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or conquests of ancient Rome, could only be seen in the East, where the relics of a wide dominion still continued for nearly a thousand years longer; constituting, however, no longer a period of Roman history, or of Roman greatness, but that of the Greek Empire.



INTRODUCTION, 1. State of the empire after the death of Constantinc.2. Division of the empire between his three sons.-3. Constantius reigns alone; his character.-4. Persecution of Athanasius.-5. Constantius succeeds; Julian the Apostate; his hostility to Christianity; his death.-6. The reign of Jovian.-7. Valentinian and Valens succeed.---8. Great carthquake in the reign of these Emperors.-9. Death of Valentinian.-10. Revolt of the Gothis; battle of Hadrianople.--11, Gratian appoints Thcodosius liis colleague in the Eastern Empire.


1. Early history of Theodosius.--2. His return to his paternal estate after his father's death; his speedy recall to take the goveriment of the East.-3. Ilis success in restoring the empire, and subduing the Gothis. 4. The submission of the leaders of the Gothic tribes Modar and Athanaric.-5. Defeat and surrender of the Ostrogoths 6. Alliance with the Goths; the Federati.-7. Revolt of Maximus and death of Gratian.-8. Treaty with Maximus. Valentinian the Second takes refuge with Theodosius, who marries his sister Galla.-9. Battle with Maximus; bravery of the Gothic troops.-10. Retreat and death of Maximus, 11, Clemency of Theodosius; his conduct toward the family of Maximus.-12. The Emperor's residence at Milan ; his visit to Rome.-13. Ilis regard for religion as a Christian ; opposes the Arians and expels them from the churches, &c. -14. He calls a general Council at Constantinople.-15. Makes it criminal to apostatize from Christianity to Paganism; forbids the sacrifices of divination.-16. Orders issued by Theodosius to shut up the heathien temples; the idols destroyed in France and Syria; the Scrapium and other temples in Egypt overthrown.--17. Erection of Christian churches, and the spread of Christianity.-18. The state of Paganism in Rome at the time of the Emperor's visit.19. Theodosius personally denounces Paganism before the Senate; the Pagan religion condemned by a vote of the Senate; the principal families embrace the Christian faith. 20. Severe laws enacted against Paganism.—21. The sedition at Antioch and its consequences.-22. Chrysostom's description of the sufferings of the city at this time.-23. A successful embassy to the Emperor; the city pardoned ; the clemency of Theodosius on this occasion.—24. The sedition at Thessalonica and murder of Botheric and others; the vengeance of the Emperor; the massacre at the circus. -25. Conduct of Ambrose towards Theodosius after this event; his exclusion from the church ; his penitence; he passes a law of mercy to prevent such calamities in future ; applauds the conduct of the bishop.—26. Conspiracy against Valentinian ; his death.—27. Theodosius resolves to avenge it; death of his second wife; the Emperor's family.-28. He prepares his forces; sends an embassy to an Egyptian monk; marches his army into Italy.—29. The armies meet; victory declares for Theodosius ; fall of Eugenius and Arbogastes.-30. The Emperor visits Milan; Ambrose intercedes successfully for the rebels.—31. Illness of Theodosius ; sends for Honorius; invests him with the Empire of the West; and dies.-32. Conduct of the Emperor in his last sickness.—33. His funeral ; death of Ambrose. 34. Virtues of Theodosius.

SUCCESSORS OF THEODOSIUS. 35. Character of Arcadius ; early events of his reign ; the splendour of his equipage.-36. The Goths in arms under Alaric; a peace purchased; Gainas, a Gothic general, subdued; his death.–37. Persecution and death of Chrysostom; his relics brought back to Constantinople.38. Death of Arcadius; calamitous events of his reign.39. Honorius, Emperor of the West; the invasion of Alaric; defeated by Stilicho; Britain becomes independent. -40. Peace between Alaric and Stilicho; conspiracy against the latter; his death.—41. Alaric's demands; the Senate resists.--42. Attalus raised to the throne, and deposed; Honorius again provokes his resentment; Alaric besieges and takes Rome. —43. The sack and pillage of the city ; preservation of the churches of St. Peter and St. Paul ; Augustine's work, entitled “The City of God."-44. Italy ravaged and occupied by the Goths; death of Alaric; his burial. 45. Adolphus, King of the Goths, marries Placidia, daughter of Theodosius; her nuptial ceremonies.-46. Adolphus killed in Spain; sufferings of Placidia.—47. Her return and marriage with Constantius ; his death.-48. Placidia's influence with Honorius; she goes to the Eastern court; the royal family there ; death of Honorius.—49. Usurpation of John; his death ; Placidia's son elected Emperor of the West-Valentinian the Third.—50. Placidia and Pulcheria govern the West and East ; death of Theodosius the Second ; Pulcheria reigns as Empress; the line of Theodosius.-51. Death of Placidia ; Valentinian's marriage with the daughter of Theodosius ; his descendants.--52. Last Emperor of the line of Theodosius; his conduct and death,

--53. Extinction of the Empire of the West; ravages of the Hurrs, &c.-54. Augustulus, the last Emperor ; dethroned by Odoacer.—55. The Gothic kingdoms terminate the Roman history.






1. About the close of the sixth century, the fate of Rome had reached its lowest point of depression. After the removal of the seat of the empire to Constantinople, and the invasion of the West, first by the Goths, and afterwards by the establishment of the powerful race of the Lombards throughout Italy, Rome was despoiled of its greatness and glory. It was like a lofty tree, that had been deprived of its leaves and branches, and whose sapless trunk was left to wither in the ground. The individual who restored it in some measure to its former vigour, and became the founder of a new race of spiritual, as well as temporal sovereigns, was a bishop of the church, whose history, therefore, constitutes one of the most remarkable periods ; interesting, on many accounts, alike to the politician and the Christian.

2. Gregory the First (for there were many popes who afterwards assumed the same name) was born about the year 544, and was descended from an illustrious stock. His grandfather Felix had himself borne the office of bishop of Rome, His parents were Sylvia and Gordian, nobles of the Senate, and pious members of the church. Among his female relations he could number saints and virgins; and in a family portrait which he presented to the church of St. Andrew, his own figure with that of his father and mother, adorned the walls of the building for three hundred years afterwards. His piety was remarkable at an early period of his life; and his ample patrimony was devoted to works


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