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Waw-York; and laws have been enacted, and other measures taken in the New England Nates to accompi lh the same purpose. The Friends (commonly called Quakers,) have evinced the propriety of their name, by their goodness in originating, and their vigorous exeruions in executing ihis truly humane and benevolent delign.
The English language is the one which is universally spoken in the United States, in which buliness is transacted, and the records Scpt. It is spoken with great purity, and pronounced with propriety in New. England, by persons of education ; and, excepting fome few corruptions in pronunciarion, by all ranks of people. In the middle and southern flatcs, where they have had a great influx of forcigners, the language in many milances is corrupted, especially in pronuciation. Artempts are aking in introduce a uniformity of prononciation throughout the States, which foc political as well as other reasons it is hoped will meet the approbation and tncouragement of all literary and influential charaâers.
Inter mingled with the Ang's Americans are the Dutch, Scotch, Irish, French, Germans, Swedes, and Jews ; all these, except the Scotih and Irih, retain, io a greater or lefs degree, their native language, in which they perform their public worship, converse, and transact their buliness with each other.
The time, however, is anticipated when all diftinétions between mallar and flave fhall be abolished; and when the larguage, manners, customs, political and religious sentiments of the mixed mass of people who inbabil the United States, shall have become so assimilated, as iltat all nominal diluactions fall be lolt in the general and honourable name of Americans.
Haring completed this short sketch of the circumstances which contributed to the independence of the United States, and also of the molt remarkable evenus, which have occurred in their history, since their ellablithmone as an independent nation, we shall now proceed to describe their limits and boun. daries as settled by the treaty of peace between Great Britain and this cuantry, in the year 1782. .
CH A P. V. . SITUATION, EXTENT and BOUNDARIES of the United States, Miles.
131° and 46° North Latitude. Breadih 1040
8° E. and 24 W. Longitude from Philadel.
8° E. and 24 W
IN the treaty of peace, concluded in 1783, the limits of the United States are chus defined. And that all difpuies which mighe arise in future'
o the subject of the boundaries of the said United States may be prevented, u s hereby agreed and declared, that the following are' and thall be their boundaries, viz. From the north west angle of Nova Scotia, viz. That angle which is formed by a line drawn due north from the source of Sr. Ciaz River to the Highlands, along the said Highlands, which divide tele rivers that empty themselves into the river St. Laurence, from those
which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the north weftermont head of Cone necticut river : thence down along the middle of that river to the forly. fifth degree of north latitude; from whence by a line due west on said lacitude, until it strikes the river Iroquois or Cataraguy; thence along the middle of the said river into Lake Ontario, through the middle of the said lake, until it Arikes the communication by water between that lake and lake Erie ; thence along the middle of said communication into lake Erie, shrough the middle of faid lake, until it arrives at the water communication between that lake and lake Huron ; thence through the middle of laid lake to the water communication between that lake and lake Superior : thence through lake Superior northward of the Isles Royal and Phillipeaux to the Long La'e; thence ihrough the middle of said Long Lake, and the water communication between it and the lake of the Woods to the faid lake of the Woods ; thence through the said lake to the most north-western point there. of, and from thence, on a due welt course, to the river Miffippi ; thence by a line to be drawn along the middle of said river Mifhjopi, until it fall intersect the northermost part of the thirty-first degree of north latitude, South, by a line to be drawn due east from the determination of the line laft mentioned, in the latitude of chirty-one degrees norih of <he equator, to the middle of the river Apalachicola, or Catahouche ; thence along the middle thereof, to its junction with the Flint river ; thence frait to the head of St. Mary's river; and thence dawo along the middle of St. Mary's river to the Atlantic Ocean. East, by a line to be drawn along the middle of the river St. Croix, from its mouth in the bay of Fundy, to its source : and from its source directly north, to the aforesaid Highlands, which divide the rivers that fall into the Atlantic Ocean, from those which fall into the river St. Laurence, comprehending all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States, and lying between lines to be drawn due cast froin the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova Scotia on the one pari, and East Florida on the other, shall respectively touch the bay of Fundy and the Atlantic Ocean, excepting such islands as now are, or heretofore have been, within the limits of the said province of Nova Scotia.''
The following calculations were made from actual measurement of the best maps, by Thomas Hutchins, Esquire, Geographer to the United States.
The Territory of the United States contains by computation a million of square miles, in which are
640,000,000 of acres . Deduct for water
Acres of land in the United States
589,000,000 That part of the United States comprehended between the weft temporasy line of Pennsylvania on the east, the boundary line between Britain and the United States, extending from the river St. Croix to the north. west extremity of the lake of the Woods on the north, the river Mifhppi, to the mouth of the Ohio on the welt, and the river Ohio on the south to the aforementioned bounds of Pennsylvania, contains by computation about four hundred and eleven thousand Iquare miles, in which are
263,040,000 acres Deduct for water
To be difposed of by order of Congress
The whole of this immense extent of unappropriated weltern territory, containing, as above fared, 220,000,000 of acres, has been, by the cellion of some of the original thirteen tates, and by the treaty of peace, transferred to the federal government, and is pledged as a fund for sinking the continental debr. It is in contemplatioa to divide it into new flares, with re. publican conflitutions Gimilar to the old flates near the Allantic Ocean. Elimate of the number of acres of water, north and wellward of the river Ohuis, within the territory of the United States
Acrcs. la Lake Superior, - - 21,952.780 Lake of the Woods,
1,433,800 Lake Rain, &c.
165,200 Red Lake, .
- - 551.000 Lake Michigan
10 368,000 Bay Puan,
1,216,000 Lake Huron,
5,009,440 Lake St. Clair,
89.500 Lake Erie western pari,
27252,800 Suadry small lakes and rivers,
Elimate of the number of acres of water within the United States, lo Lake Erie, westward of the line extended from the donihweft corner of Pennsylvania, due north to the boundary between the British territory and the United States, - - - - 410,000 Io Lake Ontario, - - - 2,390,000 Lake Champlain,
800,000 Chesapeek Bay,
1,700.000 Albermarle Bay, - - - - 330,000 Delaware Bay,
630,000 All the rivers within the United States including ihe Ohio, - - - - - . 2,000.000
NEW ENGLAND. .
i HE fates east of New York, were formerly called the New-England colonies : they are ftill known by the general name of New England. Several ibings are common to them all. Their religion, manners, customs, and character, their climate, foil, productions, natural bistory, &c. are in miby respects foular. Many of the historical events which took place in their feuement, and in their progress, until the year 1692, are intimately connected. These considerations have led to the following general description of New-England.
As the territory of Vermont was included in some of the original parents gradied by the Plymouth company, and was fercled wholly from NewEngland, it is confidered as a part of it, and included in the following ancoodi.
Situation, Extent and Boundaries.
EW-ENGLAND is bounded north by Canada ; eart by Nova. Scotia and the Atlantic Ocean ; south by the Atlantic and Long Island Sound, and west by New York. It lies in the form of a quarter of a circle. Its welt line beginning at the mouth of Byram river, which empties into Long Island Sound, at the south-west corner of Conne&ticut, latitude, 41" runs a little ealt of north, until it frikes the forty-fifth degree of latitude, and then curves to the call ward almost to the Gulf of St. Laurence.
New-England is divided into five Rares, viz. New Hampshire, Mela. chufets, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Vermont. These Rates are subdivis dud into counties, and the counties into town hips.
Face of the Country Mountains, &c.
New England is a high, billy, and in some parts a mountainous country, formed by nature to be inhabited by a hardy race of free, independant republicans. The mountains are comparatively small, running nearly north and south in ridges parallel to each other. Between these 'ridges, flow the great rivers in majestic meanders, receiving the innumerable rivulets and larger streams which proceed from the mountains on each side. To a spectator on the top of a neighbouring mountain, the vales between the ridges while in a flate of nature, exhibit a romantic appearance. They seem an ocean of woods, swelled and depressed in its surface like that of the great ocean itself. A richer, though less romantic view, is presented, when the vallies, by indulrious husbandmen, have been cleared of their natural growth; and the fruit of their labour appears in loaded orchards, extensive meadows, covered with large herds of sheep and neat catile, and rich fields of flax, cord and the various kinds of grain. . These vallies, which have received the expressive name of interval lands, are of various breadths, from two to twenty miles ; and by the annual inundations of the rivers which flow through them, there is frequently an accu. mulation of rich, fat foil, left upon their surface when the waters retire. · There are four principal ranges of mountains passing ncarly from north-east 10 south-west, through New-England. These conlist of a multitude of parallel ridges, each having many spurs, deviating from the course of the general range ; which spurs are again broken into irregular hilly land. The main ridges terminate fometimes in high bluff heads, near the sea coall, and sometimes by a gradual descent into the interior part of the country. One of the main ranges runs between Connecticut and Hudson's rivers. This range branches, and bounds che vales through which flows the Houfatonic river. The most eastern ridge of this range terminates in a bluff head at Meriden. A second ends in like manner at Willingford, and a third at New Haven.
In Lyme, on the east side of Conne&ticut river, another range of 'moun. tains comiences, forming the eastern boundary of Conneticut vale. This tarige trends northerly, at the diflance, generally, of about ten or twelve miles sail from the river, and passes through Massachusetts, where the range takes the name of Chicable mountain ; thence crotúng into New Hampshire, at the dilance of about twenty miles from the Musachusetts line, it runs up into a very bigb peek, called Monadnick, which ieimina:es this ridge of the range. A weitern ndge continues, and in about latitude 43° 20', runs up into Sunia ga Muniains. About fifiy miles furiber, in the same ridge is Mouscong mountain.
A third range begins near Stonington in Conneíticut. It takes its course sonth afterly, and is sometimes bruken and discontinued ; it then rises again, aed sanges in the sam: direct on into New-Himoshire, where, in latitude 43° 25', it runs up into a high peak, called Cowfawiskoog.
The fourth range has a humble beginning abuut Hopkington, in Mati. ehufettso The eatorn ridge of this range runs norih, by Water town and Concord, and cruffes Merrimack river al Pantucker Falls.' In New. HampAhire i na isto leveral high peaks, of which the White mountains are the principal. From these Whiie mountains, a range countinues norih-caft, crolling the call boundary of New Hampshire, in latitude 44° 30', and forms the heighi of land between Kennebeck and Chaudiere rivers.
These ranges of mountains are full of lakes, ponds, and springs of water, that give rise to numberless streams of various sizes, which, interlocking each wher in every direction, and failing over the rocks in romantic cascades, flow Deandering into the rivers below. No country on the globe is better watered than New-E1 gland.
On the sea-cuaft the land is low, and in many parts level and sandy. In the vai'ies, between the forementioned ranges of mountains, the land is geterally broken, and in many places rocky, but of a strong rich soil, capable of being cultivated to good advantage, which also is the case with many fpors even on the tops of the mountains,
I HE only river which will be described under New England is Connecticut river. It rises in a swamp on the height of land, in laricude 45° 10', longitude 4° east. After a sleepy course of eight or ton miles, it tumbles over four separate falls, and turning well keeps close under the kills Which formihe noritero boundary of the vale ihrough which it runs. The Inonoofuck, and Israel rivers, iwo principal branches of Connefticut river, fall into it from the east, between the latitude 44o and 45°. Between the towns of Walpole on the east, and Westminster on the welt side of the river, are the great falls. The whole river, compressed between two rocks scarcely skirty feet asunder, shoors with amazing rapidity into a broad balon below. Over hele falls, a bridge one hundred and lixiy feet in length was built in 1784, under which the higher floods may pass without detriment. This is the fra bridge that was ever erected over this noble river. Above Deerfield, in Mafachusetts, it receives Deerfield river from the well, and Millers river fram the eail, after which it turns weiterly in a linuous course to Fighting faiks, and a liule after tumbles over Deerfeld falls, which are impassable by boais. At Windfor, in Connecticut, it receives Farmington river from the well; and at Hartford, meets the ride. From Hartford it palles op in a Vol. IV,