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market. Ireland, unfortunately, has no the dire domestic privations endured for trade or manufacture to employ her peo- the last three years of famine, the general ple, and wherefore is best known to Eng flight of tenants with the landlords' rent, land ; but her only staple, agriculture, the desertion of the land, impoverished to which all nations, ancient and modern, the last degree by the runaways, yet for loved to cultivate, will soon be little more whose dishonesty and abuse of solemn than a name. The causes and effects of contract the unfortunate proprietor is held this disastrous revolution the philosopher responsible—the abandoned farms being and historian will hereafter do justice to. still subject to accumulation of poor-rate A preparatory meeting, relative to the and taxes. Then come the distraint, the above, is now being held, with closed impounding, the sale and sacrifice of prodoors, in the county court, Lord Mon- perty ; while the home market, swamped teagle in the chair. Poor-rate was the by free trade with foreigners, has left landmonster grievance of discussion. The lord and farmer no help or resource whatmeeting broke up at 3 o'clock, it having ever to bear up against the intolerable opbeen decided to collect facts from every pression of financial burdens, sanctioned by district of the country in connexion with law, under the free constitution of Great taxation and valuation of property.”— Britain ! One case of grievous suffering Limerick Chronicle, of Saturday, Oct. 26. by a respectable family in this county was “The Land Question.—A letter from

communicated to the preparatory meeting Kilrush, dated the 27th inst., and pub

on Saturday last, by one of the gentlemen

present. The possessor of a rent-roll of lished in the Clare Journal, says :-'So

£1500 a-year landed estate, which netted eager are the country farmers to make

£1200 annually four years ago, was absosale of their grain, that every day is a

lutely compelled to subsist with his rife and market. Two causes seem to influence

seren children for three months of the past them ; first, their present and urgent

twelre, without the ordinary comfort of a necessities press upon them, and, secondly,

meat dinner: a cup of weak tea or coffee, an opinion prevails, which appears not to

and the vegetables of the kitchen-garden, be confined to the west, that it is more secure to have the money in their pockets

commonly furnishing the table of this

most wretched household ! Incredible than to leave the crop to become a prey

and appalling as this may appear, we to agent or poor-rate collector ; and also

have been assured it is not a solitary inthat, in the event of no reduction being

stance of the excessive want and privation made in the annual rent, they may have

known to exist."-Times, Nov. 4, 1849. no difficulty in walking off. Such are the feelings operating on the minds of the

So much for the working of free majority of the farmers in this locality. It is now too plain and obvious, that

trade and a restricted currency in the should a reduction in the rents take place

Emerald Isle. One would suppose, here, it will come two years too late, as in reading these melancholy accounts, the greater number of the farmers (for- we were not dealing with any people merly comfortable) have not as much as in modern times, but transported back would support their families for half the to those dismal periods, after the fall coming year. This is a sad but true of the Roman empire, when the constate of things, in a district where, some temporary annalists contemplated the few years since, the rents were paid, per- extinction of the human race, from the haps, more regularly than in any other desolation of some of its provinces. part of the south of Ireland. A few have

This dreadful state of things in Ireleft their holdings, after selling every article, leaving the naked walls of a house

land is but a repetition of what, under to the landlord, and gone to a neighbour

the operation of these causes, aided by ing townland, where the quality and the fatal step of unqualified emancipacheapness of the land presented a greater tion, has for some years been going on encouragement ; but such cases of flying in the West Indies. We have not tenants have become so common of late, room to enlarge on this prolific subject, that every paper teems with similar state- teeming as it does with facts illustraments. If we are to hare the land culti- tive of the effects of the free-trade rated here, the rents must not only be re- system. They are generally known. duced to half the former price, but the

Suffice it to say, the West Indies are tenant must be assisted to set the crop,

totally ruined. British colonies, on and encouraged to introduce a proper method of cultivation, otherwise the land

which £120,000,000 sterling has been will be left idle, and the majority of the

expended, and which fifteen years present occupiers will become inmates of ago produced £22,000,000 worth of the workhouse.'Times, Oct. 31, 1849. agricultural produce annually, have . “ There must also be taken into account been irrecoverably destroyed. TU

fee-simple of all the estates they con- mother country, although offering security tain would not sell for $5,000,000 greatly superior to that which readily sterling. We know an estate in the obtains money both from the United States West Indies, which formerly used to and Great Britain, when other than col. net £1500 a-year, and to which £7000

onists are the applicants :- crippled,

therefore, and checked in the full career worth of the best new machinery

of private and public enterprise, this was sent within the last five years,

Us, possession of the British crown- our which the proprietor would be too hap

country-stands before the world in py to sell, machinery and all, for £5000. humiliating contrast with its immediate

CANADA has lately shared largely neighbours, exhibiting every symptom of in the moral earthquake which has so a nation fast sinking to decay. violently shaken all parts of the Brit “ With superabundant water-power ish empire. We subjoin an extract and cheap labour, especially in Lower from the temperate and dignified Canada, we have yet no domestic manustatement of their grievances, lately

factures ; nor can the most sanguine, unpublished by 350 of the leading men

less under altered circumstances, anticiat Montreal, to show how largely

pate the home growth, or advent from

foreign parts, of either capital or enterfree trade enters into them.

prise to embark in this great source of “ Belonging to all parties, origins, and national wealth. Our institutions, unhapcreeds, but yet agreed upon the advantage pily, have not that impress of permanence of co-operation for the performance of a which can alone impart security and inspire common duty to ourselves and our country, confidence, and the Canadian market is too growing out of a common necessity, we limited to tempt the foreign capitalist. have consented, in view of a brighter and “While the adjoining states are coyhappier future, to merge in oblivion all A ered with a network of thriving railways, past differences, of whatever character, or Canada possesses but three lines, which, attributable to whatever source. In ap- together, scarcely exceed fifty miles in pealing to our fellow-colonists to unite length, and the stock in two of which is with us in this our most needful duty, held at a depreciation of from 50 to 80 we solemnly conjure them, as they desire per cent-a fatal symptom of the torpor a successful issue, and the welfare of their overspreading the land.”—Times, Oct. 31. country, to enter upon the task, at this mo

In what graphic terms are the inmentous crisis, in the same fraternal spirit. The reversal of the ancient policy of

evitable results of free trade and a reGreat Britain, whereby she withdrew from

stricted currency here portrayed by the colonies their wonted protection in her

the sufferers under their effects! markets, has produced the most disastrous

Colonial protection withdrawn; home effects upon Canada. In surveying the industry swamped by foreign; canals actual condition of the country, what but unused; banks alarmed; capital disruin or rapid decay meets the eye? Our sipated; rivers and harbours untenprovincial government and civic corpor- anted ; property unsaleable ! One ations embarrassed ; our banking and would have thought they were tranother securities greatly depreciated ; our scribing from this magazine some of mercantile and agricultural interests alike the numerous passages in which we unprosperous ; real estate scarcely saleable upon any terms ; our unrivalled

have predicted its effects. And let rivers, lakes, and canals almost unused;

England recollect, Canada now emwhile commerce abandons our shores, the

ploys 1,100,000 of the tonnage of circulating capital amassed under a more

Great Britain. Let it be struck off, favourable system is dissipated, with none and added to the other side, and the from any quarter to replace it! Thus, British tonnage, employed in carrying without available capital, unable to effect on our trade, will, in a few years, be a loan with foreign states, or with the made less than the foreign.*

British tonnage. Foreign. * British tonnage to British North American colonies, 1846, 1,076,162 To United States of America, ..

. 205,123 435.399 Total tonnage in British trade to all countries,

4,294,733 1,806,282 Deduct Canadian tonnage, . .

. 1,076,162 British tonnage after losing Canada, . . 3,228,571 Foreign tonnage after gaining Canada,

1,076,162 - Porter's Parliamentary Tables, 1846, p. 52.

2,882,444 The repeal of the Navigation Laws in 1847 gave such an impulse to foreign ship

VIICI.

One would have thought, from the wrought by the hands of strangers, let us present state of Canada, that our co- advance the native commodities of our Ionial secretary had followed the ad- own kingdom, and employ our own vice of Franklin in his “ Rules for countrymen before strangers.'-Bacon's

Essays. making a great Empire a small one."

“ Irade,” says Locke, “is necessary to “If you are told of discontents in your the production of riches, and money to the colonies, never believe that they are gene- carrying on of trade. This is principally ral, or that you have given occasion for to be looked after, and taken care of: for them ; therefore, do not think of applying if this be neglected, we shall in vain, by any remedy or of changing any offensire contrivances among ourselves, and shufmeasure. Redress no grievance, lest they fling the little money we have from one should be encouraged to demand the re hand to another, endeavour to prevent dress of some other grievance. Yield no our wants : decay of trade will quickly redress that is just and reasonable, lest waste all the remainder; and then the they should make another demand that is landed man, who thinks, perhaps, by the unreasonable. Take all your informations fall of interest, to raise the value of his of the state of your colonies from your land, will find himself cruelly mistaken, gorernors and officers in enmity with when, the money being gone, (as it will be them.

if our trade be not kept up,) he can get "If you see riral nations rejoicing at neither farmer to rent, nor purchaser to the prospect of your disunion with your buy, his land." . provinces, and endeavouring to promote “If one-third of the money employed it--if they translate, publish, and applaud in trade were locked up or gone out of all the complaints of your discontented England, must not the landlords receive colonists, at the same time privately one-third less for their goods, and, consestimulating you to severer measures quently, rents fall--a less quantity of let not that alarm or offend you. Why money by one-third being to be distri. should it? You all mean the same thing." buted amongst an equal number of re-(Rules 16 and 17.)

ceivers? Indeed, people, not perceiving If our rulers had followed the ad

the money to be gone, are apt to be jea

lous, one of another; and each suspecting vice of the sages of former times, in- another's inequality of gain to rob him of stead of the theories of modern bul- his share, every one will be employing his lionists and interested parties, they skill and power, the best he can, to rewould have avoided this unparalleled trieve it again, and to bring money into accumulation of disasters. Hear the his pocket in the same plenty as formerly. greatest and wisest of men, Lord But this is but scrambling amongst ourBacon, on the subject :

selves, and helps no more against our

wants than the pulling of a short coverlid “For the home trade I first commend will, amongst children that lie together, to your consideration the encouragement of preserve them all from the cold-some tillage, which will enable the kingdom to will starte, unless the father of the family provide corn for the natives, and to spare proride better, and enlarge the scanty for importation; and I myself have known covering. This pulling and contest is more than once, when in times of dearth, usually between the candid man and the in Queen Elizabeth's days, it drained much merchant."-Locke's Works, v. 14, 70, coin of the kingdom to furnish us with 71. Considerations on Rate of Interest corn from foreign parts.'.

and Raising the value of Money. “ He added also « • Let the foundation of a profitable

We add only the opinion of a great trade be so laid that the exportation of authority with the Free-traders, Mr home commodities be more in value than Malthus, which seems almost prothe importation of foreign, so we shall be phetic of what is now passing in this sure that the stocks of the kingdom shall country. We are indebted for it to yearly increase, for then the balance of the Morning Post, which has consistrade must be returned in money.' tently argued the doctrines of protec

“And Lord Bacon went on to give this tion and an adequate currency since wholesome piece of advice :

1 they were first assailed. 6. Instead of crying up all things which are either brought from beyond sea or “If the price of corn were to fall to 50s.

ping, that, in the first year after the loss of Canada, the foreign shipping employed in our trade would exceed the British, even supposing we only lost tuo-thirds of Canadian trade by its independence.

a quarter, and labour and other commodis no British statesmen, since the days ties nearly in proportion, there can be no of Alfred, have been able to effect. doubt that the stockholder would be bene- They have stopped the growth of our fited unfairly at the expense of the in

population, and, for the first time for dustrious classes of society. During the

four centuries, rendered it retrograde. twenty years, beginning with 1794, and ending with 1813, the average price of

They have sent from two hundred wheat was about 83s.; during ten years,

and fifty to three hundred thousand ending with 1813, 92s. ; and during the

people yearly out of the country, for last five years of this same twenty, the three years, in search of food. They price was 108s. In the course of these have lowered the Irish circulation twenty years, government borrowed near of notes a half. They have, with £500,000,000 of real capital, exclusive of one blow, swamped the Poor-law the sinking fund, at the rate of about five Amendment Act in England, and renper cent interest. But if corn shall fall dered rates high

dered rates higher, even with prices to 503. a quarter, and other commodities

extremely low, than they ever were in proportion, instead of an interest of

in English history. They have exfive per cent., the government will really

tirpated 200,000 cultivators in Ireland. pay an interest of seven, eight, and nine, and for the last £200.000.000, of ten per They have cut £80,000,000 a-year off

They have cut £80,00 cent. This must be paid by the industrious from the remuneration of cultivation classes of society, and by the landlords ; and the encouragement of the home that is, by all those whose nominal incomes market to our manufactures in Great vary with the variations in the measure of Britain. They have lowered railway value ; and if we completely succeed in property more than a half. They the reduction of the price of corn and have destroyed, at least, a half of the labour, this increased interest must be whole commercial and trading wealth paid in future from a revenue of about half the nominal ralue of the national

of the manufacturing towns. They income in 1813. If we consider with

have made the nation dependant, in what an increased weight the taxes on

two years, for a fourth of its subsistea, sugar, malt, soap, candles, &c., would tence on foreign states. They have in this case bear on the labouring classes rendered the maintenance of the naof society, and what proportion of their tional independence, if the present income all the active, industrious middle system is persisted in, impossible. orders of the state, as well as the higher They have destroyed £100,000,000 orders, must pay, in assessed taxes and worth of property in the West Indies. the various articles of custom and excise, They have sown the seeds of revolt in the pressure will appear to be absolutely

absolutely Canada, and rendered its separation, intolerable. Indeed, if the measure of

at no distant period, from Great Brivalue were really to fall as we have supposed, there is great reason to fear that

tain a matter of certainty. They the country would be absolutely unable to

have repealed the Navigation Laws, continue the payment of the present interest and thereby cut off the right arm of of the national debt.Malthus's Essays. our naval strength. They are fast

This was Mr Malthus's anticipation laying the seeds of dismemberment in of the effect of wheat falling to 50s. our colonial empire. They will soon What would he have said of it at 403., reduce, if unchecked in their career, its present average price? We recom the immense empire of England to mend the concluding paragraph to the two islands, oppressed with taxes, notice of the fund-holders, by whose eaten up by paupers, importing a third influence the late changes have main- of their annual subsistence from forly been introduced.

eign states, brought in in foreign botBut let the Free-traders be of good toms. These are the effects of FREE cheer — they have done marvellous TRADE AT ITS ZENITH. What will things. They have accomplished what they be at its Nadir?

INDEX TO VOL. LXVI.

Abercromby, Mr, in Sardinia, 587. Bawr, Madame, tale by, 609.
ACROSS THE ATLANTIC, 567.

Beattie, Dr, on Gray's elegy, 242.
Æneas, Payne Knight's criticisms on, 375. Beauty, Christopher on the faculty of,
Africa, Jonathan in, 172-its deserts, 464. 29-relations of virtue to, 259.
Agricultural interest, overthrow of, by the Blair, Dr, on Virgil's description of thun-

free-traders, 115—population of Wales, der, 12.
character, &c. of the, 330.

Blanc, Louis, his “Protest," 231.
Agriculture, alleged injury from the game Blind, one of the Baden insurgents, 208.

laws to, 73—distressed state of, in Ire- Bolingbroke on the national debt, 665.
land, 774-and Spain, 719.

Boroughs, predominance given by the
Album, our, for the last page of, 205. Reform Bill to, 113.
Alfieri, the autobiography of, 294.

Boswell's Life of Johnson, on, 296.
Alison on taste, remarks on, 13-on Vir- Botany Bay, effects of the transportation
gil, 246-on Homer, 255.

system on, 528.
America, increase of its shipping under the Braybrooke Lord, his edition of Pepys'

reciprocity system, 117, 118--cost of Diary, 501.

raising grain in, 120—forests of, 464. Bread stuffs, importation of, 766.
Andalusia, Mr Dundas Murray's work on, Brentano, one of the Baden insurgents,
705.

206, 207, 208, 211, 215.
Anne, Queen, national debt under, 666. Brigands, Spanish, 706.
Anti-game law association, the, 63. Bright, Mr, motives of, in his anti-game-
Antro de Nettuno in Sardinia, the, 40. law agitation, 63-on poaching, 70.
Ardara, early paintings in, 46.

Brougham, Lord, on the marriage law of
Army, Cobden's crusade against the, 584. Scotland, 269-on transportation, &c.,
Art, specimens of early, in Sardinia, 46– 525.
influence of religion on, 261.

Brown, Dr Thomas, on Gray's elegy, 241.
Artist, the, not a mere imitator, 412. Bugeaud, Marshal, 227.
Asia, its mountains, 462-table-lands, 463. Buonaparte and the Bourbons, Chateau-
Assignment system for convicts, advan briand's pamphlet called, 304.
tages of the, 532.

Burritt, Elihu, 583.,
Atala et René, Chateaubriand's, 301. Bute, Lord, bribery under, 666. .
Atheism, Christopher, &c. on, 31.

Butler's Analogy, the argument for im-
Attitu in Sardinia, the, 43.

mortality from, 311.
Audiganne, M., on the state of France, 233. Byron, on a passage from, 367—his de-
Australia, commerce of, in relation to the scription of Velino, 372-his autobio-

convict system, 527-exports per head graphy, 295.
to, ib.-obstacles to free emigration to, Cabrera, the last insurrection of, 707.
533.

Cadet de Colobrières, the, 607.
Austria, the contest between, and Hun Cæsar's Commentaries, on, 292.
gary, 589—Cobden on, 591.

Campbell, Lord, attack on Lord Lynd-
Austrian loan, Cobden on the, 602.

hurst by, 131-on the Scottish marriage
AUTOBIOGRAPHY-CHATEAUBRIAND's Me bill, 265, 273.
MOIRS, 292.

Canaanites, presumed relics of the, in
Bacon, Lord, on the principles of trade, Sardinia, 36.
777.

Canada bill, debates on the, 131-com-
Bad temper, Christopher on, 5.

merce of, in relation to the convict
BADEN INSURRECTION, the, 206—as one system, 527-exports per head to, ib.-

result of the revolutionary movement, effects of free trade on, 776.
429-its causes, &c., ib.

CANADAS, CIVIL REVOLUTION IN-ARE-
Baden-Baden, state of, 431.

MEDY, 471.
Baltic shipping, increase of, under the Cape, commerce of, in relation to the con-
reciprocity system, 117, 118.

vict system, 527-resistance in, to its
Banditti, Sardinian, 41.

being made a penal settlement, 535.
Bank, danger of the, in 1823, 675-char Cardiganshire, rarity of the English lan-
ter act of 1844, the, 758.

guage in, 328.
Barton, Bernard, letters of Lamb to, 149. Carlist movement, the late, in Spain, 707.

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