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in all cases whatever ; and if a creditor should refuse accepting it in payment of his debis, the debtor was authorized to deposit it in the hands of a justice of the peace, giving fix months notice of the fanie, in the public papers ; in which term, if the creditors did not appear and receive these bills, the debe by the act, was discharged. The consequences of the act were, that business was flagnated and credit was at an end. What little hard money remained in the fa.e, was locked up and kept from circulation, and of course, confufion universal y prevailed; but as we have already observed, since the adoption of the fede, al conftitution, this evil is completely remedied.

Through the whole of the late war with Great Britain, ihe inhabitants of this faie manifefled a patriotic spirit ; their troops behaved gallanıly, and they are honoured in having produced the second general in the field.*

At the conclusion of the war, when it was proposed to invest congress with power to levy an import of five per cent. on imports, this Atate, by its pertinacious refillance, was the principal means of defeating the measure.

The emillion of paper money in this late since the peace, was productive of some sh king scenes of fraud and deception, and was the chief reason why Rhode Island remained so long ohflinate against the adoption of the federal constitution. Its oblinacy was finally overcome by the danger of being subjected to the same duties in the ports of the other flares, as aliens, a measure contemplated by congress.

CH A P. IX.
STATE OF CONNECTICUT.

Situation, Extent, and Boundaries.

THIS State is situated between 41 and 42° 2' north latitude, and 1° 50' and 3° 40' cast longitude from Philadelphia. Its length is about 100 miles, and is greatest breadth 72. It is bounded on the north by Massachusetts, on the east by Rhode Island, on the south by the Sound, which divides it from Long Island, and on the west, by the State of Newe York.

Civil Divisions, and Population. CONNECTICUT is divided into eight counties, viz. Hartford, New Haven, New-London, Fairfield, Wyndham, Litchfield, Middlefex, and Tolland ; these are divided into about one hundred townships. Each township is a corporation, invested with power to hold lands, choose iheis own town officers, to make prudential laws, the penalıy of transgrellion not to exceed twenty shillings, and to choose their own representatives to the General Assembly. The townships are generally divided into two or more parishes, in each of which is one or more places for public worship, and school houses at convenient distances. The whole population of this State in 1790, amounted to 237,946, of whom 2,764 were flaves.

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CONNECTICUT, though fubje£t to the extremes of heat and cold in their seasons, and to frequent sudden changes, is very healthful. The north-west winds, in the winter season, are often extremely severe and piercing, occafioned by the great body of snow which lies concealed from the dissolving influence of the sun, in the inmense forests north and northwel. The clear and serene temperature of the sky, however, makes amends for the severity of the weather, and is favourable to health and longevity. Io the maritime towns the weather is variable, according as the wind blows from the sea or land ; but in the interior of the country, the sea breezes having less effect upon the air, consequently the weather is less variable.

Face of the Country, Sea Coast, &c. CONNECTICUT is generally broken land, made up of moun, tains, hills, and vallies. It is laid out in small farms, from fifiy to three or four hundred acres each, which are held by the farmers in fee fimple, and are generally cultivated as well as the nature of the soil will admis. The flate is chequered with innumerable roads or high-ways, crossing each aber in every direction. A traveller, in any of these roads, even in the moft unsettled parts of the State, will seldom pass more than two or three miles without finding a house or cottage, and a farm under such improvemenis as to afford the necessaries for the fupport of a family. The whole State resembles a well cultivated garden, which, with that degree of industry that is necessary to happiness, produces the necessaries and conveniencies of life in great plenty ; it is exceedingly well watered by numerous rivers, but the principal is that which gives its name to this slate ; this we have already described.

The Houfatonick passes through a number of very pleasant towns in this State, and empries into the sound between Stratford and Milford ; it is navigable (welve miles to Derby. A bar of shells, at its inouh, obftrucis its navigation for large vessels. In this river, between Salifoury and Canaan, is a cattaract, where the water of the whole river, which is one hundred and fifty yards wide, falls about Gxty feet perpendicular, in a perfeat white sheet, exbibiting a scene exceedingly grand and beautiful.

Naugatuk is a small river which rises in Torrington, and empties into the Houfatonick at Derby.

The Thames empries into Long-Island found at New London : it is navigable fourteen miles to Norwich landing : here it looses its name, and braoches into Shetucket on the cast, and Norwich or Little river on the well, The city of Norwich stands on the tongue of land between these rivers. Little river, about a mile from its mouth, has a remarkable and very romania tic cataract. A rock, len or twelve feet in perpendicular height, extends quite across the channel of the river : over this the whole river pitches, in one entire sheet, upon a bed of rocks below. Here the river is compressed into a very narrow channel between two craggy cliffs, one of which towers to a considerable height : the channel descends gradually, is very crooked, and covered with pointed rocks. Upon these the water swifly tumbles, foaming with the most violent agitation, Gfteen or twenty rods, into a broad bason which spreads before it. Au the bottom of the perpendicular falls, the rocks are curioully excavated by the conllant pouring of the water : fome of the cavities, which are all of a circular form, are five or six feer deep. The finoothness of the water above its descent-the regularity and beauiy of ihe perpendicular fail-he tremendous roughness of the other, and the craggy lowering cliff which impends the whole, prclents to the speciaior, a scene indiscribably delighiful and majellic. On this river are some of the finelt mill fears in New England ; and those immediately below the falls, oceupi. u by Lathrop's mailis, are, perhaps, not exceeded by any in the world, Across the mouth of this river is a broad, com.nodious bridge, in the form of a wharf, built at a great expense.

Shetucket river, the other branch of the Thames, four miles from its mouth. receives Quinnalogue, which has its fource in Brimfield in Majachufetts; thence palling through Siurbridge and Dulley in Massachusets, it crosses into Connecticut, and divides Pomfrei fiona Killingly, Canterbury from Plainfield, and Lisbon from Preston, and then mugies with the Shetucket. in palling through this billy country, it tumbles over many falls, two of which, ove in Thompson, the other in Brooklyn, are thirty feet each ; this river affords a vast number of fine mill leais. In its course it receives a great number of tributary ftreams, the principal of which are Muddy Brook, and Five Mile river. Shetucket river is formed by the junction of Willaman. tic and Mount Hope rivers, which unite between Windham and Lebanon. in Lisbon it receives Little river and at a little diftance farther the Quinnabogue, and empties as above. Thele rivers are, indeed, fed by numberless brooks from every part of the adjacent country. At the mouth of Shetucket is a bridge of timber one hundred and twenty four feet in length, supported al each ere by pillars, and held up in the middle by braces on the top, in the nature of an arch.

Paukatuck river is an inconsiderable fream which heads in Stonington, and empties into Stonington harbour. It forms part of the dividing line between Connecticut and Rhode Island.

East or North Haven river, rises in Southington, not far from a bend ja Farmington river, and passing through Walling ford and North-Haven, falls inco New Haven harbour. It has been in contemplation to connea che source of this river with Farmington river.

East and West rivers are inconfiderable freams, bounding the city of New Haven on the east and weft.

West of the Houfalonick are a number of small rivers, which fall into the found. Among there is Byran river, noticeable only as forming a part of the boundary between New York and Connecticut. But neirher this, nor any any of the others, are considerable enough to merit particular attention,

The two principal barbours in this fiare are at New-London and NewHaven. The former opens to the south. From the light-house, which flands ai the mouth of the harbour, to the town, is about chree miles ; the breadth is three quarters of a mile, and in some places more. The barbour has froin five to fix fathoms water--a clear bottomlough, ooze, and as far as one inile above the town is entirely secure and commodious for large ships.

New-Haven harbour is greatly inferior to that of New-London.' It is a bay which sets up northerly from the sound, about four miles. Its entrance is ahout half a mile wide. It has very good anchorage, and two and a half fathom at low water, and three fathom and four feet at common tidcs,

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No. 25.

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