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poetical than a hoy in a high wind? The boy is all place him with Dante and the others ? No: but, as I have nature, the ship is all art, « coarse canvas,» « blue before said, the poet who executes best is the highest, buntiny," and « tall poles ;» both are violently acted whatever his department, and will ever be so rated in upon by the wind, lossed here and there, to and fro; the world's esteem. and yet nothing but excess of hunger could make me Had Gray written nothing but his Elegy, high as he look upon the pig as the more poetical of the two, and stands, I am not sure that he would not stand higher; then only in the shape of a griskin.
it is the corner-stone of his glory; without it, his odes Will Mr Bowles tell us that the poetry of an aqueduct would be insufficient for his fame. The depreciation consists in the water which it conveys? Let him look of Pope is partiy founded upon a false idea of the on that of Justinian, on those of Rome, Constantinople, dignity of his order of poetry, to which he has partiy Lisbon, and Elvas, or even at the remains of thai in contributed by the ingenuous boast, Attica. We are asked, « what makes the venerable towers of
That not in fancy's maze he wander'd long,
But stoop'd to truth, and moralised his song. Westminster Abbey more poetical, as objects, than the tower for the manufactory of patent shot, surrounded by He should bave written « rose to truth.» In my mind the same scenery?» I will answer—the architecture. the highest of all poetry is ethical poetry, as the highTurn Westminster Abbey, or Saint Paul's, into a powder est of all earthly objects must be moral truth. Religion magazine, their poetry, as objects, remains the same; does not make a part of my subject; it is something thie Parthenon was actually converted into one by the beyond human powers, and has failed in all human Turks, during Morosini's Venetian siege, and part of it hands except Milton's and Dante's, and even Dante's destroyed in consequence. Cromwell's dragoons stalled powers are involved in his delineation of human pastheir steeds in Worcester cathedral; was it less poetical, sions, though in supernatural circumstances. What as an object, than before? Ask a foreigner on his ap- made Socrates the greatest of men? His moral truthproach to London, what strikes him as the most poetical his ethics. What proved Jesus Christ the Son of God of the towers before him; he will point out St Paul's and hardly less than his miracles? His moral precepts. Westminster Abbey, without, perhaps, knowing the And if ethics have made a philosopher the first of men names or associations of either, and pass over the « tower and have not been disdained as an adjuncı to his gospel for patent shot,» not that, for any thing he knows 10 by the Deity himself, are we to be told that ethical the contrary, it might not be the mausoleum of a mo- poetry, or didactic poetry, or by whatever Dame you narch, or a Waterloo column, or a Trafalgar monu- term it, whose object is to make men better and wiser, ment, but because its architecture is obviously inferior. is not the very first order of poetry; and are we to be
To the question, « whether the description of a game told this too by one of the priesthood? It requires of cards be as poetical, supposing the execution of the more mind, more wisdom, more power, than all the artists equal, as a description of a walk in a forest?» « forests» that ever were a walked» for their « descripit may be answered, that the materials are certainly tion,» and all the epics that ever were founded upon not equal; but that « the artist,» who bas rendered fields of battle. The Georgies are indisputably, and, the « game of cards poetical,» is by far the greater of I believe, undisputedly, even a finer poem than the
But all this « ordering» of poets is purely ar- Eneid. Virgil knew this; he did not order them to be bitrary on the part of Mr Bowles. There may or may burot. not be, in fact, different « orders» of poetry, but the poet is always ranked according to his execution, and
The proper study of mankind is man. not according to his branch of the art.
It is the fashion of the day to lay great stress upon Tragedy is one of the highest presumed orders. Hughes what they call « imagination» and « invention. » the iwo has written a tragedy, and a very successful one; commonest of qualities: an Irish peasant, with a lique Fenton another; and Pope none. Did any man, how- wiiskey in his head, will imagine and invent more ever,- will even Mr Boules, himself rank Jlughes and than would furnish forth a modern poem. If Lucretius Fenton as poets above Pope? Was even Addison (the had not been spoiled by the Epicurean system, we author of Cato), or Rowe (one of the higher order of should have had a far superior poem to any now in dramatists, as far as success goes), or Young, or even existence. As mere poetry, it is the first of Latin Otway and Southerne, ever raised for a moment to the poems. What then has ruined it? His ethics. Pope same rauk with Pope in the estimation of the reader has not this defect; his moral is as pure as his poetry or the critic, before his death or since? If Mr Bowles will is glorious. In speaking of artificial objects, I have contend for classifications of this kind, let him recollect omitted to touch upon one which I will now mention. that descriptive poetry has been ranked as among the Caonon may be presumed to be as highly poetical as lowest branches of the art, and description as a mere or- art can make her objects. Mr Bowles will, perhaps. pament, but which should never form the subject» of tell me that this is because they resemble that grand a poem. The Italians, with the most poetical language, natural article of sound in heaven, and simile upon and the most fastidious taste in Europe, possess now five carth--thunder. I shall be told triumphanuy, that great poets, they say, Dante, Petrarch, Ariosto, Tasso, Milton made sad work with his artillery, wheu he armed and lastly Alfieri; and whom do they esteem one of the his devils therewithal. He did so; and this artificial highest of these, and some of them the very highest? object must have had much of the sublime to attract Petrarch, the sonneteer : it is true that some of his his attention for such a conflict. He has made an Canzoni are not less esteemed, but not more; who ever absurd use of it; but the absurdity consists not in dreams of his Latin Africa!
using cannon against the angels of God, but any Were Petrarch to be ranked according to the « order» material weapon. The thunder of the clouds would of his compositions, where would the best of sonnets have been as ridiculous and vain in the hands of the
devils, as the «villanous salipetre :» the angels were as | tation of Milton's style, as burlesque as the « Splendid impervious to the one as to the other. The thunder- Shilling. These two writers (for Cowper is no poet) bolts became sublime in the hands of the Almighty, come into comparison in one great work—the transnot as such, but because he deigos to use them as a means lation of Homer. Now, with all the great, and maniof repelling the rebel spirits ; but no one can attribute fest, and manifold, and reproved, and acknowledged, their defeat to this grand piece of natural electricity: and uncontroverted faults of Pope's translation, and the Almighty willed, and they fell ; his word would have all the scholarship, and pains, and time, and trouble, been enough; and Milton is as absurd (and in fact, and blank verse of the other, who can ever read Cowper ? blasphemous) in putting material lightnings into the and who will ever lay down Pope, unless for the hands of the Godhead, as in giving him hands at all. original ? Pope's was « not Homer, it was Spondanus ;»
The artillery of the demons was but the first step of but Cowper's is not Homer, either, it is not even Cowhis mistake, the thunder the next, and it is a step lower. per. As a child I first read Pope's Homer with a rapIt would have been fit for Jove, but not for Jehovah. ture which no subsequent work could ever afford; and The subject altogether was essentially unpoetical; he children are not the worst judges of their owo lanhas made more of it than another could, but it is be-guage. As a boy I read Homer in the original, as we yond him and all men.
have all done, some of its by force, and a few by In a portion of his reply, Mr Bowles asserts that Pope favour; under which description I come is nothing to «envied Phillips» because he quizzed his pastorals in the purpose, it is enough that I read him. As a man the Guardian, in that most admirable model of irony, I have tried to read Cowper's version, and I found it his paper on the subject. If there was any thing impossible. Has any human reader ever succeeded? enviable about Phillips, it could hardly be his pasto- And now that we have heard the Catholic'reproached rals. They were despicable, and Pope expressed his with envy, duplicity, licentiousness, avarice-what was contempt. If Mr Fitzgerald published a volume of son- the Calvinist? Ile attempted the most atrocious of nets, or a « Spirit of Discovery,» or a « Missionary,» crimes in the Christian code, viz. suicide—and why? and Mr Bowles wrote in any periodical journal an Because he was to be examined whether he was fit for ironical paper upon them, would this be wenvy?» The an office which he seems to wish to have made a sineauthors of the «Rejected Addresses» have ridiculed the cure. His connexion with Mrs Unwin was pure enough, sixteen or twenty first living poets» of the day; but for the old lady was devout, and he was deranged; but do they «envy» them? «Envy» writhes, it don't laugh. why then is the infirm and then elderly Pope to be reThe authors of the «Rejected Addresses» may despise proved for his connexion with Martha Blount? Cowsome, but they can hardly «envy» any of the persons per was the almoner of Mrs Throgmorton ; but Pope's whom they have parodied; and Pope could have no charities were his own, and they were noble and exmore envied Phillips than he did Welsted, or Theobalds, tensive, far beyond his fortune's warrant. Pope was or Smedley, or any other given hero of the Dunciad. He could not have envied him, even had he himself not
Thy needles, once a shining store,
For my sake restless heretofore, been the greatest poet of his age. Did Mr Ings «envy»
Now rust disused, and shine no more, Mr Phillips, when he asked him, « how came your
My Mary, Pyrrhus to drive oxen, and say, I am goaded on by contain a simple, household, « indoor, » artificial, and ordinary image. love !» This question silenced poor Phillips; but it no I refer Mr Bowles to the stanza, and ask if these three linea about more proceeded from «envy» than did Pope's ridicule.
* needles, are not worth all the boasted twaddling about trees, 80 Did he envy Swift? Did he envy Bolingbroke? Did he triumphantly re-quoted ? and yet in fact what do they convoy?
homely collection of imagos and ideas associated with the daroing of envy Gay the unparalleled success of his «Beggar's stokings, and the bemming of shirts, and the mending of brze hos ; Opera ?» We may be answered that these were his but will any one deny that they are eminently poetical and pathetic friends-true; but does friendship prevent envy! as addressed by Cowper to his nurse? The trash of trees reminds me Study the first woman you meet with, or the first serib- of a saying of Sheridan's
. Soon after the « Rejected Address" scene,
in 1813, 1 met Sheridan. In the course of dinner, be said, « Lord bler, let Mr Bowles bimself (whom I acquit fully of Byron, did you know that amongst the writers of addresses wasWhitsuch an odious quality) study some of his own poetical bread himself?" I answered by an enquiry of what sort of an address intimates: the most envious man I cver heard of is a he bad made. - Of that, replied Sheridao, Tremember linle, expoet, and a high one; besides it is an universal passion. describe it. Like a poulterer, - answered Sheridan : - it was green,
cept that there was a phani. in it., « A phonix!! Well, how did he Goldsmith envied not only the puppets for their danc- and yellow, and red, and blue': he did not let us off for a single feaing, and broke his shins in the attempt at rivalry, but ther. And just such as this poulierer's account of a phanix, is was seriously angry because two pretty women re- Cowper's stich-picker's detail of a wood, with all its peily minatiæ ceived more attention than he did.
of this, that, and the other, This is envy;
One more poetical instance of the power of art, and even its supewhere does Pope show a sign of the passion? In that riority over nature, in poetry, and I have done :- the bust of Anticase, Dryden envied the hero of his Mac Flecknoe. Mr' nous! Is there any thing in nature like this marblo, escepting the Bowles compares, when and where he can, Pope with Venus ? Can there he more poetry gathered into existence than in Cowper (the same Cowper whom, in his edition of Pope, is in no respect derived from nature, por from any association of moral
that wonderful creation of perfect beauty? But the poetry of this bust he laughs at for his attachment to an old woman, Mrs exaltedness; for wbat is there in common with moral nature and the Unwin: search and you will find it; I remember the malo minion of Adrian ? The very execution is not natural, but superpassage, though not the page); in particular he re
natural, or rather super-artificial, for nature has never done so much. quotes Cowper's Dutch delineation of a wood, drawn
Away, then, with this cant about nature and a invariable principles
of poetry!. A great artist will make a block of stone as sublime as up like a seedsman's catalogue,' with an affected imi- a mountain, and a good poet can imbue a pack of cards with more
poetrs than inbabits the forests of America. It is the business and
the proof of a poet to give the lie to the proverb, and sometimes to 'I wiil submit to Nir Bowles's own judgment a passage from another * make a silken purse out of a sow's ear;" and to conclude with anpoem of Cowper's, to be compared with the same writer's Sylvan' orber homely proverb, a good workman will not find fault with his Sampler. In the lines to Mary,
the tolerant yet steady adherent of the most bigoted of will not. You, Sir, know how far I am sincere, and sects; and Cowper the most bigoted and despondent whether, my opinion, not only in the short work insectary that ever anticipated damnation to himself or tended for publication, and in private letters which others. Is this harsh? I know it is, and I do not assert can never be published, has or has not been the same. it as my opinion of Cowper personally, but to show I look upon this as the declining age of English poetry; what might be said, with just as great an appearance of no regard for others, no selfish feeling, can prevent me truth and candour, as all the odium which has been from seeing this, and expressing the truth. There can accumulated upon Pope in similar speculations. Cow be no worse sign for the taste of the times than the per was a good man, and lived at a fortunate time for depreciation of Pope. It would be better to receive for his works.
proof Mr Cobbett's rough but strong attack upon Mr Bowles, apparently not relying entirely upon his Shakspeare and Milton, than to allow this smooth and own arguments, has, in person or by proxy, brought «candid» undermining of the reputation of the most forward the names of Southey and Moore. Mr Southey perfect of our poets and the purest of our moralists. « agrees entirely with Mr Bowles in his invariable of his power in the passions, in description, in the principles of poetry.” The least that Mr Bowles can do mock-lieroic, I leave others to descant. I take him on in return is to approve the « invariable principles of Mr his strong ground, as an ethical poet: iu the former Southey.» I should have thought that the word «in- none excel, in the mock-heroic and the ethical none variable» might have stuck in Southey's throat, like equal him; and, in my mind, the latter is the highest Macbeth's «Amen!» I am sure it did in mine, and I of all poetry, because it does that in verse, which the am not the least consistent of the two, at least as a greatest of men have wished to accomplish in prose.
Moore (et tu Brute!) also approves, and a Mr If the essence of poetry must be a lie, throw it to the J. Scott. There is a letter also of two lines from a dogs, or banish it from your republic, as Plato would gentleman in asterisks, who it seems, is a poet of «the have done. He who can reconcile poetry with truth highest rank»—who can this be? not my friend, Sir and wisdom, is the only true « poet» in its real sense : Walter, surely. Campbell it can't be; Rogers it won't « the maker,» « the creator»— why must this mean the be.
« liar,» the « feigner, « the tale-teller?» A man may
make and create better things than these. • You have hit the nail in the head, and ""** [Pope, I presume) on the head also..
I shall not presume to say that Pope is as high a I remain, yours, affectionately.
poet as Shakspeare and Milton, though his enemy, (Four Asterisks.)
Warton, places him immediately under them. I would And in asterisks let him remain. Whoever this
no more say this than I would assert in the mosque person
(once Saint Sophia's), that Socrates was a greater man may be, he deserves, for such a judgment of Midas,
than Mahomet. that the nail» which Mr Bowles has hit in the head»
But if I say that he is very near them, should be driven through his own ears; I am sure that
it is no more than has been asserted of Burns, who is
supposed they are long enough. The attention of the poetical populace of the present
To rival all but Shakspeare's name below. day to obtain an ostracism against Pope is as easily ac- I say nothing against this opinion. But of what «order,» counted for as the Athenian's shell against Aristides; according to the poetical aristocracy, are Burns's poems? they are tired of hearing him always called «the Just.» These are his opus magnum, «Tam O'Shanter,» a tale ; They are also fighting for life; for if he maintains his the «Cotter's Saturday Night,» a descriptive sketch : station, they will reach their own falling. They have some others in the same style; the rest are songs. So raised a mosque by the side of a Grecian temple of the much for the rank of his productions; the rank of purest architecture; and, more barbarous than the bar- Burns is the very first of his art. Of Pope I have exbarians from whose practice I have borrowed the pressed my opiuion elsewhere, as also of the effect figure, they are not contented with their own grotesque which the present attempts at poetry have had upon edifice, unless they destroy the prior and purely beauti- our literature. If any great national or natural conful fabric which preceded, and which shames them and vulsion could or should overwhelm your country, in theirs for ever and ever. I shall be told that amongst such sort as to sweep Great Britain from the kingdoms those I have been (or it may be still am) conspicuous of the earth, and leave only that, after all the most true, and I am ashamed of it. I have been amongst living of human things, a dead language, to be studied the builders of this Babel, attended by a confusion of and read, and imitated by the wise of future and far tongues, but never amongst the envious destroyers of
generations upon foreign shores; if your literature the classic temple of our predecessor. I have loved should become the learning of mankind, divested of and honoured the fame and name of that illustrious
party and unrivalled man, far more than my own paltry and prejudice; an Englishman, anxious that the pas
cabals, temporary fashions, and national pride renown, and the trashy jingle of the crowd of terity of strangers should know that there had been « schools» and upstarts, who pretend to rival, or even
such a thing as a British Epic and Tragedy, might wish surpass him. Sooner than a single leaf should be for the preservation of Shakspeare and Milton ; but torn from his laurel, it were better that all which these the surviving world would snatch Pope from the wreck, men, and that I, as one of their set, lave ever written, I and let the rest sink with the people. He is the moral should
poet of all civilization, and, as such, let us hope that Line trunks, clothe spice, or, fluttering in a row,
he will one day be the national poet of mankind. He Befringe the rails of Bedlain or Soho!
is the only poet that never shocks; the only poet whose
faultlessness has been made his reproach. Cast your There are those who will believe this, and those who cye over his productions; consider their extent, and contemplate their variety :-pastoral, passion, mock- have a better memory for his own faults? They are heroic, translation, satire, ethics,-all excellent, and but the faults of an author; while the virtues he omitoften perfect. If his great charm be his melody, how led from his catalogue are essential to the justice due comes it that foreigners adore him even in their diluted to a man. translation? But I have made this letter too long. Mr Bowles appears, indeed, to be susceptible beyond Give my compliments to Mr Bowles.
the privilege of authorship. There is a plaintive dedicaYours ever, very truly,
tion to Mr Gifford, in which he is made responsible for BYRON.
all the articles of the Quarterly. Mr Southey, it seems, To J. Murray, Esq.
«the most able and eloquent writer in that Review,»
approves of Mr Bowles's publication. Now, it seems to Post scriptum.-Long as this letter has grown, I
me the more impartial, that, potwithstanding that the find it necessary to append a postscript, --if possible, a
great writer of the Quarterly entertains opinions opshort one. Mr Bowles denies that he has accused Pope posite to the able article on Spence, nevertheless that of « a sordid money-getting passion ;» but he adds « if
essay was permitted to appear. Is a review to be deI had ever done so, I should be glad to find any testi- voted to the opinions of any one man? Must it not mony that might show me he was not so.»
vary according to circumstances, and according to the Limony he may find, to his heart's content, in Spence subjects to be criticised ? I fear that writers must take and elsewhere. First, there is Martha Blount, who, the sweets and bitters of the public journals as they Mr Bowles charitably says, « probably thought he did occur, and an author of so long a standing as Mr Bowles not save enough for her as legatee. Whatever she might have become accustomed to such incidents ; he thought upon this point, her words are in Pope's might be angry, but not astonished. I have been refavour. Then there is Alderman Barber; see Spence's viewed in the Quarterly almost as often as Mr Bowles, Anecdotes. There is Pope's cold answer to Halifax, and have had as pleasant things said, and some as unwhen he proposed a pension ; his behaviour to Craggs pleasant, as could well be pronounced. In the review and to Addison upon like occasions; and his own two
of « The Fall of Jerusalem,» it is stated that I have delines
voted « my powers, etc. to the worst parts of maniAud, thanks to Homer, since I live and thrive,
cheism,» which, being interpreted, means that I worIndebted to no prineo or peer alive
ship the devil. Now, I have neither written a reply, nor
complained to Gifford. I believe that I observed in a written when prioces would have been proud to pen- letter to you, that I thought that the critic might have sion, and peers to promote him, and when the whole praised Milman without finding it necessary to abuse army of dunces were in array against him, and would me;» but did I not add at the same time, or soon after have been but too happy to deprive him of this boast (apropos, of the note in the book of Travels), that I of independence. But there is something a little more would not, if it were even in my power, have a single serious in Mr Bowles's declaration, that he « would have line cancelled on my account in that nor in any other spoken» of his «noble generosity to the outcast, Richard publication ?-Of course, I reserve to myself the priSavage,» and other instances of a compassionate and vilege of response when necessary. Mr Bowles seems in generous heart, « had they occurred to his recollection a whimsical state about the article on Spence. You when he wrote.» What! is it come to this? Does know very well that I am not in your confidence, nor Mr Bowles sit down to write a minute and laboured life in that of the conductor of the journal. The moment and edition of a great poet? Does he anatomize his I saw that article, I was morally certain that I knew the character, moral and poetical ? Does he present us author « by his style.» You will tell me that I do not with his faults and with his foibles ? Does he sneer at know him: that is all as it should be; keep the secret, his feelings, and doubt of his sincerity? Does he unfold so shall J, though no one has ever intrusted it to me. his vanity and duplicity ? and then omit the good qua- He is not the person whom Mr Bowles denounces. Mr lities which might, in part, have « covered this multi- Bowles's extreme sensibility reminds me of a circumrude of sins!» and then plead that « they did not occur stance which occurred on board of a frigate, in which to his recollection ?» Is this the frame of mind and of I was a passenger and guest of the captain's, for a conmemory with which the illustrious dead are to be ap- siderable time. The surgeon on board, a very gentleproached ? If Mr Bowles, who must have had access to manly young man, and remarkably able in his profesall the means of refreshing his memory, did not recol. sion, wore a wig. Upon this ornament he was extremely lect these facts, he is unfit for his task; but if he did tenacious. As naval jests are sometimes a little rough, recollect, and omit them, I know not what he is fit his brother-officers made occasional allusions to this for, but I know what would be fit for him. Is the plea delicate appendage to the doctor's person. One day a of « not recollecting» such prominent facts to be ad-young lieutenant, in the course of a facetious discusmitted ? Mr Bowles has been at a public school, and, as sion, said, « Suppose, now, doctor, I should take off I have been publicly educated also, I can sympathise your hat.» « Sir,» replied the doctor, « I shall talk no with his predilection. When we were in the third form longer with you; you grow scurrilous.» He would not even, had we pleaded on the Monday morning, that we even admit so near an approach as to the hat which had not brought up the Saturday's exercise because protecied it. In like manner, if any body approaches « we had forgotten it,» what would have been the re- Mr Bowles's laurels, even in his outside capacity of an ply? And is an excuse, which would not be pardoned editor, « tlicy grow scurrilous.» You say that you are to a schoolboy, to pass current in a matter which so about to prepare an edition of Pope; you cannot do nearly concerns the fame of the first poet of his age, if belter for your own credit as a publisher, nor for the not of his country? If Mr Bowles so readily forgets the redemption of Pope from Mr Bowles, and of the public virtues of others, why complain so grievously that others laste from rapid degeneracy.
June 17, 1816. duct of my intended journey. It was my secret wish In the year 17—, having for some time determined that he might be prevailed on to accompany me: it on a journey through countries not hitherto much fre- also a probable lope, founded upon the shadowy restquented by travellers, I set out, accompanied by a friend lessness which I had observed in him, and to which the whom I shall designate by the name of Augustus Dar- animation which he appeared to feel on such subjects, vell. He was a few years my elder, and a man of con- and his apparent indifference to all by which he was siderable fortune and ancient family-advantages which more immediately surrounded, gave fresh streogth. an extensive capacity prevented him alike from under. This wish I firsthinted, and then expressed : his answer, valuing or overrating. Some peculiar circumstances in though I had partly expected it, gave me all the pleahis private history had rendered him to me an object | sure of surprise—he consented; and, after the requisite of attention, of interest, and even of regard, which arrangements, we commenced our voyages. After journeither the reserve of his manners, por occasional indi- neying through various countries of the south of Europe, cations of an inquietude at times nearly approaching to our attention was turned towards the East, according alienation of mind, could extinguish.
to our original destination; and it was in my progress I was yet young in life, which I had begun early; through those regions that the incident occurred upon but my intimacy with him was of a recent date: we had which will turn what I may have to relate. been educated at the same schools and university, but The constitution of Darvell, which must, from his his progress through these had preceded mine, and he appearance, have been in early life more than usually had been deeply initiated into what is called the world, robust, had been for some time gradually giving way, while I was yet in my noviciate. While thus engaged, without the intervention of any apparent disease : he had heard much both of his past and present life; and, bad neither cough por hectic, yet he became daily although in these accounts there were many and irre- more enfeebled : bis habits were temperate, and be concilable contradictions, I could still gather from the neither declined nor complained of fatigue, yet he was whole that lie was a being of no common order, and evidently wasting away: he became more and more one who, whatever pains he might take to avoid re- silent and sleepless, and at length so seriously altered, mark, would still be remarkable. I had cultivated his that my alarm grew proportionate to what I conceived acquaintance subsequently, and endeavoured to obtain to be his danger. his friendship, but this last appeared to be unattainable ; We had determined, on cur arrival at Smyrna, on whatever affections he miglit have possessed seemed an excursion to the ruins of Ephesus and Sardis, from now, some to have been extinguished, and others to be which I endeavoured to dissuade him, in his present concentred : that his feelings were acute, I had suff- state of indisposition-but in vaja : there appeared to be cient opportunities of observing; for, although he could an oppression on his mind, and a solemnity in luis mancontrol, he could not altogether disguise them: still he der, which ill corresponded with his eagerness to proceed had a power of giving to one passion the appearance of on what I regarded as a mere party of pleasure, bute another, in such a manner that it was difficult to define suited to a valetudinariau; but I opposed him no longer the nature of what was working within him; and the —and in a few days we set off together, accompanied expressions of his features would vary so rapidly, though only by a serrugee and a single japizary. slightly, that it was useless to trace them to their sources. We had passed half-way towards the remains of Ephe. It was evident that he was a prey to some cureless dis- sus, leaving behind us the more fertile environs of quiet; but whether it arose from ambition, love, re- Smyrna, and were entering upon that wild and te morse, grief, from one or all of these, or merely from nantless track through the marshes and defiles which a morbid temperament akin to disease, I could not dis- lead to the few huts yet lingering over the broken cocover: there were circumstances alleged which might lumns of Diana—the rootless walls of expelled Christiahave justified the application to each of these causes; nity, and the still more recent but complete desolation of but, as I have before said, these were so contradictory abandoned mosques—when the sudden and rapid illand contradicted, that none could be fixed upon with ness of my companion obliged us to halt at a Turkish accuracy. Where there is mystery, it is generally sup- cemetery, the turbaned tombstones of which were the posed that there must also be evil : I know not how this sole jodication that human life liad ever been a sojourner may be, but in him there certainly was the one, though in this wilderness. The only caravansera we had seen I could not ascertain the extent of the other--and felt was left some hours behind us; pot a vestige of a town loth, as far as regarded himself, to believe in its exist- or even cottage, was within sight or hope, and this a city
My advances were received with sufficient cold- of the dead» appeared to be the sole refuge for my unness; but I was young, and not easily discouraged, and fortunate friend, who seemed on the verge of becoming at length succeeded in obtaining, to a certain degree, the last of its inhabitants. that common-place intercourse and moderate confidence In this situation, I looked round for a place where he of common and every-day concerns, created and ce-might most conveniently repose :--contrary to the usual mented by similarity of pursuit and frequency of mect- aspect of Mahometan burial grounds, the cypresses ing, which is called intimacy, or friendship, according were in this few in number, and these tbinly scattered to the ideas of him who uses those words to express them. over its extent: the tombstones were mostly fallen, and
Darvell had already travelled extensively, and to him worn with age : upon one of the most considerable of I had applied for information with regard to the con- these, and beneath one of the most spreading tres