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nations joining; and now, that they had been the occasion of firing the town. This report did so terrify, that on a sudden there was such an uproar and tumult that they ran from their goods, and taking what weapons they could come at, they could not be easily stopped from falling on some of those nations whom they casually met, without sense or reason. The clamour and peril grew so excessive that it made the whole Court amazed, and they did with infinite pains and great difficulty reduce and appease the people, sending troops of soldiers and guards to cause them to retire into the fields again, where they were watched all this night. I left them pretty quiet, and came home sufficiently weary and broken. Their spirits thus a little calmed, and the affright abated, they now began to repair into the suburbs about the city, where such as had friends or opportunity got shelter for the present, to which his Majesty's proclamation also invited them.


graff, a ditch, arcliitrave, the main

beam of a building, over

the front pillars.

projee'tnre, a projec-

vora'goes, gulfs, deep

det'rlinent, Injury, surheat'ed, overheated, destitution, want, oas'ually, by chance.


'mid pleasures and palaces though we may roam,
Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home!
A charm from the skies seems to hallow us there,
"Which, sought through the world, is ne'er met with elsewhere.

Home! home! sweet home!

There's no place like home!

I gaze on the moon as I trace the drear wild,
And I feel that my parents now think of their child.
They look on that moon from their own cottage door,
Through woodbines whose fragrance will charm me no more.

Home! home! sweet home!

There's no place like home!

An exile from home, splendour dazzles in vain;
Oh, give me my lowly-thatched cottage again;
The bird singing gaily that came at my call,
Give me these, and the peace of mind dearer than all.

Home! sweet, sweet home!

There's no place like home!


There's a magical tie to the land of our home,

Which the heart cannot break, though the footsteps may roam:

Bo that land where it may, at the Line or the Pole,

It still holds the magnet that draws back the soul.

'Tis loved by the freeman, 'tis loved by the slave;

"Tig dear to the coward, more dear to the bravo;

Ask of any the spot they like best upon earth,

And they'll answer with pride, "'Tis the land of my birth."

Oh, England! thy white cliffs are dearer to me
Than all the famed coasts of a far foreign sea;
What emerald can peer, or what sapphire can vie
With the grass of thy fields or thy summer-day sky?
They tell me of regions where flowers are found,
Whose perfume and tints spread a paradise round j
But brighter to me cannot garland the earth,
Than those that spring forth in the land of my birth.

Did I breathe in a clime where the bulbul is heard,
Where the citron-tree nestles the soft humming-bird;
Oh! I'd covet the notes of thy nightingale still,
And remember the robin that feeds at my sill.
Did my soul find a feast in the gay "land of song,"
In the gondolier's chant, or the carnival's throng,
Could I ever forget, 'mid their music and mirth,
The national strain of the land of my birth?

My country, I love thee: though freely I'd rove
Through the western savannah, or sweet orange-grovej
Yet warmly my bosom would welcome the gale
That bore me away with a homeward-bound sail.
My country, I love thee! and oh, mayst thou have
The last throb of my heart, ere 'tis cold in the grave:
May"st thou yield me that grave in thine own daisied earth,
And my ashes repose in the land of my birth.


mag'net, loadstoue, at- bul'bul, Persian uamo aavan'nah, the name

trading power. for the nightingale. given in America to large

gar land, to adorn with car nival, a festival held plains on the banks ol

flowers, just before Lent in Ito- rivers, in forests, Ac.

peer, to equal, to be com- man Catholic countries. gondolier', a boat-rower

pared with. per'fume, scout, sweet of Venice, odour.


1. I LEFT Lake Tahoa' and its comfortable inn with regret. One could spend a month there most delightfully. The most picturesque scenery; excursions in all directions; shooting, from grizzly bear to the mountain quail; lake fishing and river fishing; mining, if that may be called an amusement; in short, the perfect enjoyment of purely natural scenery.

2. Of course the mode of locomotion must be either on foot or on horseback, and the latter with the Californian saddle. An English saddle is all very well on a smooth road, or when crossing the plains; but when you have to go down ravines or up hills at an angle of forty-five degrees,3 the high peak fore and aft is not only a comfort but a necessity. I remember the distress of one obstinate Briton, who persisted in retaining his English pig-skin. At one time he was clinging for dear life to his horse's mane, at another his horse was being nearly thrown down by all the weight being on his shoulders.

3. And yet the first experience of a Californian saddle is anything but agreeable. The great wooden stirrups hang far back, the body is bifurcated between two upright wooden saddle-trees or peaks, like those in a dragoon saddle, only nearer to one another. There is no possibility of that easy lounge backward that we can indulge in at home, and, for the first day or two, the stranger finds the native saddle excessively fatiguing.

4. Once, however, see a cow-herd, lasso in hand, in full chase of a wild ox; see him throw the noose over the animal's horns, and notice how the horse, the moment it feels the jerk, plants its forefeet whilst the lariat is wound round the peak of the pommel, and then you will understand the use of a Californian saddle. The girths are also different from ours, and the proper adjustment of the equipment takes a long time to acquire properly. The Mexican saddle differs slightly from the native Californian, each being adapted to the peculiarities of the country; and I have been informed that the saddle in use in the Argentine Provinces' differs again from either of these, and for the purpose of hunting or herding cattle is superior.

5. I have often remarked in California that the mules had one girth tightly strapped round the forepart of the belly, and another as near the hind legs as possible, and not, as in our system, across the middle. This, especially with pack mules, prevents the load slipping, though to a stranger at first sight it gives the idea of compression, amounting to cruelty; but the animal does not appear to suffer.

6. Once more in the train, and, during the next fourteen miles, we ascend nearly twelve hundred feet. Two immensely powerful engines perform the arduous task, until at length we reach Summit Station,5 seven thousand and seventeen feet ab.ove the sea, and only two hundred and forty miles from San Francisco." Here we pass through a railroad construction peculiar to the Central Pacific line; I mean the snow-sheds.

7. Let the reader picture to himself a long gallery composed of immensely strong uprights of timber and great joists of pine wood, the whole arched, Gothic fashion, with here and there small openings, through which a glorious panorama is seen for an instant as the train roars its way along. Let him fancy these in winter, when the storm-king reigns among the Sierras, when the swift snow-drifts come like avalanches down the sides of the mountains, and those massive wooden shields groan, and creak, and bend under the weight of the superincumbent snow, as the mighty wind drives it over the roof; and fancy the great, screeching engines, with the line of carriages attached, thundering through all this, and rivalling the roar of the elements outside, and then he will understand the grandeur of peril as well as the might of engineering skill to remedy it.

8. But it is not only the storm element that is to be dreaded in these snow galleries. A burning coal from the engine, a careless watchman, or, worse still, the torch of the incendiary, will easily set fire to the resinous pine timber. The nature of the arched sheds creates a draft, the wind sweeps in as to a furnace, and there is the roaring of great flames, until the whole is consumed. Suppose that the fire begins in the centre. The switchman, only intent upon watching for the coming train, signals "all right," in it dashes, and the newspapers chronicle "awful catastrophe at the snow-sheds." It is exceedingly uncomfortable to be stopped at one of these snow-sheds, as sometimes happens, and to have to wait twelve hours, or more, at the top of the Sierra Nevada, until the damage is repaired, or another train arrives from the other side.

9. But the summit is passed, and all the rivers and streams flow westward. In six miles we have descended five hundred feet. The pace is awful; but the scenery, fitfully snatched from the mouths of tunnels, or on emerging from deep cuttings, is grand in the extreme. We round Cape Horn, as it is called; we are shown the head waters of the American river,7 more than two hundred miles from its mouth; we wind our way through the Giant's Gap, through the deep Bloomer Cut; we go across Placer County, El Dorado County, Gold Run, Emigrant Gap, all speaking of the land of promise we were fast approaching. Ever descending the valley of the Sacramento, which, at Auburn, is only thirteen hundred feet high, we at length cross the bridge over the American river, and in three miles more are in Sacramento.8


1 Sier'ra Neva'da, a great range of

mountains, running north and south, in California.

2 Lake Taho'a, a lake on the hordera

of the State of Nevada and California, close to the Humboldt river.

3 forty-five degrees, the eighth part

of a circle—that is, half a quarter of a circle.

4 Argentine Provinces, or Argen

tine Confederation, a Confederated Republic of South America, better known as La Plata. It includes an area of over 700,000 square miles.

5 Summit Station, a station on the

Sierra Nevada, or Snowy Range.

6 San Francis co, the capital of Cali


'• American River, a river rising in the Sierra Nevada, and after joining the Sacramento and other rivers, f idling into the great bay of San Francisco.

8 Sacrament'o, a city of California, half-way between the Sierra Nevada■ and San Francisco.

picturesque', like a

picture, excursion, a shortplca

sure journey, locomo'tion, tho

moving from place to


ob'stinate, stubborn.

retaining, keeping.

pig-skin, here, a name for an English saddle.

expe rience, trial.

bifurcated, forked, divided into two branches: here, u inserted between the two parts of a fork." The word is thus used wrongly by the author.


las'so, a long strip of
leather, with a noose at
the end, used for throw-
ing round the horns of
wild cattle.

lariat, another name for
tho lagso. Sometimes,
instead of a noose, the
lasso has a weight at the

pom mel, the front peak

of a saddle, adjustment, the fixing

properly, peculiarities, special

compression, tight

emerge', to come out of.

panora'ma, a full view on all sides.

avalanche', a huge slip of snow from tho side of a mountain.

superincumbent, lying over or on.

engineering, belonging to the science of tho engineer, or one who makes engines, plana aud carries out the construction of railroads, bridges, canals, &c.

resinous, full of resin.

catas trophe, a calamity.

repair', to mend.

Honour and shame from no condition rise;
Act well your part—there all the honour lies.

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