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fufpicion, that neither the inclinations of the subječts, nor the interest of the nation, were regarded by the sovereign and his ministers. On this account, many things inconsistent with candour and charity, were furmised, and oftentimes publicly affirmed, for which there was no certain proof, nor the least public evi. dence. It will not from hence follow, that the op. position of the nation to the measures of the minister, proceeded from a spirit of faction and restlessness; for while the people saw a man at the helm who knew to steer his course with wisdom and success, they voluntarily gave both him and his master all due honour and applause. They considered the removal of this favourtie from his majesty's service as a public difrespect fhewn to the national approbation; and concluded, that some new ideas of favouritism ruled in the cabinet, unknown in the two former reigns. It was said that the former minister was haughty, that his ambition 'was boundless, that he wanted to rule both the king and the nation, and that he had not Thewn that respect to his sovereign which became a fervant. These reflections were grounded upon his re. fusing to serve jointly in the cabinet, and in the ministry, with men whose principles he abhorred, and of whose abilities he had no opinion. He had proposed to reach a blow to Spain at a time when her behaviour' was equivocal, that would have instantly made her feel, and prevented a tedious war, which afterwards was carried on at a great expence of blood and treasure: But this proposal was rejected as unfair and ungenerous, and not consistent with the laws of na. tions. Fruitless queries were sent, and equivocal answers returned, till the Spanish flota arrived, and then the court of Madrid pulled off the mask. From This Lord Charham concluded, that iç was impossible

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to carry on a war with success, or to manage the sa. tional affairs with honour, jointly with men, who either through partiality, or want of capacity, were on every occasion to be a clog to his measures; and as respon., sibility was connected with his office, he found it dangerous to unite with partners who would be ready to impute their own blunders to his management, and then shelter themselves under the protection of the. royal favour. What, therefore many have atu ibuted to his pride, would rather appear to have, proceeded from his fagacity, and his discerament of the character of those that were proposed to be joined with him in the management of public affairs..:: Suosi

The discontent which had: for some time raged in the nation on account of so disadvantageous a peace;. after a succesșful war, was scarcely abated, when ano, ther alarm was given by a new duty imposed on cyder and perry, at the rate of four, shillings the hogshead. This, though as reasonable as many other taxes upon the necessaries of life, raised a prodigious ferment in those counties in England, where these commodities are in the greatest abundance. Such was the opposia tion made to this new law; that the legislature was obliged, for the sake of the quiet of the nation, threc years after, to repeal it. This condescension of the parliament and the legislative powers, though it af suaged the torrent of clamour and outrage, which was increased to a great pitch, had not all the effects that might have been expected. The nation considered the repeal of this law to proceed more from the weakness of the ministry, than from a sincere desire in the legislature to make the subjects easy: The re. scinding this act therefore, rather increased their presumption, than conciliated their affections: They were still ready to join in new clamours when the


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smallest occafion was given. When ministers of state once fall under a suspicion of behaving in an arbitrary manner, there is scarcely any of their actions, however innocent, that pass without censure from those in opposition: And the public at large, who are always jealous of their own liberties, are for the most part ready to support such as appear to be on their

fide.'',' in The government, since the conclusion of the peace had been casting about and projecting several schemes, for raising 2 revenue to support the credit of the mother country, by contriving ways and means to raise {ums to pay the interest of the national debt; but as the number of pensioners were not reduced, and • many enormous sums were paid to place of finecure, all the methods that had as yer been devised were found ineffectual to answer the intentions of the mini. Atry. They began at last to turn their attention to a new fubject, which in conclusion brought on disor. ders in the empire, and has at last issued in a civil war and revolt of thirteen colouies. As the merchants in Britain had been enriched by their traffic in Ameri. ca, and government had for many years received a large revenue from the trade of that country; the mini. Aters began to imagine that there was an inexhaustible fund of riches and wealth in the colonies, to answer their present purpose, as well as to be adequate for future emergencies. Without examining strictly into the consequences which might follow a too precipitate determination in a point so new and so delicate, they agreed to raise a new revenue in the colonies from an inland taxation. But before they proceeded to this dangerous and critical point, the legislature of Great Britain in 1764, impose a new tax upon America, FO the amount of 431,3771. osi id. - This was

to be totally raised by new imposts and duties upon her trade and commerce ; and though the several du. ties imposed were principally raised from articles of luxury, yet this law was a great restraint upon the trade of America. But what is the worst part of this new act of parliament, it permits litigious informations · and law suits, where the persons whose property has

been unjustly seized, have no damages, provided the court Thall determine that there was a probability of the charge brought against them being true. This was a mean to give an handle to ill-natured persons, who knew they were in no danger, to distress innocent people, and put them to a great deal of unnecellary ex. pences.

There is one proceeding of parliament which can, pot be reconciled with the priociples of either justice or sound policy. After affelling all the foreign articles of luxury imported into America, they proceeded to restrain the colonists from exporting their superfluous commodities to the Spanish and French colonies. This trade, which had been formerly winked at, though not strictly agreeable to the laws of trade and navigation, was of great advantage to both the colonies and the mother country. Those articles which would have been as lumber upon their hands, and could not have been useful to Great Britain, 'were sold to the Spaniards and French for ready money, or bartered for valuable commodities, for which there is always a demand in Europe. This enabled the colo. nies to pay their bills in specie to the merchants at home, or to afford them such merchandize as was equivalent to ready money. The advantage in this case was mutual, and boih Great Britain and her colonies were profited by the traffic. What were the secret springs of action which moved the British legi


Batựre to prefer this impolitic statute, is not easy to perceive, voless by listening to the reports of British Weft-lodia merchants," who might conceive that it vould enable the French and Spaniards to undersell them at foreign markets, and of consequence reduce their profits, they were seduced to give way to their solicitations. It is fufficiently evident that this trade was a real benefit to all the three parties concerned. la the time of war it had been carried on by flags of truce between Great Britain and France, as a public benefit to both, till the French West India islands being thut up by our feets, it was conceived that the French bad more advantage by it than England, and for that reason it was restrained as a treasonable prac. tice. But this last reason of restraint had no exist. ence after the peace was concluded, and ought there. fore to bave been taken off instead of receiving fresh parliamentary confirmation.

Vareasonable as this law may appear to be, the method of putting it in execution was still more ab. fard and oppressive. .A number of armed cutters were fitted out and stationed upon the coasts of América, to prevent this supposed contraband trade, the captains of which were to ad in the character of reve. nue officers, and to determine what lips were liable to the penalties of this act, and what exempt from them. The greatest part of these new naval revenue officers, were totally strangers to the nature of their employment. They were ready frequently to detain fhips which came not within the description of the act, as deing unacquainted with the character of the commodities with which they were loaded: And by unneceffary detention of trading vessels; interrupted trade, without bringing any thing into the treasury. When, through their igugrance, or infolence, a law.


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