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CH A P. VII.
DISTRICT OP MAIN.
Situation, Extent and Boundaries.
Containing 21,600 square Miles.
IT is bounded on the north, by the Lower Canada, from which it is Sparated by the high-lands ; on the east by the river St. Croix, and a line Inwn due north from its source to the said high-lands, which divides this Tritory from the province of New-Brunswick, Nova Scotia; on the southalle by the Atlantic ocean; and on the west by New-Hampshire ; froin hich it is separated for about 40 miles by the river Pifcataqua.
The whole province of Main and the territory to the east of it, as far as e western boundary of Nova Scotia, were formerly in one county, nained Erkkire; but in 1761, this extensive county was subdivided into three,
fince the revolution, these have again been pariitioned off into five, viz.
Counties. No.Inhabitants. Chief Towns. Inhabitants. ,
perhaps, come pretty near to the present population of this diftrict, if add one third to the number of inhabitants in 1790, which would make now amount to 128,720.
Bays, Capes and Mountains.
Governor Pownall (opposes that Passámaquody river, which is fifteen ortwegles cast of St. Croix, is the real caiteln boundary of New-England. For, laid The French according to their mode of taking posietion, always fixed a crois Ty river they came to. Almost every river on the coast of Sagadahok has, in m, been deemed by them La Riviere de St. Croix. Under equivocarion of sceral appellative, they have amuled our negociators on every occalion.
through several small lakes it tumbles for near two miles over falls, which offectually prevent any further marine navigation. To these falls, which are about lifiy miles from ihe fra, this river is navigable for vessels of an hundred tons. It empriesinio Penobscot hay.
Kennebek river rises from a livie pard in the height of land, in north la. titude 4.5° 20' and abo'rt 5" 10' caft longitude. Its general course is from north to fourh. liis Lavigable for vessels of an hundred cous to Hallowell, fifiy iniles from Small point, at the month of he river.
Sagadahok, or Amera froggin river, which, prrorly speaking, is but the main avendern branch of the Kennebek, rises in latitude 44° 50' norib-ekward of the II hite-Hills, in lake Umbaroot. Peabody river. and another branch, fall into this main stream from the east side of te !hite Hills. Its course is fouth about twenty fix miles, then aft ronth-eas six y, when it meets a second main stream from the north-east, thirty-four miles from its fource. Hence the river runs fouth for:y miles. In this course it palles wihin two miles of the sea coal, then turns north, and running over Prjetusaeg, falls into Merry Meeting bay ; fiom hence, with the waters of Kennecek. which likewise fall into this bay, with several other small streams, it passes off to the fea, fixeren miles, by the name of Kennebek, or Sajadahok river.
The Dutch formerly had a seulement at ihe place tha: is now called News Calile, which was under the jurisdiction of the ihen governor of New York, then called Manhadoes. The town was built on a beautiful neck of land, where rows of old cellars, near each or her, are now to be seen.
Saro river has two fources, one in Ofipre pond, near Oflipce mountain ; the oiber, which is its principal branch, fails form the fouih (ide of the White Hills. The former is called Oli pee, and the latter Pi; walet river. (04pee pond and Of pee inountain are in New Hampshire, a, are the White Hills.) Thele foon inne, ard:he river, kecpig a general fouh-eastern coufe for fixry or severty miles, palle biween Pepperhillhorough and Biddeford townships, into Suco bay, near Il inter habenr. Marine navigation is stopped by Saco fails, leven or eight miles from the sea. Al these falls, wnich are about wenty fece in heighi, are the grea eft board works in this part of the country. The river here is broken by small islands in such a manner as lo afiord a number of fine law-mi'l feats. Before the war, 4.00000 feet of pire boards were annually lawed by the mills at this place. Logs are fuaied down the river frem fixiy or ser nty miles above the mills ; and vessels can come up quise to the mills to take in their lading.
Belides these are a number of smaller rivers. Stevens's, a salt water river. Prunifout, and Royel rivers, run into Calco bay. Kinnebunk and Mon rivers extend fome difiance into the country, and empty into liells bay. Ileb. hannet river is the principal erirance by water into the town of Hills, and has a barred harbour. York river runs up feven or eight miles, and has a jolerable harbour for reliels under 100 ions. Its rocks rerder it somewhat bez dous for fargere. Spurwing river runs through' Scarborough to the wellward of Care Elizabuih, and is navigable a few miles for veffels of an hundrediens. Sheepjrut is pavisable twenty or shiny miles, and implies in10 the ocean at the fame mouth with Kennetck. On this river is an excellent sont called Il'ifceffit, in the town liipot Ponallorough. Ar the head of navigation on this river is Newraytle, which extends frim Sheepfrut 10 Damaris coita river. Pomaquid and Damariscotta are finall rivers ; the former has a beautiful barbour, but is not navigable above is mouth.
The sea coal is indented with inrımerable bays. Those worth noricing are Penobscot bav, at the mouth of Penobfiot river, which is long and capacious, los eaf hide is lined with a cuiler of finall islands. On a tine peainfula in this bav, the British, in the late war, built a fiori, and made a ieutement, which is now a lownth p of Marhufeits, and a com BODI fituariop for the timber trade it has been called oarto by its old lidian name Majaba;adure. or, fir the sake of trevity. Bagaiul. Ar ihe dilance of abour four leagues we fiwardly is Broad Bay. on the wiltern lore of which Pemaquid point or cape projects into the 1.d. Cijco buy is berwen Cape Elzake haid Cape Small Point. It is twenty-five miles wide, and about fourteen on luigib. li is a must be aliiful bay, interiparid wib imalt flands, and forms the entrance in a Sagadakuk. Ti has a lullie ene di pin of water for veff, is of any burden. Wells bay lies beiween Cape Medaik and Cape Pur
Sabago pond is about twenty miles north west of Falmouth. Cobejriconti ponds are beineen Amarafio,in and Kennebek rivers. Beides theie there are Monfom and Louil's poids, and teveral others.
Coinciticus, a roved land mark for failois, is about eighie miles from che sea, in laricide 43° 15', and lies in the town.hip of York, a jew mules wdtward of It'ells.
TORTLAND is a peninsula, that was formerly part of Falmouth, aod is now she capisal of the district of Maine. In July 1786, the compact pari of the town and the post were incorporated by ibe name of Portland. It has an excellent, Cafe, and capacious barbour, but incapable of doline, except by a navy, and carries on a foreign tiade, and the fibery, and birls Some thips. The old town of Falmouth, which includd Portland, contained more ihan 700 families, in d alhing circumilances, when the brick troups burne ie in 1775. Alhas, however, firice that live beenere rely redu!' and coniains about 2.500 inliabiants. Amongll its public buildings are ino for congregationalitis and one for cpiscopalians, and a handtome court bouti
Kitlery is a pretty lille town on the call lide of the mouth of Pilatuqua river, and is famous for thip-building. One of its prefent tron!!!*** 1 one of the helt geviouses in that live in America. Turk, Il'et's, Burwick Arundel; Bidd ford, and Scarborough, are all confuerable towns.
I HE heat in fummer is very great, and the cold in winter equally extreme, All filh-water lakes, ponds, and rivers, are usually pifuble on ice, from Christmas, unul the Middle of March. The loven day is fifa leen hours and fixteen minutes, and the fhurtel eshitsuurs and fortes four minutes. The clima!e is very bealthful. Many of the inhabitatis inne tunely seurs,
* Mr. Peck
Face of the Country, Soil and Productions.
I HE face of the country, in regard to evenness or roughness, is Similar to the relt of the New England lates. About Cafco bay it is level and sandy, and the soil thin and poor. Throughout this country there is a greater proporrion of dead swamps than in any other part of New England. The tract lying between Pasamaquady and Penobscot rivers is white pine land, of a strong moist foil, with some mixture of oaks, white ash, birch, and other trees, and the interior parts are interspersed with beech ridges. The tea-coast is generally barren. In many towns the land is good for grazing. Wells and Scarborough have large tracts of salt marsh. The inland parts of Main are feruile, but newly and thinly settled. The low fwainps are useless.
The grain raised here is principally Indian corn, little or no wheat, some rye, barley, oats, and peas. The inhabitants raise excellent potatoes in large quantities, which are frequently used inflcad of bread. Their butter has the preference to any in New England, owing to the goodness of the grass, which is very sweet and juicy. Apples, pears, plumbs, peaches, and cherries, grow here very well. Plenty of cyder, and some perry, is made in the southern and weitern parts of Main. The perry is made from choak pears, and is an agreeable liquor, having something of the harshness of claret wine, joined with the sweetness of metheglin.
On the high lands are oak in s me places, but not plenty, maple, beech and white birch. The white birch, in this part of the country, is unlike :hat which grows in other paris. It is a large fightly tree, fit for many ules. Ils bark, which is composed of a great number of thickeneses, is, when separated, linoorher and softer than any paper. The clay-lands produce fir. The timber of this tree is unfit for use, but it yields the balsam which is so much admired. This balsam is contained in small protuberances, like blisters, under the smooth tark of the tree. The fir tree is an ever green, resembling the spruce, but very tapering, and not very large or tall.
Trade, Manufactures, Exports, &c.
T ROM the first setilgnent of Main, until the year 1774 or 1775, the inhabitants generally followed the lumber trade to the negieći of agriculture. This afforded an immediate profit. Large quantities of corn and other grain were annually insported from Bolon and oiher places, without which it was supposed die inhabitants could not have fubfilled. But the late war, by rendering these resources precarious, put the inhabitants upon their true intereit, i. e. the cultivation of their lands, wbich, at a little distance from the sea, are well adapted for railing grain. The inhabitants now raise a sufficient quantity for their own contumprion, though too many are still more fond of the axe than of the plough. Their wool and flax are very good : hemp has not been sufficiently iried. Almost every family manufacture wool and flax into cloth, and make huibandry utensils of every kind for their own use.
This country abounds with lumber of various kinds, such as malls, white pine boards, fhip timber, and every species of split timber, manufactured from pinc and oak; these are exported from Qunmphegon