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were leagued against them. In 1513, near Therouenne, which they besieged, was fought the memorable Battle of the Spurs. Here Bayard's fate was strangely chivalrous, and the whole details are so remarkable, that we cannot do better than make them a portion of our illustrations,

“ The King of France had come to Amiens, and daily sent word to his lieutenant-general, the Lord of Piennes, that he must victual Theroüenne at all hazards. This could not be effected without extreme peril, it being entirely surrounded by the enemy. Nevertheless, in obedience to the king's mandates, it was determined that all the gendarmery should be conducted to the French camp, there to rạise the alarm: while others, sent with bacon for the relief of the town, should go and throw it into the ditches, whence it might afterwards be fetched by them of the garrison with little difficulty. A day was therefore fixed upon for the execution of this enterprise, whereof the King of England and the Emperor had warning, as may easily be supposcd, from certain spies, a description of men by whom camps are usually haunted. There were some treacherous ones at that time, who pretended to be of the French party, who were in reality in the enemy's interest. The day being appointed for the expedition to victual the town of Theroüenne, the French king's captains went to horse along with their gendarms. At daybreak, the King of England, aware of this enterprise, had stationed ten or twelve thousand English archers, and four or five thousand lasquenets, with eight or ten pieces of ordnance, on the summit of a rising ground, in order that, when the French had gone by, they might descend, and bar their progress. In the van he had appointed all the cavalry, English, Burgundians, and Hainaulters, to make the attack. I must here state a circumstance which is known to few, and in consequence whereof much blame hath been unjustly cast upon the gentlemen of France; I mean that of the French captains' having declared to their gendarms, that this expedition was intended solely for the relief of them of Theroüenne, and that they by no means wished to provoke an engagement; so that if they met a considerable body of the enemy, they must retire at a foot pace, which, if pressed, they were to exchange for a trot, and then for a gallop; as they were desirous of avoiding every kind of risk.

“ Now the French began to march, and approached the town of Theroüenne, within the distance of a league or better, where commenced a rude and vigorous skirmish. The French cavalry behaved very well till they descried upon the hill that large body of foot in two companies, who had advanced beyond them, and were about to descend for the purpose of hemming them in. At this sight the retreat was sounded by the trumpets of the French. The gendarms, after the lesson they had received from their captains, set about returning at a quick pace. Being closely pursued, they proceeded to a trot, and from that to a gallop. Insomuch that the foremost of the enemy rushed upon the Lord of La Palisse, who was in action with the Duke of Longueville, so furiously, that they threw every thing into disorder. The pursuers, who stuck to their point, seeing such sorry conduct, still pushed on, till they made all the French turn their backs. The Lord of La Palisse, and many others, did more than their duty, and cried with a loud voice: • Turn, men at arms, turn: this is nothing.' But that was of no avail, every one endeavouring to gain the camp, where the artillery and foot-soldiers had been left. Amid this woful confusion the Duke of Longueville was made prisoner, with many more, among others the Lord of La Palisse; but he escaped out of the hands of them that had taken him.

“ The good Knight without fear and without reproach retired very sorrowfully, and ever and anon turned round upon his enemies, with fourteen or fifteen gendarms, who had stood by him. In retreating he came up to a little bridge, where no more than two men could pass abreast: and there was a great ditch, full of water, which came from a distance of more than half a league, and proceeded to turn a mill three furlongs farther on. When he was upon the bridge he said to them that were with him, "Gentlemen, let us stop here; for the enemy will not win this bridge from us in the space of an hour.' Then he called one of his archers and said to him: Hie you to our camp, and tell my Lord of La Palisse that I have stopped the enemy short for at least half an hour; that during this interval he must make the forces draw up in order of battle; and let them not be alarmed, but softly march hither. For, should the foe advance to the camp, and catch them thus in disarray, they would infallibly be defeated.' The archer goes straight to the camp, and leaves the good Knight, with the inconsiderable number of men by whom he was accompanied, guarding that little bridge, where he did all that prowess could achieve. The Burgundians and Hainaulters arrived, but were obliged to fight on the hither side of the bridge, as they could not very easily effect a passage. This gave the French, who had returned to their camp, leisure to place themselves in order, and in a posture of defence, for fear it should be necessary.

“When the Burgundians found themselves withstood by such a handful of men, they exclaimed that archers should be sent for with all speed, and some went to hasten them. Meantime above two hundred cavaliers followed the course of the brook, till they found the mill, by which they crossed over. The good Knight, thus inclosed on both sides, said to the people: "Sirs, let us surrender to these gentlemen; for all the prowess we might display would avail us nothing. Our steeds are weary; our adversaries are ten to one against us; our forces three leagues off; and if we tarry but a little while longer and the English archers come up, they will cut us to pieces.' At these words the foresaid Burgundians and Hainaulters arrived, crying: Burgundy! Burgundy! and made a mighty onset upon the French, who, having no means of further resistance, surrendered, one here, another there, to those of most seeming consideration. While each was endeavouring to take his prisoner, the good Knight espied, under some little trees, a gentleman in goodly attire, who, by reason of the excessive heat he was in, whereby he was completely overcome, had taken off his helmet, and was so turmoiled and weary that he cared not to be at the trouble of taking prisoners. He spurred straight up to this person, grasping his sword, which he pointed at the other's throat, and cried : Surrender, cavalier, or you die.' Terribly dismayed was this gentleman, for he thought that his whole company were taķen prisoners; however, being in fear of his life, he said: 'I give myself up then, since I am taken in this manner, Who are you? I am,' said the good Knight, Captain Bayard, who surrender to you; here is my sword. I pray you be pleased to carry me away with you. But do me this kindness; if we meet with any English on the road who may offer to kill us, let me have it back again. This the gentleman promised and observed; for as they drew toward the camp they were both obliged to use their weapons against some English who sought to slay the prisoners; whereby they gained nothing.

“ Then was the good Knight conducted to the camp of the King of England, and into the tent of that gentleman, who entertained him very well for three or four days. On the fifth the good Knight said to him : “My worthy sir, I should be right glad if you would have me carried in safety to the king my master's camp; for I am already wearied with being here.' How say you?' said the other; 'we have not yet treated of your ransom.'

My ransom?' said the good Knight; 'your own you mean, for you are my prisoner. And if, after you gave me your word, I surrendered to you, it was to save my life, and for no other reason.' Great was the amazement of that gentleman, especially when the good Knight added : “Sir, if you don't keep your word, I am confident I shall make my escape by some means or other: but be assured that I shall insist upon doing battle with you afterward.' The gentleman knew not what reply to make, for he had heard a great deal about Captain Bayard, and by no means relished the idea of fighting with him. However, being a very courteous Knight, he at length said: "My Lord of Bayard, I am desirous of dealing fairly with you; I will refer the matter to the captains.

“Now you must know the good Knight could not be concealed so carefully, but his being in the camp was soon discovered; and to hear the enemies' descants thereupon you would have thought they had won a battle. The Emperor sent for him, and, on his being conducted to his tent, gave him a wonderful gracious recep-. tion, addressing him thus : Captain Bayard, my friend, it gives me very great pleasure to see you. Would to God that I had many such as you! if I had I should not be very long in requiting the good ofices which the king your master and the French have done me in times past.' Again he said laughing : "I believe, my Lord

of Bayard, we were formerly at war together; methinks at that time it was said that Bayard never fled.' To which the good night replied : “Sire, had I fled, I should not be here now.'

“ Meanwhile, the King of England coming in, the Emperor introduced to his acquaintance the good Knight, who was by him welcomed with cordiality, and made on his part such obeisance as it befitted so high a prince to receive. Then they began talking of this retreat, and King Henry observed that he had never seen people fly so nimbly and in such numbers as the French, who were chased by no more than four or five hundred horse; and the Emperor and he spake of them in very disdainful terms. "On my soul,' said the good Knight, the gendarmery of France ought in no wise to have the blame of this affair imputed to them; for they had express orders from their captains not to fight; because it was apprehended that, if you offered battle, you would bring your whole force with you, as in fact you did; and we had no infantry nor any ordnance. And you cannot but know, most high and mighty lords, that the nobility of France are renowned throughout the world. I do not say that I ought to be accounted of their number.' • In good sooth, my Lord of Bayard,' said the King of England,

if they were all like you, I should soon be forced to raise the siege of this town. But, however that may be, you are a prisoner. Sire,' said the good Knight, I do not allow it, and would gladly appeal on this question to the Emperor and you. The gentleman was present to whom he had surrendered, after having had his word of honour. So he gave them an account of the whole transaction, even as it hath been set down in this history. Which the gentleman could not contradict in any particular, but said: • What the Lord of Bayard tells you is perfectly true.'

“ The Emperor and the King of England looked at one another. The former broke silence, and declared it as his opinion that Captain Bayard was not a prisoner, but rather the gentleman a prisoner to him; howbeit that, in consideration of the civility he had shown him, they should be free one of another, and that the former might depart when it should seem fit to the King of England; who was of the same mind, and said that if he would remain on his parole, without bearing arms, for six weeks, he would after give him leave to return, and that in the mean time he might visit the towns of Flanders. The good Knight most humbly thanked the Emperor and the King of England for their condescension, and went to di. vert himself about the country till the day prefixed. During this time the King of England had him solicited to enter his service, causing many offers to be made him; but it was lost labour, for his heart was devoted to France."

Though of small fortune, the good Knight seems always to have had the means of living magnificently; so that we are led to presume a soldier's individual valour, in those times, was a sure means of replenishing his exchequer. Of his remaining feats, after the death of Louis XII., we shall mention but one, and one very hothe feudal system, immense privileges attached to the soil; and, when the sovereign granted a fier, he granted nobility with it, without letters-patent: but, when he had no more lands to grant, he gave letters-patent with a coat of arms described therein. Several precedents of these grants are cited by Sir James Lawrence from the Harleian Miscellany, and from Rymer.

During the feudal times, all countries were divided into fiefs, and these again into arrière-fiefs. In France and England, the grand vassals of the crown, or the greater barons (afterward peers), composed the first; and the lesser barons (afterward knights and squires) formed the second order.. Now the second class are styled noble as well as the first; and Sir James contends that the rights of this second class of nobles may be dormant, but cannot be lost. The citation from the contents of Sir Thomas Smith's Commonwealth is strictly in point.

““ The first part, of gentlemen of England, called nobilitas major.
«« The second sort, of gentlemen, which may be called nobilitas minor.

Esquire betokeneth scutiferum or armigerum, and be all those which bear arms, which is to bear as a testimony of the nobility or race from whence they do

"“Gentlemen be those, whom their blood and race doth make noble or known. The Latins call them all nobiles, the French nobles.

«« Gens in Latin betokeneth the race and surname. So the Romans had Cornelios, Appios, Fabios, Emilios, Pisones, Julios, Brutos, Valerios. Of which, who were agnati and therefore kept the name, were also gentiles, and retaining the memory of the glory of their progenitor's fame, were gentlemen of that, or that race.

"“ Yeomen be not called masters, for that, as I have said before, pertaineth to gentlemen, but to their surnames men add Goodman."

la 1586, Sir John Ferne wrote his Blazon of Gentry and Nobility, and the distinction between nobilis and ignobilis is there plainly stated to be that of wearing or not wearing coat-armour, Coke upon Lyttleton has the following passage on the Stat. de Mil. 1 Edw. 2.:


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«« He that is destrained ought to be a gentleman of name and blood, claro loco natus. Of ancient time those, that held by knight's service, were regularly gen. tile. It was a badge of gentry. Yet now tempora mutantur, and many a yeoman, burgess, or tradesman, purchaseth lands hulden by knight's service, and yet ought not, for want of gentry, to be made a knight. At this time the surest rule is, Nobiles sunt qui arma gentilicia antecessorum suorum proferre possunt. Therefore they are called scutiferi armigeri.

•“ A knight is by creation, a gentleman by descent, and yet I read of the creation of a gentleman. A knight of France came into England, and challenged John Kingston, a good and strong man at arms, but no gentleman, as the record saieth, ni certa armorum puncta, &c. perficiendu. Rex ipsum Johannem ad ordinem generosorum adoptavit, et armigerum constituit, et certa honoris insignia concessit."'*

Lord Coke continues to remark that “ great discord would arise within the realm, if yeomen and tradesmen were admitted to the dignity of knighthood, to take the place and precedency of the ancient and noble gentry of the realme.” Camden, who was

** The king made him no knight, as his adversary was, because he was no gen


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