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Sherifs and coroners are appointed annually, and can serve bue four years successively,

A court of errors and imperchment is inftituicd, composed of the President of the Senate, Chancellor and Judges of the supreme court or the major par: of thein, under the regularion of the Legislature. The power of impeachment is veiled in the house of representatives, and the members on Trial in ill be sworn.

Bulidis the court of errors and impeachment, there is first, a cour: of Chancery, courfiling of a Chancellor, appointed by the council of appointmii, who holds his office during good behaviour, or until he arrive at the age of lixty years. Secondly, a Supreme court, the judges of which are appointed in the fame manner, and for the same time as the chancellor. 'I his is a circuit court. Thirdly, County courts, held in cach county, the judges of which are apointed in the manner abovementioned, 29d the first judge holds his office during good behaviour, or unul he arrive at the age of sixty years. Besides these there are the juftice's courts, court of pro. baies, court of Adiniralry', court of exchequer, a court of oyer and terminer and general gaol delivery, and court of quarter sessions.

The practice in the supreme court, to which an appeal lies from the cousis below, is in imitation of the supreme court of the common plase and king's borch in England.

Finances.

1 VARIETY of circumllances have conspired to fill the treasury of this flare, and wholy to supercede che necessity of taxation for several ycars past ; firit, confiications and economical management of that property ; fecord, sales of unappropriated lands ; and third, a duty on imports previous to the ellablishment of the federal government. The two fornier were fold for continental cerificates, at a time when the credit of the late was, per haps, above the par of the Union, which was the cause of getting a large fum of the public debt in the treasury of the State at a depreciated value. These cerificates, fince the funding fi fiem came into operation, added 10 the assumed fare deti, a vast quantity of which was also in the treasury, forin's an enormous mass of property, yielding an anouits of upwards of one Trundred thousand dollars; and when the deferred debe shall become a fix per cent. foch, viis annuity will be upuards of two hundred thousand dollars.

The ability of the flate therefore, is abuniantly competent to aid public inflitu.ions of every kind, wo małe roads, erect bridges, opon canals, and mo pull every kind of improvement to the moi dearable length. It could be wilhed, ıhat those citizens who were exiled during the war and whole property was exposed during its continuance to wanion depredations, were amply rewarded, the Legislature poffefling so fully the means of discriminating this unl,appy class of lufferers, and making them compensation for their voluntary facrifices, we are not without hope that this will Toon be the case.

Foris, &c.

IHESE are principally in ruins. The demolition of the fort in the city of Now- Viork has beru mencioned. Remains of the fortifications en Long-11nd, York-island, Ilhi:c-Plains, Theft-Point, and other places,

are fill vilble. Fort Stanwir. burili by ske Bizijn in 1758, at the expense it is said, of fixty showfa:id pounds, is one bundred and leven miles will ward of Schenetleda, on an arrihualcminence bordering on the Mohawk river, and in yravelling this difence, you pass fort Hunder, foort Anthony, fort Plain, fort llerkemer, and furt Schuyler. As you proceed wildward of fort Stanwix, you pals fort Bull, and fort Breueron, a: the will end of Oneida lake. Fort G-orge is at the fouth end of late Carge. Ar the point were lake George cupununicates with lahe Charp! in is the finous pilt of Ticonderoga, by which word the Canndiens uiderilood noisy.--The works at this place are in such a state of dilapidation, that a Hunger en scarcely form an idea of their continuction. They are, however, fiua. ted on such high ground as to command the cominunication between the likes George ard Chamblain. Oppolile, on the touch lide of ite water what, enpr.es out of lake George. is a mountain, :o appearance inacceflibis, called Mount Defiance, whither general Burgoyne, in thi lace war, with a buldness, fecrecy, and difpaich almo'lmapiralied, con eyed a number of cannon, fibres and roups. The cannon were raised by large brais tackles from tree to iree and from rock to rock, over dans of raille lakes, to the fumruitwhich enurely commands the works of Ticonderero. Tins cirruilance m.il ever te considered as a full juftification of General Sinclain's fiiddeu retreat with the American army, and the observation which he made on his origl, in his own defence, that " Though he had loll a pol he had favel a llate,'' was afterwards verified.

Croan-point is Sfieen miles norih of Ticonderosa on lake Champlin. The fort at this place for which a British garrison was always kepi, from the reduction of Canala till the American revolution, was the mult rozsuals and the most expensive of any ever confructed and supporied on the Britih government in North America. The walls are of wood ar I earth, abun fixteen feet high, and wenty foot tick, and rearly one hundred and hty yards Square, surrounded by a deep and broad diech cut through a folid rock. le flands on a riling sound, perhaps two hundred yards froin the boke, with which there was a covered way by which the gariton could be Tupplied with water in time of a Gege. The only fac opens on the rortha towards the lake, where there was a draw-bridge. (on die righe anci ipfi, as you enter the fort, are a row of ftone barracks, not inciently forels, Bilicient to contain lifteen bundred or two tuntund (CA); the purindais berween them, and is a flat smooth rock. There were forcral ou violis, wikh are now in ruins, as is the principal furi, except the walls, and the wals of the barracks, which fill remain. Of the new created forts we all speak more under the head of the general view of the United Sta:cs.

Indians.

THE body of the six natione inhabit the weliern parts of this Siare. Tie principal part of the Mahawk ribe relidr. on Grand river in Upper Crnada ; and there are iwo villages of Senecas on the Allaşan river, ncarihe Dorth line of Pennsylvania, and a few Delaware and Sharvaghers, on Bolt faloe creek. Including there, and the Stockbride and Mohegan Indians, who have migrated and feuild in the vicinity of Oreida, there are, in this fix ma:ions, according to an accurate ellimate lately made by ine Rev. Mr. Kirke land, millionary among them, fix thoutard ihree hundred and thirty bolso He adds, that among tbefe ibere is comparatively but very few childica.

The following extract of a letter from Mr. Kirkland, will give the read. er an idea of the characters, which, according to Indian tradition, are excluded from the happy country : “ The region of Pure Spirits, the five nations cali Eskanane. The only characters which, according to their traditions, cannot be admitted to participate of the pleasures and delights of this happy country, are reduced to three, viz, suicides ; the disobedient to the counsels of the chiefs; and such as put away their wives on account of pregnancy. According to their tradition, there is a gloomy, fathomless gulph, near the borders of the delightful manficos of Efkanane, over which all good and brave spirins pass with safety, under the conduct of a faithful and skilful guide appointed for that purpose ; but when a suicide, or any of the above-mentioned characters, approach this gulph, che conductor, who possesses a most penetrating eye, inhianily discovers their spiritual features and character, and denies ahein his aid, a:ligoing his reasons. They will, however, auempt to cross upon a {mail pule, which before they reach the middle, trembles and fhikes, il presently down they fall with horrid shricks. In this dark and dreary gulph, they suppose resides a great dog, fome say a dragon, infected with ene isch, which makes hina perptually relless and spiteful. The guilty inhabitants of this miserable region, all catch this disease of the great dog, and grope and roam froin lide to lide of their gloomy mansion in perpetual torments. Sometimes they approach so ncar the happy fields of Eskanane, chat they can hear the fings and dances of their former companions. This only fe:ves to increase their torments, as they can discern no light, nor discover any passage by which they can gain access to them. They suppose idcots and dogs go into the same golph, but have a more comfortable apartment, where they enjoy some little lighi." Mr. Kirkland adds, chat several other nations of Indians with whom he has conversed on the fubject, have nearly the same tradicionary notions of a future late. They almof universally agree in this, that the deparied spirit is ien days in his pastage to their bappy Elyfium, afier ir leaves the body ; some of them fuppole iis course is towards the south ; an thers that it ascends from fome lofty mountai...

The Uneidas inhabit on Oneida cieek, (wenty one miles west of Fort Stan. wix.

The Tufcaroras migrated from North-Carcline and the frontiers of Virgiria, and were adopted by the Oneidas, with whom they have ever since lived. They were originally of the same na!on.

The Senecas inhabit the Chenefee river, at the Chenessee callie. . They have two towns of fixty or seventy fouls each, on French Creek, in PennSylvania ; and another cown on Buffalse creck, aliached to the British ; two finali towns on Allegany river, attached to the Americans. Obeil, or Cornplanter, one of the Seneca chiefs, resided here.

The Mohawks were acknowledged by the other tribes, to use their own expressions, to be “the true old heads of the confederacy ; and were, formerly, a powerful Iribe, inhabiting on the Mohawk river. As they were strongly attached to the Johnson family on account of Sir William Johnjon, they emigrated to Canada, with Sir John Johnson, about the year 1776.

There is now only one fanily of them in the State, and they live about a mile from Fort Hunter. The father of this family was drowned in the winter of 1788.

All the confederated tribes, except the Oneidas and Tufcaroras, Gided with the British in ihc late war, and fought against the Americans,

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.The Onondagas live near the Onondaga lake, about twenty-five miles from the Oneida lake. In the spring of 1779, a regiment of men were fent from Albany, hy General 7. Clinton, against the Onondagas. This regiment surprised their town, took thirty-three prisoners, killed iwelve or fourteen, and returned without the loss of a man. A party of the Indians were at this time ravaging the American frontiers.

There are very few of the Delaware tribe in this State.

The Five Confederated Nations were settled along the banks of the Sula quehannah, and in the adjacent country, until the year 1779, when General Sullivan, with an army of four thousand men, drove them from their country to Niagara, but could not bring them to action. They waited, but waited in sain, for the assistance of the elements, or, as they expressed themselves, for the allilance of the Great Spirit. Had heavy rains fallen while General Sullivan's army was advanced into their country, pertaps few of his foldiers would have escaped, and done of their baggage, ammunition, or artillery. This expedition had a good effect. General Sullivan burnt several of their lowns and destroyed their provisions. Since this irruption into their country, their former babications have been mostly deserted, and many of them have gone to Canada.

On the 13th of November, 1787, John Livingston, Esq. and four o. thers, obtained of the Six Nations of Indians a lease for nine hundred and ninety-nine years, on a yearly rent reserved of iwo thousand dollars, of all the country included in the following limits, viz. Beginning at a place commonly known by the name of Canado creek, about leven miles west of Foro Stanwix, now Fort Schuyler, thence north-eastwardly to the line of the province of Quebec ; thence along the said line to the Pennfylvania line ; thence caft on the said line, Pennsylvania line, to the line of property, so called by the State of New York; thence along the said line of properiy to Canada creek aforesaid. And on the 18ih of January, 1788, the same persons obtained a lease of the Oneida Indians for nine hundred and ninety-nine years, on a rent reserved for the first year, of twelve hundred dollars, and increaling at the rate of one hundred dollars a year, until it a pounds to one thonsand, five hundred dollars, of all the tract of land commonly cailed the Orei: '- coun. ly, except a reservation of several tracts specified in the lease. But these Scales having been obtained without the consent of the legillarure of ide sare, the Senate and Assembly, in their fellion, March 1783, resolved, " Thas the said cases are purchases of lands, and therefore, that by the contention of this State, the said leases are not binding on the said Indians, and are noe valid." Since this a treaty has been concluded with the laid Indians, the bargain of the leases annulled, and all the country purchased of the nalivre, cxcept a reservation to the Oncidas, Cayugaas, and Onondagas, deaned by certain marks and boundaries.

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Siluution, Exicat. I HE greacht part of this late lies between the meredian of Philea delphia, and 1° caft lergieude, lituated between 39 and 41 degrees 24 min. N. lacicude. It is iho miles long and 52 broad; bounded E. by IIudfor river and the sca: S. by the lea; W. by Delaware bay, and the river which divide it froin the fates of Delaware and Pennsylvanis; N. by a line drawn froin the mouth of Mahakkamuk river in lat. 41° 24' 10 a point on Hudjor river, in lat. 41°, con:aining about 8320 square miles. It is divided into thirteen counties, viz. Cape May, Cumbei lind, Salem, Gloucej?er, Bur. lington, Hunterdon, Sulex, Bergen, Effer, Middlesex, Monmouth, Sommerfec and Morris. The whole contains about two hundred thousand inhabitants,

face of the Country, Sea Coall, 2c. T HE countics of Suffex, Morris, and the northern part of Bergen, are mountainous. The South mountain, which is one ridge of the great Allegany range, crosses this Siate in about latitude 41°. This mountain embo. foms such amazing quar:ities of iron ore, that it may not improperly be called the Iron Mountain. The Kittatinny ridge palles through this State north of the South mountain. Several spurs from these mountains are projected in a southern direction. One passes between Springfield and Chatham ; another runs west of it, by Morriforn, Bajkinridge, and Vealtown. The inte. rior country is, in general, agreeably variegated with hills and vallies. The southern counties which lie along the sea coali, are pretty uniformly flat and fandy. The noted Highlands of Navesink, and Center bill, are almost the only hills within the distance of many miles from the sea coast. The Highlands of Navefnk are on the sea coalt near Sandy-Hook, in the township of Middleton, and are the first lands that are discovered by mariners, as they come upon the coast. They rise about fix hundred feet above the surface of the water.

New- Jersey is washed on the east and south-east, by Hudson river and the ocean ; and on the west, by the river Delaware.

The most remarkable bays are, Arthur Kill, or Newark bay, formed by the union of Passaik and Hackinfack rivers. This bay opens to the right and left, and embraces Staten Iland. There is a long bay forined by a beach, four or five miles from the shore, extending along the coast north-east and southwest, from Manajquand river, in Monmouth county, almod to Cape May. Through this beach are a number of inlets, by which the bay coinmunicates with the ocean.

On the top of a mountain, in Morris county, is a lake or pond, three miles in length, and from a mile to a mile and an half in breadth, from which proceeds a continual Itream. It is in fome places deep. The water is of a sea ? green colour ; but when taken up in a tumbler, is, like the water of the ocean, Ñ clear and of a cryllalline colour.

The rivers in this Siate, though not large, are numerous. A traveller, in palling the conmon road frora New-york to Philadelphia, crosses three conGilerable rivers, viz. the Hackinjack and Palaik, between Bergen and New

No. 26.

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