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These Lectures are printed as they were delivered, except that some passages, consisting chiefly of details which were then omitted for brevity, have been restored to the text, and the footnotes added.

I have to acknowledge my obligations to W. F. Skene, LL.D., D.C.L., Arthur Mitchell, M.D., LL.D., and Sir Henry Dryden, Bart., for their kindness in reading the proof-sheets ; to Miss Stokes for permission to reproduce the plans of the Irish cashels; to Mr. William Stevenson, and my daughter, Miss E. F. Anderson, for their drawings of Celtic ornament; to Mr. Galloway Mackintosh, Elgin, for drawings of the Bronze Bell, and the window-sill of the church at Insh; to Eev. J. B. Mackenzie, Kenmore, for photographs (by himself) of the structures on Eilean na Naoimh, and the Fortingall bell; to Mr. Thomas S. Muir, to whom I have elsewhere expressed my obligations in other respects, for woodcuts of ancient churches; to Rev. H. T. Ellacombe, for illustrations of bells; to Mr. Peace, Kirkwall, for woodcuts of the Old Church of Deerness; to Mrs. Stuart for the figures of Evangelists; to the Society of Antiquaries of London, for the illustration of the Temple from the Book of Kells; and to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, for the use of a large number of their woodcuts.




Scope and aims of Archaeology—Necessary limitations of these by con-
ditions of space and time—No system applicable to the world as a
whole—The phenomena of human occupancy differ in different
areas, and have differed, at different times, in each separate area
—Typical groups of remains characteristic of different areas and
different periods—Materials for the study of the science in relation
to Scotland—Their difference from the materials of the natural or
physical sciences—Carefulness of their scientific materials a char-
acteristic of all educated communities—Reasons for exceptional
carefulness of the materials of archaeological science—Their destruc-
tion is the obliteration of the national history for the periods of
which they are the only records—Their peculiar nature necessitates
the adoption of peculiar methods for their protection—Their pre-
servation is a national object as well as a necessity of science—The
archaeology of Scotland can only be based on a collection of mate-
rials completely representative of the whole country—The existing
National Collection as it is and as it might be—The conditions that
give scientific value to all collections—The methods of dealing
with the materials when collected—The three ages of stone, bronze,
and iron in Scotland—Archaeology constructs a logical not a
chronological history of culture and civilisation—It neither deter-
mines dates nor the duration of periods—Its true function is the
determination of types and their sequences and areas—Seasons for
inverting the usual order of archaeological expositions—Summary
of the investigation proposed in the lectures—Eecapitulation of the
points established ..... Pages 1-28




Structural remains of the Early Church in Scotland—Method of

determination of typical forms — Church of St. Regulus, St.

Andrews—The chancelled churches of Orkney and Shetland—

The church of Egilsay and its round tower—Round Tower of

Brechin—Round Tower of Abernethy—Their identity of type with

those of Ireland—The Round Tower of Devenish, Lough Erne—

Four styles of the Irish Round Towers—The Scottish examples

are of the third or fourth styles—Their relationship to chancelled

churches—Degradation of the type of Round Tower structure—

Chancelled churches of Weir and Linton in Orkney—Lybster in

Reay—Transition from the single to the double chambered type

of Church structure—Teampull Cholumcille in Benbecula—Kirk-

apoll in Tiree — Skeabost in Skye — Inchcolm—The primitive

type ...... Pages 29-75



Early Christian remains in Scotland and Ireland must be studied to-

gether—Characteristics of the earliest churches in Ireland—Their

association with the Cashel and the Bee-hive dwellings of Pagan

times—Island monasteries on Skellig Mhichael, Ardoilean, Inis-

muredach, and Oilean Tsenach in Ireland—Inch Columcille, Eilean

na Naoimh, and Deerness in Scotland—Groups exhibiting gradations

of advancement from the rudest form to the chancelled church—

Kilmalkedar—Eilean Mor Mhic O'Charmaig—Isolated structures

on remote Islands—Rona—Suleskerry—The Flannan Isles—Re-

view of the different phases of advancement in ascending order—

The Celtic type of Early Church structure different from the

Roman or European type—The highest expression of a people's

culture is not always or necessarily found in their architecture.

Pages 76-129

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