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“ Is it possible, that they whom I preserved could have destroyed

me ?"

alluding to Brutus and Cassius, whose lives Cæsar had spared after the battle of Pharsalia. The magistrates, and others who had borne office in the state, carried the bed from the Rostra into the Forum. While some proposed that the body should be burnt in the most sacred apartment of the temple of Jupiter, in the Capitol, and others in Pompey's senate-house, on a sudden two men appeared, with swords by their sides, and each bearing a couple of lances in their hands, who set fire to the bed with their lighted torches; and forthwith the whole company present threw in dry faggots, the desks and benches of the adjoining courts, and whatever came to hand. The musicians and players also stripped off the dress they had been supplied with from the furniture of his triumphs, for the present occasion, and having torn it, gave it to the flames. His veteran soldiers, likewise, cast in the armour which they had put on to attend his funeral. Most of the ladies did the same by their ornaments, with the necklaces and

upper robes of their children. In this public mourning there joined a multitude of foreigners, expressing their sorrow according to the fashion of their respective countries, but especially the Jews*, who for several nights together, frequented the place where the body was burnt.

* The Jews paid especial honour to Julius Cæsar, from their hatred to Pompey, whom they never forgave for having treated their temple at Jerusalem with some indignities, at the time he made himself master of

the city.


1. The age of Cæsar remarkable.-2. His birth and family.-3. The successive offices through which Cæsar obtained his power.-4. His earliest success as a soldier. 5. The perils of his youth.-6. His impeachment of Dolabella.—7. His capture by pirates.—8. His arts to obtain popularity at Rome; his debts.-9. His quæstorship and genealogy.-10. His several marriages and family alliances.

– 11. Cæsar's ambition discovers itself in Spain.–12. His artifices to gain an ascendancy during his ædileship.13. The Catilinarian conspiracy, and Cæsar's connection with it.-14. His conduct as prætor; his success as proconsul in Spain.-15. Obtains the consulship, and forms league with Pompey and Crassus.-16. Passes the Agrarian law.-17. Deprives Bibulus, his colleague, of all authority. -18. Procures the provinces of Gaul, and treats his enemies with contempt.—19. Forms an alliance with Ptolemy, King of Egypt; takes a large sum from the public treasury.—20. His successes lead to his obtaining the title of perpetual dictator.—21. Retrospect of Cæsar's victories in Gaul.–22. His battles with the German nations. -23. His wars in Britain a failure ; this island not subdued till a later period.—24. Cæsar passes the Rubicon; defeat and death of Pompey; his fame as a general.—25. Cæsar conquers Egypt. -26. Places Cleopatra on the throne ; obtains a rapid victory over Pharnaces.-27. The war in Africa, and death of Cato.—28. Cæsar's triumphal processions.—29. He reforms the abuses of the state, and regulates the Calendar.–30. The various honours heaped upon him.-31. Instances of his military boldness and presence of mind; his horse; stratagems in war, &c.-32. Description of Cæsar's person, dress, habits.-33. His household economy and expensive tastes.-34. His want of chastity; his worst vice, ambition ; summary of his wars, and their results.—35. His gigantic designs for future conquests"; public improvements effected and designed by him.-36. A conspiracy formed for Cæsar's destruction.—37. Disbelieves




the existence of such a plot.—38. Goes to the senate-house, and is attacked by the conspirators.-39. Shakspeare's description of his death.–40. Cæsar's fate a warning to tyrants.—41. Some of the principal writers of his age noticed. Cicero; his opinions of Cæsar's death.--42. Failure of this event in promoting the end designed by it.43. The fate of his murderers.--44. His popular deification after his death, &c.—45. Description of his funeral ceremonies.







1. The age of Augustus is one which on many accounts claims attention. This Emperor ruled over the Roman state, at a time of more importance than any other in the history of mankind. The period commonly expressed by the two Latin words “ Anno Domini,” meaning in the year

of the Lord," directs us to an era when Jesus Christ was born. This event took place during the time when Augustus was at the head of a sovereignty exercised by Rome over Judea and the neighbouring provinces. A direct reference is made to this most interesting fact, in the beginning of St. Luke's Gospel (c. ii. v. 1).

2. About seventeen years after the death of Julius Cæsar, Octavius, his nephew, appears upon the stage of the world's history as Roman Emperor; Augustus was a title conferred upon him (B.C. 27) instead of Octavius, bis proper family name. He was at that time in his thirtysixth year, his birth having taken place in the year of the Catilinarian conspiracy (B.C. 63). For the space of ten years after Cæsar's death, he had governed the state in conjunction with Lepidus and Marc Antony.

3. The latter was the first to engage in a series of artful and violent measures to usurp the chief power in the state, after Julius Cæsar, and being consul, he raised the standard of civil war against Brutus, who acted under the authority of the senate, as prætor of Greece. Octavius received å special commission to assist Brutus in his operations against


Antony, who was declared an adversary to the state, and whom it was necessary, for the peace of the republic, to subdue or to acknowledge as a dictator. By these generals Antony was defeated, and driven with a small part of his forces beyond the Alps, where his situation must soon have been desperate, had not Lepidus, who commanded the legions in Spain, entered into a league of amity with him. In this they persuaded Octavius to join, and the result was a combination of three powerful and ambitious men at the head of the principal forces of Rome. Under the name of a triumvirate, they were pledged to each other to pursue such schemes as should throw the whole power of the state into their hands; but there can be no doubt that the design of each of them was, by this combination, to prepare the way more effectually for that individual supreme power which had fallen from the hands of Cæsar.

These three successful generals united their forces in the civil war against Brutus and his followers, which was terminated at Philippi (B.C. 4.2); and after that victory, the head of Brutus was ordered to be thrown down at the pedestal of Cæsar's statue.

4. Octavius was by his mother's side nearly related to Pompey. Julius Cæsar was his great-uncle, and, by adoption, his father, whom he attended in his wars in Spain, against the sons of Pompey (B.C. 45). From him he inherited not only a part of his estate, but the genius which enabled him possess himself of the affections of the people, and the art of making his way to the supreme authority by subduing his rivals. Obtaining the assistance of the veteran soldiers, by liberal promises of the lands belonging to some of the great towns in Italy, he was not long in acquiring an entire mastery of the empire.

5. With the assistance of these forces, he at length ventured to throw off all connection with his two colleagues (B.C. 32); he banished Lepidus to Circeii, and procured a proscription against the other member of the triumvirate, as an enemy of the state. At the battle of Actium (B.C. 31), in Egypt, Marc Antony was entirely defeated, and destroyed himself in a fit of despair. The beautiful queen Cleopatra also fell into the hands of Octavius, but not before she had poisoned herself with the bite of an asp (B. C. 30), to deprive the conqueror of his hoped-for triumph. Egypt

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