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ful trader was injured; it was not easy to obtain rèdrefs; the offenders lived upon an element where ju. stice and law has often little influence : and when they came ashore, it was in bodies 100 numerous to te called to an account by the civil officers; or in places where their actions were not cognizable by the law, and where they were certain they should not meet their accusers. The lords of the admiralty, or of the treasury, in England, could only remove this grievance ; but considering the distance of place, and the manner of application, the whole' trade 'might have been ruided before redress could have been obtained. This was a grievance which the American subjects felt severely, aud was likely to produce no favourable ideas in their minds concerning the British legislature. The many unjult acts of violence that happened on this occasion, tended much to irritate, the minds of both parties, and when they represented their cases, it was frequently with great acrimony and aggravations. Selfsinterest had a powerful fway on both sides, and the truth was not easily discoyered by, comparing such opposite representations. - - The Englila parliament might have easily foreseen these confę. quences, had they not been infatuated with the ideas of revenue, and exasperated by some latę irritating events. The majority in the house of commons, bur especially the ministry, were yet smarting fore, from the blows they had received from the North Britain and other political pasquinades. A secretary of ffate had been also the year before, legally fined in a court of justice in the penalty of a thousand pounds, for issuing a general warrant, which goveroment was supposed to have disbursed; and considering the low, ness of the exchequer, every such touch increased the painful feelings of the ministry. They seemed in altate

of distraction, when they passed this law of refraing upon the trade of America ; and it had more, the, ap, pearance of an act of political fury, than the marks of judicious legiflation. It could answer no other purposes than 10 assert the dominion of parliament over America, and to irritase the cologies against the mother country. Ever, since the ministry of Mr Pisto the gation had been in a state of confusion, with re. gard to poliucal sentiments, and the opposition in pars liament against Lord Butę, was echoed through all England. In 1763 his lordship resigned his office as firit lord of the treăsury, and was succeeded by Me Grenville; but the contentions coñținued, and during this new ministry, political, animosity came to a great height, , It was at this time that the American colonies began to feel the oppressive hand of the mother coun, try. She had not only prevented the Americans from procuring the necessaries of life, with the fuperfluities of their own country, but obliged them to make pay, meat in fpecie to the Exchequer in England for the duty on such goods as they were allowed to trade in: This was an effectual method of draining the whole money from the colonies, and leaving them nothing for circulation : and what was still more oppressive, two weeks after the bill now mentioned was passed, ang, ther was preferred to hinder the distressed colonies froin supplying the demand of money for their internaľ' necessities with paper bills of credit, and that no Tuch bills should be a legal tender for payment; to this was added that such paper bills as were passing in curs rency should after a limited time be called in and sunk. This was an exertion of authority beyond all bounds of justice and equity; for it was imposible that the A; mericans without trade, money, or paper credit, could pay anything at all.* *It was indeed affirmed that all

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the money raised from the above-mentioned duties, was to be applied for defraying the expences of protecting the colonies where it was levied, and that at the fame time that a law was made to restrain the increase of pa. per currency, several new 'laws were preferred io encourage and encrease the commerce of the colonies with the mother country. The laws here referred to Were, an act for granting leave for a limited time for carrying rice from the provinces of South Carolina and Georgia to other parts of America, on paying Bri. tish duties : an act for' granting a bounty upon the importation of hemp, and rough and undressed flax, from the American colonies into Great Britain ; and another to encourage the whale fishery on their coafts, All this supposed in the first instance, that the Ame. ricans were either not judges of their own affairs, or that they had no juft or legal right to judge of, or in. terfere with, their own trade. A more abject and fera vile: fituation can scarcely well be imagined, than is implied in this idea. The whole of this proceeding implies that nothing in course of trade and commerce was to be allowed to the Americans, except what brought immediate profit, and advantage to GreatBritain. The laws that were at this time made in behalf of the colonies, had no proportion in their in. fluence, as to any advantage, in comparison of thofe restraints that were laid upon their trade by the other ftatures. The effects of the one were flow and progressive, but the other was instantaneous and imme. diately felt. The colonies could not help feeling im. mediately the effects of cramping their domestic bu. finess, and foreign commerce, by not only hindering them from receiving money from strangers, for their fuperfluities, to supply their immediate calls, but for

bidding bidding them to make any at home'; whereas the laws pretended to compensate these disadvantages, were .both uncertain and remote in their effects; lo distant that it might be many years before any benefit could arise from them, and might; in conclusion, produce no effect at all. This was a partiality in the legislature, fufficient to create a jealousy in the minds of the colo, nilts, that the parliament of Br tain considered them not as fellow subjects, but inferior vassals, not to be re. garded in the fame manner as the lubjects of the mo.

ther country. A people that are retained from gain. - ing money by trading with others, and are not per* mitted to have any of their own, are in such a situation as the constitution of Englad to ally disapproves. Un. less the Americans had lost all sense of righ, and wrong, it was impossible but they should have considered these acts of the legislature as unjuft and oppressive: :

It has been alledged, that the greatest part of the money, if not the whole of it, arising from these du. ties, would return to the colonies, to pay the troops quartered there for their defence. This is a mere allegation; for if the money collected from duties in America had been intended merely for paying the troops quartered there, there was no occasion to find it to the British exchequer to risk the danger of seas in sending it back again to America. This would have been a piece of mere wantonness, first to distress the colonies in collecting a revenue, to shew the power of - the British parliament, and then to order the money to be paid to the troops residing among them. It would have been niore easy to have given orders to their assemblies to have paid them at first hand, with. out so much risk and unnecessary expence. This was such a trial of the affections of the colonies as was not

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the money raised from the above mentioned duties, was to be applied for defraying the expences of protecting the colonies where it was levied, and that at the same time that a law was made to restrain the increase of paper currency, several new 'laws were preferred to en. courage and encrease the commerce of the colonies with the mother country. The laws here referred to were, an act for granting leave for a limited time for carrying rice from the provinces of South Carolina and Georgia to other parts of Americà, on paying Bri. tilh duties: an adt for granting a bounty upon the importation of hemp, and rough and undressed flax, from the American colonies into Great Britain ; and another to encourage the whale fishery on their coasts, All this supposed in the first instance, that the Ame. ricans were either not judges of their own affairs, or that they had no juft or legal right to judge of, or in terfere with, their own trade. A more abject and ferö vile situation can scarcely well be imagined, tħan is implied in this idea. The whole of this proceeding implies that nothing in course of trade and commerce was to be allowed to the Americans, except what brought immediate profit, and advantage to Greate Britain. The laws that were at this time made in behalf of the colonies, had no proportion in their in. fluence, as to any advantage, in comparison of thofe restraints that were laid upon their trade by the other ftatures. The effects of the one were flow and progressive, but the other was instanıaneous and imme. diately felt. The colonies could not help feeling im. mediately the effects of cramping their domestic bu. finess, and foreign commerce, by not only hindering them from receiving money from strangers, for ibeir fuperfluities, to supply their immediate calls, but for

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