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For the second sort, which are the merchants, as those first feed the kingdom, so do the sea enrich it; yea, their trades, especially those which are forcible, are not the least part of our martial policy, as is hereafter proved; and, to do them right, they have in all ages and times assisted the kings of this land, not only with great sums of money, but with great fleets of ships in all their enterprises beyond the seas. The second have seldom or never offended their princes; to enjoy their trades at home upon tolerable conditions has ever contented them for the injuries received from other nations; give them but the commission of reprisal, they will either right themselves, or sit down with their own loss without complaint.

3. The third sort, which are the gentry of England; these being neither seated in the lowest grounds, and thereby subject to the biting of every beast, nor in the highest mountains, and thereby in danger to be torn with tempests, but the valleys between both, have their parts in the inferior justice, and spread over all, are the garrisons of good order throughout the realm.

OBSERVATIONS

CONCERNING

THE CAUSES OF THE MAGNIFICENCY AND OPU

LENCY OF CITIES.

THAT the only way to civilize and reform the savage and barbarous lives and corrupt manners of such people is,

1. To be dealt withal by gentle and loving conversation among them ; to attain to the knowledge of their language, and of the multitude of their special discommodities and inconveniencies in their manner of living.

2. The next is to get an admired reputation amongst them, upon a solid and true foundation of piety, justice, and wisdom, conjoined with fortitude and power.

3. The third is, discreetly to possess them with a knowledge of the condition of their own estate. Thus Orpheus and Amphion were said to draw after them the beasts of the field, &c.

And this must be first wrought by a visible representation of the certainty, truth, and sincerity of these, together with the felicity of a reformed estate.

All which is but to give foundation, bottom, and firm footing unto action, and to prepare them to receive wholesome and good advice, for the future profit and felicity of themselves and their posterity.

For the more commodious effecting of this reformation in a rude and barbarous people, they are to be persuaded to withdraw and unite themselves into several colonies; that by it an interchangeable communication and commerce of all things may more commodiously be had, and that they may so live together in civility, for the better succour and welfare of one another: and thereby they may more easily be instructed in the Christian faith, and governed under the magistrates and ministers of the king, or other superior power, under whom this reformation is sought. Which course the Stoic tells that Theseus took after he had taken upon him the government of the Athenians, whereby he united all the people into one city, that before lived dispersedly in many villages. The like is put in practice at this day by the Portugals and Jesuits, that they may with less difficulty and hinderance reform the rough behaviour and savage life of the people of Brazil, who dwell scattered and dispersed in caves and cottages made of boughs and leaves of the palm trees.

Alexander the Great built more than seventy cities: Seleucus built three cities, called Apamea, to the honour of his wife; and five, called Laodicea, in memory of his mother; and five, called Seleucia, to the honour of himself.

Safety for defence of the people and their goods in and

near the town. IN the situation of cities there is to be required a place of safety, by some natural strength, commodiousness for navigation, and conduct for the attaining of plenty of all good things for the sustenance and comfort of man's life, and to draw trade and intercourse of other nations; as if the same be situate in such sort, as many people have need to repair thither for some natural commodity or other of the country, which by traffick and transportation of comniodities, whereof they have more plenty than will supply their own necessity, or for receiving of things whereof they have scarcity. And much better will it be if the place afford some notable commodity of itself, from whence other nations may more readily, and at better rate, attain the same: likewise and withal be so fertile, pleasant, and healthful of itself, that it may afford plenty of good things for the delight and comfort of the inhabitants.

In former times great nations, kings, and potentates, have endured sharp conflicts, and held it high policy by all means to increase their cities with multitudes of inhabitants. And

to this end the Romans ever furnished themselves with strength and power to make their neighbour people, of necessity, willing to draw themselves to Rome to dwell, and overthrow their towns and villages of mean strength down to the ground.

So did they for this cause utterly destroy many cities, bringing always the vanquished captives to Rome, for the augmentation of that city.

Romulus, after a mighty fight with the Sabines, condescended to peace, upon condition that Tatius their king should come with all their people to dwell at Rome: Tatius did accept, and made choice of the Capitol, and the mount Quirinalis for his seat and palace.

The same course held Tamerlane the Great, whereby he enlarged the great Samarcanda, still bringing unto it the richest and wealthiest citizens he had subdued.

And the Ottomans, to make the city Constantinople rich and great, brought to it many thousand families, especially artificers, out of the subdued cities, as Mahomet the Great from Trebizond, Selim the First from Cairo, and Solyman from Tauris.

Authority and necessity, without the consideration of the conveniencies and commodiousness of situation above mentioned, are of small moment in the foundation of a city; thereby only it would be unlikely either to grow or continue in magnificency or opulency; for if profit, height, and delight go not companions therewith, no authority or necessity can retain much people or wealth.

But if the place whereupon a city is to be founded be commodicus for the aforesaid conveniencies, which help greatly for the felicity of this life, then, no doubt, the same is likely to draw much abundance of people and riches unto the same, whereby it may, by the help of arts and industry, in time become magnificent and glorious.

Unto the good estate, greatness, and glory of a city, those things hereafter mentioned do greatly avail, and are of much importance; viz.

Religion, which is of such force and might to amplify cities and dominions, and of such attractive virtue to replenish the same with people and wealth, and to hold them in due obedience, as none can be more; for without adoration of some deity no commonwealth can subsist.

Witness Jerusalem, Rome, Constantinople, and all other cities that have been famous for the profession of religion or divine worship. And no marvel; for there is not any thing in this world of more efficacy and force to allure and draw to it the hearts of men than God, which is the summum bonum. He is carefully desired and continually sought for of all creatures; for all regard him as their last end and refuge.

Light things apply themselves upwards, heavy things downwards; the heavens to revolution, the herbs to flowers, trees to bear fruit, beasts to preserve their kind, and man in seeking his tranquillity and everlasting glory. But forasmuch as God is of so high a nature as the sense and understanding of man cannot conceive it, every man directly turns himself to that place where he leaves some print of his power, or declares some sign of his assistance; and to such persons to whom he seemeth more especially to have revealed himself.

Academies and schools of learning with convenient immunities and privileges for scholars, and means for recreation and delight, are of great importance to enlarge and enrich a city: forasmuch as men long for honour and profit; and of arts and liberal sciences, some bring certain wealth to men, and some promotions and preferments to honourable functions; for by this means not only young men, and those that are desirous of learning and virtue in the same commonwealth, will be retained in their own country, but also strangers will be drawn home to them. And the more will this be available, if occasion be given to scholars and students to rise to degrees of honour and preferment by their learned exercises, and that by the policy of the same city good wits be accounted of, and rewarded well: that the same academies and schools be stored with plenty of doctors and learned men of great fame and reputation.

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