion of barrens. The good land in the southern counties lies principally on the banks of rivers and creeks. The soil on these banks is generally a ftiff clay : and while in a flate of nature, produces various species of oak, hickory, poplar, chesnut, ash, gum, &c. The barrens produce little else but sarub oaks and yellow pines. These sandy lands yield in immense quantity of bog iron ore, which is worked up to great advantage, up the iron works in these counties. There are large bodies of falc meadow mong the lower part of the Delaware river and bay, which afford a plentiful parture for cattle in summer, and bay in winter ; but the flies and musketoes Aquent these meadows in large swarmas, in the months of June, July, and cault, and prove very troublesome both to man and beall. In Gloucester

umberland counties are several large cracts of banked meadow. Their Yo Philadelphia renders them highly valuable. Along the sea coast

tants (abili principally by feeding cattle on the falt meadows, and th of various kinds, such as rock, drum, Thad, perch, &c. black ture

s, and oy fters, which the sea, rivers and creeks afford in great abunTheis They raise Indian corn, rye, potatoes, &c. but not for exportation.

wamps afford lumber, which is cafily conveyed to a good market.
af maple tree is common in Suffex county upon the Delaware.
hilly and mountainous parts of the Slace, which are not too rocky
Lion, the soil is of a stronger kind, and covered in its natural state
y oaks, hickories, chesnuts, &c. and when cultivated produces
si indian corn, buck-wheat, oats, barley, flax, and fruits of all kinds
the climate. The land in this hilly country is good for grazing,
feed great numbers of cattle for New York and Philadelphia

m any of them keep large dairies, as there are large tracis of Ns between the hills,

the inhabitants saball pr by the fish of various ki

Their swamps affor The lugar maple

for cultivation, the foi with sately oaks, he common to the climate. and farmers feed great markets; and many of fine meadows between

Vol. IV.

- The orchards in many parts of the state equal any in the United States, and their cyder is said and not without reason, to be the best in the world. ii is pretty certain, that it cannot be surpassed in goodness.

The markets of New York and Philadelphia receive a very considerable proportion of their supplies from the contiguous parts of New Jersey. And it is worthy of remark, that these contiguous parts are exceedingly well calcu

lated, as to the nature and fertility of their foils, to afford these supplies ; and . the intervention of a great number of navigable rivers and creeks renders ic · very convenient to market obeir produce. These supplies confift of vegetables of many kinds, apples, pears, peaches, plums, ftrawberries, cherries, and other fruits ; cyder in large quantities, and of the best quality ; butler, cheese, beef, pork, mutton, and the lesser meats.

This Slate embosoms valt quantities of iron and copper ore. The iroa ore is of two kinds; one is capable of being manufactured into malleable lion, and is found in mountains and in low barrens ; the other, called bog ore, grows in rich buttoins, and yields iron of a hard, brittle quality, is com monly manufactured into hollow ware, and used sometimes infiead of Alone in building,

A lead mine has been discovered in Hopewell township, four miles from Trenton. There is said to be coul on Raritan river, below Brunswick, and at Pluckemin ; and curf in Bethlehem, at the head of its south branch ; and also at Spring field on Raway river, which is remarkable for mill feats. • In the upper part of the county of Morris is a cold mineral spring, which is frequented by valetudinarians, and its waters have been used with very confiderable success. In the town hip of Hanover, in this county, on a ridge of hills, are a number of wells, which regularly ebb and flow about fix feet, iwice in every i wenty-four hours. These wells are nearly forty miles from the sea in a ftraight line. In the county of Cape May is a spring of fresh water, which boils up from the bottom of a falt water creek, which runs nearly dry at low tide ; but at flood tide is covered with water directly from the ocean, to the depth of three or four feet ; yet in this licuarion, by letting down a boxile, well corked, through the salt-water into the spring, and immediately drawing the cork with a string prepared for the purpose, it may be drawn up full of fine untainted fresh water. There are springs of this kind in various other parts of the State, la the county of Hunterdon, near the top of Muskoncicony mountain, is a noted medicinal spring, to which invalids resort from every quarter. I illues from the side of a mountain, and is conveyed into an artificial reservoir for the accommodation of ihose who with to bathe in, as well as to drink, the waters. It is a trong chalybeate, and vety cold. These waters have been used with very considerable fuccess; but perhaps the exercise necessary to get to them, and the purity of the air in this lofty fituation, aided by a lively imagination, have as great efficacy in curing the patient as the waters.

A curious {pring has been discovered, about two hundred yards from the south branch of Raritan river, from which, even in the, dryeft seasons, a small ftream issues, except when the wind continues to blow from the northwell for more than two days succellively, when it ceases to run ; and if the water be caken out of the cask placed in the ground, it will remain emply until the wind changes, when it is again filled, and flows as usual.

In the township of Shrewsbury, in Monmouth county, on the side of a branch of Navesink river, is a remarkable cave, in which there are three rooms. The cave is about thirty feet long and fifteen feet broad. Each of the rooms are arched ; the center of the arch is about five feet from the bottom of the cave; the sides not more than two and an half. The mouth of the cave is small ; the bottom is a loose fand ; and the arch is formed in a soft rock, through the pores of which the moisture is lowly exudated, and falls in drops on the fand below. .

· Chief Towns.

I HERE are a number of towns in this State, nearly of equal fize and importance, and none that has more than about two hundred houtes compactly built.

Trenton is one of the largest towns in New Jersey and the capital of the ftate. It is sacuated on the north-east side of the river Delaware, opposite the falls, nearly in the centre of the fate from north to South, in lat. 40° 15', and about 20 min. ealt of the meridiau of Philudelphia. The river is not navigable above these falls, except for boats which will carry from five to leven hundred bushels of wheat. This town, with Lamberton, which joins it on the south, contains upwards of two hundred houles, befides public buildings.--Here the Legislature fraredly meets, the supreme court fus, and most of the public offices are kept. The inhabitants have lately erected a hand some court house one hundred feet by fifty, with a semi-hexagon at each end, over" which is to be a ballustrade. In the neighbourhood of this pleasant town are several gentlemen's feats, finely Guated on the banks of the Delaware, and ornamented with talte and elegance, This town, being a thoroughfare between the castern parts of the late and Philadelphia, has a considerable inland trade. There are one church for Episcopalians, one for Prefbyterians, one for Methodists, and a Quaker Meeting. Le lies thirty miles north eart of Philadelphia.

Burlington city extends three miles along the Delaware, and one mile back, at sight angles, into the county of Burlington, and is twenty miles above Philadelphia by water, and soventeen by land. The island, which is the most populous part of the city, is a mile and a quarter in lenghi, and three quarters of a mile in breadth. I has four entrances over bridges and Causeways, and a quantity of bank meadow adjoioing. On the island are about one hundred and seventy houses, and one thousand two hundred and ffty inhabitants. The Delaware, opposite the town, is about a mile wide ; and under shelter of Mittinnicunk and Burlington islands, afford a fafe and convenient harbour. It is commodiously licuated for trade, but is 100 near the opulent city of Philadelphia to admit of any considerable increase of foreign commerce. There are two houses for public worship in the town, one for the friends or Quakers, who are the most numerous, and one for Epifcopalians. The other public buildings are two market houses, a court houle, and the belt gaol in the fiate.

Perth-Amboy city took its name from James Drummond, Earl of Perth, and Ambo, the Indian word for point, and hands on a neck of land includ. ed between Raritan river and Arthur Kill sound. Its situacion is high and healthy. It lies open to Sandy-Hook, and has one of the best harbourson the continen!, Veilcis from fea may enter it in one side in almost any weather. Great efforts have been made, and legildarive encouragements

offered, to render it a place of trade, but without fucceis. It is thirty· five miles south west of New York, north laricude 40' 35 min. well longi

tude 74 deg. 50 min.

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