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Present State of the Ottoman Empire, the book was welcomed as a valuable addition to the existing sources of information respecting wide regions of Europe and Asia. Before his death in 1700 he published several other works, chiefly on Turkish affairs. He says in the book above quoted (Book ii. ch. 26) that the Turks · hold it a pious work to buy a bird from a cage and give him his liberty,' and to buy bread and feed with it the mangy curs that infested the streets. But this was from a principle of charity and benevolence, not on account of any opinion as to transmigration. On the other hand, in an earlier chapter Rycaut tells a curious story illustrating the belief in transmigration entertained by the Munasihi, a small Turkish sect.
Addison's memory appears to have mixed up the contents of the two chapters together.
P. 456, 1. 6. By Ethiopia is meant Abyssinia, or Abyssinia and Nubia together. The Portuguese and the French had opened up some communications with Abyssinia before Addison's time; but no Englishman, much less an English factory, seems to have appeared in the country before the famous traveller James Bruce.
P. 457, 1.9. The Congé d'élire, or permission to elect'a bishop, is, in practice, the letter sent down by the Prime Minister to the Dean and Chapter of the cathedral, when the Sovereign has decided whom to appoint to a vacant See.
P. 460, l. 13. In Garth's Dispensary (Canto ii. 95) it is said of Colon, the chief of the apothecaries, that,
Hourly his learn'd impertinence affords
A barren superfluity of words.' 1. 29. Douay was invested by Marlborough and Prince Eugene, at the head of an army of 120,000 men, in April, 1710. The place being strongly garrisoned made a vigorous resistance, and Marshal Villars advanced from Cambrai to its relief; he was unable however to effect anything, and the fortress capitulated on the 26th June. At Denain near Landrecies, on the 24th July, 1712, after Marlborough had been recalled and the English troops withdrawn, a portion of Prince Eugene's army was surprised by Marshal Villars, and routed with heavy loss. Douay was retaken soon after. This number of the Spectator appeared on Sept. 5, 1712.
P. 462, 1. 9. In the Religio Medici, Part ii. $ 11, Sir Thomas Browne, after thanking God for his happy dreams, as he does for his good rest,' says, Surely it is not a melancholy conceit to think we are all asleep in this world, and that the conceits of this life are as mere dreams to those of the next, as the plantasms of the night to the conceit of the day. Then follows the passage quoted in the text. 1. 31. •The soul's dark cottage, batter'd and decayed, iets in new light through chinks that time has made.'
Waller. P. 463, 1. 35. Plutarch's Essay on Superstition, Ch. iii. P. 464, 1. 1. In the treatise of Tertullian De Anima (“On the Soul'),
chapters 45-49 are on dreams. He rejects the opinion of Epicurus, that dreams are of no account whatever ; considers that they are for the most part inflicted upon us by demons; but allows that they are sometimes used by the Deity for our good; and that, whether their source be divine or diabolic, future events have been often divined by means of them.
P. 465, 1. 34. From the latter half of the twelfth century during a period of more than 150 years, a belief was firmly entertained in Europe that there was a mighty potentate ulin somewhere in Central Asia about the year 1200, who was not only a Christian, but a priest (Prester =Presbyter). Marco Polo, the famous Venetian traveller of the fourteenth century, relates at length the supposed war between Prester John and Zenghis Khan, in which the former was defeated and slain. (See Colonel Yule's excellent edition of Marco Polo.)
1. 39. It may be interesting to refer to what is said by the philosopher Spinoza, himself a Jew, in the third chapter of his Tractatus TheologicoPoliticus, on the peculiar permanence of the Jewish nationality. He considers that it is the general hatred with which they are regarded by other nations, which has maintained them as a people apart so long, and that one great cause of this aversion is their adherence to the rite of circuncision. He adds, that whenever another nation has been able to make up its mind to put the Jews who live in its midst, in civil matters, on an equality with the general population, the isolation of the former has speedily disappeared. He cites two instances; one, that of those Jews in Spain, who in the reign of a previous king had preferred conversion to banishment. No distinction as to civil privileges having been made between these and the Christians, when they had once embraced the state religion, the consequence was that in a short time they were completely merged in the Spanish population, and not a trace of their separate existence remained. On the other hand, in Portugal, where the king similarly compelled a number of Jews to embrace Christianity, yet debarred them from the civil rights of Christians, the isolation of the former remained the same as before.
P. 473, 1. 21. The hymn which follows is introduced by Addison as the composition of the good Clergyman, one of the members of the Spectator Club, when lying on his deathbed.
ib.; of Uniformity, ib.
marks on tragedy, 364; invents the
Baker's Chronicle, 54, 56, 57.
338; on Virgil and Tasso, 353; 376;
246; recommended by correspond-
Rel. Med., 159, 462.
Calamy, Dr., 21.
29; his style of preaching, 20.
design of the poem, 397; analysis
440; 295, 325, 331, 349.
his character, 9.
members, 4; discussion in, 12; dis-
George, the Humdrum, &c., 230.
3, 108; the Cocoa-tree, 3; Garra-
the Rose, 6; St. James', 3, 292;
301 ; Squire's, 54.
106, 247, 274, 433; his character,
his death, 65; stories of, 297, 298.
317, 336, 378; eulogised, 337.
Deism, argument against, 166.
336, 432; his Sir Martin Mar-all,
352; his tragedies, 365, 366.
Etherege, Sir George, 5.
man, 241 ; of Menippus, 413.
of French, 250.
65, 67, 71, 74; his character, 6, 56,
story of the women in ancient, 180;
desty of, 294.