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the soul was the heart, and that thither all the objects of the senses are carried as to the centre. Galen and physicians say it is in the head. Xenocrates placed it in the crown of the head; Herophylus in the bottom of the brain; Strabo in the middle of the forehead; Empodocles in the chest; Moschion in the whole body; so do Augustin and Hilarius, saying, “ that the whole is in the whole in every 6 part."
The soul, as it is considered whole, with all the faculties, is in the whole as the form thereof, for it giveth life and motion to the whole, and is in it, not as a mariner in a ship, but being present every where, for it is that that giveth life to every part, and maketh the whole a living body; maketh it flesh, that hath life in it by his presence every where. It sheweth his presence in all parts ; for being pricked in one place it feeleth it there, and discerneth it to be in the place where the wound is: the whole therefore is in the whole and every part. But if it be considered according to the several faculties, then the question is, where reason and understanding is chiefly settled, either in the brain or in the heart ? for these are the chief, and for the excellency were left out of sacrifices. Daniel seemeth to make the head the seat of reason, The dream, and vision of thy head *; and, the visions of my head troubled me y. It is not to be thought but divine and heavenly visions are offered to the understanding. The manner of the moving of our body doth seem to teach so much; for one motion is by the nerves, and the nerves begin in the brain, and are first moved by our will, and the will is one of the parts of reason. All the servants that do attend on reason are likewise placed in the head. There are the senses by which he cometh to the knowledge of most things. They say in death also, that a man doth last of all cast up his eyes, as though the soul did pass forth by them; and Almighty God, when he gave the soul to man, did it by breathing into his face. This much they that favour the head do say for their opinion. But, on * Dan. ii. 28.
y Dan. iv. 5.
the other side, the heart doth challenge the principality; for Moses saith that the frame of man's heart is only evil continually ? ; and Christ, that the good man out of the good treasure of his heart bringeth forth good things a ; and Paul, that the law is written in the heart b. And it maketh much for the privilege of the heart that it is the fountain and beginning of life, for it first liveth and last dieth, for this Hierome saith. Out of the heart come evil thoughts c; therefore the principle is not, according to Plato, in the brain, but, according to Christ, in the heart ; and again, it is doubted where the principal faculty of the soul is : Plato shews it in the brain, Christ in the heart, Blessed are the clean in heart, for they shall see God d.
The soul of man, using will and reason, is immortal : Galen reporteth that all ancient wise men unto Plato were of that opinion; but some latter persons, being overcome by their own folly, constrained not only their bodies but their souls also, as it were, to die. The Sadducees were of opinion that souls did die e; the Nazarites, that they did sleep till the day of judgment. But they are eternal and everlasting: eternal they are, not by denial of beginning and end both, for beginning we know they have, but by denial of the end ; that is mortal which hath inward beginning of corruption, as the bodies of beasts have, and all other compound bodies. And, on the contrary side, that is immortal which hath no such inward beginning whereby it may corrupt, as angels and heavenly spirits have not; and a thing may be mortal and corruptible also, which albeit it have not such an inward beginning of corruption, yet by an outward agent it may be destroyed ; as the heavens shall be dissolved by the power of God; whereas God himself is free by this and all other ways from mortality and corruption. The soul is such a thing as that it hath nothing internal which can be a beginning of corruption and death unto it. It might have a beginning, and cause of destruction in it two ways; of his own nature, as compound bo2 Gen. vi. 5. viii. 21.
a Matt. xii. 35.
b Rom. ii. 15. d Matt. v. 8. • Acts xxvi. 8.
€ Matt. xv. 19.
dies; or by chance and accident, as the essential form is corrupted because the body doth corrupt in which it is, otherwise it could not be corrupted. The soul is free from corruption both ways; it hath nothing in it of itself by which it may draw to an end, neither can there be any thing in it by reason of the body, or any other thing, by which at length it should be dissolved. This the beginning of our soul doth shew: for how was it? God himself inspiring it, he gave it therefore somewhat of his own excellency, even immortality, as it was capable of; and what was it? his breath, some part of that heavenly air ; and what was the work of it? life in the dual, or plural number, a long, a double, an everlasting life. When the soul of Rachel is said to go out of here, and the soul of the child to return to his inward parts', is it not clearly taught that it dieth not with the body? What made Balaam wish that his soul might die the death of the righteous, and his end be like his s, but that it was well with them after death? The Wise Man saith, that the souls of the righteous are with God, and that no torment toucheth themh, and that the spirit goeth to God that gave it i. When Christ saith, Father, into thy hands I commend my spiritk; to the thief, This day shalt thou be with me in paradisel; when Stephen crieth, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit m; and Paul, I desire to be dissolved, and to be with Christ n; do they not shew that the soul is immortal ? And the immortality of the soul of Christ maketh much for the immortality of our souls; for he hath promised, that where he is, there his setvants shall be alsoo. What other thing doth Christ teach us when he saith, The body they can kill, the soul they cannot kille; and that God is not the God of the dead, but of the living 9, yet the God of Abraham ? wherefore his body was dead, but his soul lived. The rich man lived in hell, and the poor man in Abraham's bosom'; and in the Apocalypse, they are happy that die in the Lord, for they rest from
. Gen. xxxv. 18. pi Kings xvii. 22. & Numb. xxüi. 10. h Ecclus. iii. s. i Eccles. xii. 7. * Luke xxiii. 46. Luke xxiii. 43. m Acts vii. 59. Phil. i. 23. • John xii. 26. p Matt. x. 28. . Matt. xxii. 32. r Luke xvi. 23.
their labours s. Sin doth not corrupt the substance but the quality of our souls, and torment may grieve it, but not consume. Augustine therefore saith, “ Kill not thy soul “ thyself, and thy soul will not die. The life of the flesh “ is the soul, and the life of the soul is God; but yet the “ soul is immortal, for it liveth even being dead.” And again, “ The souls of men are all immortal ; those that “ shall see God are blessed, those that shall not see God " are wretched.” And Hilarius saith, “ He that thinketh “ the soul dieth with the body, let him hear that it cometh “ not of the earth, but by the breath of God, and that death " is not the destruction but the parting of it from the " bodyu;” and again, “ The soul is immortal, for it is life “ unto itself; as it cannot fall from itself, so it cannot fall « from life.”
Last of all; religion, and the fear of God, which is in man, doth shew it to be immortal ; for we worship God because our souls are made to his image, and we know he is a rewarder of them that serve him. Now religion is grafted in men's minds by nature ; for it hath been always, yea before any books of it were written, and all wise men have ever minded godliness and virtue, with the study of wis dom. Now to what end were religion, if there were no reward? and what reward is there, if the souls do not live for ever? for in this life the reward of the godly is but small. The soul, therefore, seeing it hath no cause of death within it or without it; seeing it hath so many testimonies of an enduring life by scriptures, and all that were counted just; it cannot be that it dieth with the body, but liveth and abideth for ever after the body is dissolved.
DISCOURSE OF TENURES
WHICH WERE BEFORE THE CONQUEST;
Knight-service, soccage, and frankalmoign ; and the effect
of those tenures, wards, reliefs, heriots, escuage, or warfaring by tenure, reservations of rent, or victuals, and provisions, or purveyors in the Saxon times; that the same estates in the soil of this land were due unto the subjects by birthright of their ancestors, the inhabitants of the land before duke William's time; namely, to have land in fee-simple, freeholders, copyholders, customary tenants, and villains, before the year 1066; together with the resemblances or disresemblances of those in outlandish, ancient, or modern estates.
THE book of Doomsday, which is militia Anglicani imperii, as it was in the Conqueror's time, speaks often of land that in Edward the Confessor's time gildabat; and of other land which did not gildare: that which did gildare was land held by knight's-service, which paid taxes or escuage; the other is soccage-land. That there was soccage tenure in the Saxons' time is evident by the book of Doomsday, which almost in every leaf makes mention of sokemanni, in Edward the Confessor's time, which is soccage tenure; and in the written Ingulphus, which speaks of the laws in Edward the Confessor's time, there is mention of tenure in soccage, in express terms.
That there were tenures by knight's-service is cleared by patents of king Ethelred to the abbey of Abingdon, freeing the land a regali servitio, and by a patent whichi William