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storation,-a period when so little is known of it from authentic sources,--than are to be met with elsewhere. It also furnishes many striking anecdotes of the state of literature, of the cultivation of music, of new inventions and introductions, of the plague and great fire, and, in fine, of every matter which employed the minds and bodies of our progenitors a century and a half ago; and, consequently, of every thing which can excite the feelings, and deserve the attention of their descendants. Of the dissolute court of Charles, it is true, we have already a vivid picture by Count Grammont,* and of the literature of the time a more ample account in Evelyn: but for an insight into the society, the habits, feelings, and doings of our ancestors, we know of nothing to conipare with Pepys. His minuteness of detail is delightful: we are acquainted with the very fashion of every coat he wore; the curl of every wig; the cut of every cloak; the colour and shape of female accoutrements; the number and position of patches; the very mould and glass, as it were, of every novelty. Still because he is minute on points of daily intercourse and occurrence, it does not follow that he is of little value upon affairs of national and general importance. On the contrary, contemporary history must be much benefited by these statements, which teach us to estimate men and measures far more accurately, by slight touches, than we can ever do by having them displayed according to the philosophy of the historian. Clarendon with all his knowledge, and Burnet with all his acumen, when descanting on “the lewdness of that time,”+ do not yield us such lights as the little tapers of Mr. Pepys. His are home-items, whereas such Chroniclers as the Count Grammont only startle us with such doctrines as these:

• Every man who believes that his honour depends upon that of his wife is a fool who torments himself and drives her to despair; but he who, being anaturally jealous, has the additional misfortune of loving his wife, and who expects that she should only live for him, is a perfect madman, whom the torments of hell have actually taken hold of in this world, and whoin nobody pities. All reasoning and observation on these unfortunate circunstances attending wedlock concur in this, that precaution is vain and useless before the evil, and revenge odious afterwards.' {See Memoirs of Count Grammont, vol. ii. chap. 2.]

Such are the jocular sentiments of the worthy Count, who, speaking of these enormities destructive of every human happiness, might fairly say of them quorum pars magna fui; but his generalizations are nothing to the “particular facts” of Mr. Pepys.

With regard to Evelyn's Remains, it may be remembered that only about a hundred pages in the two volumes they occupy treat of the epoch and actors who figure so peculiarly in the present

Count Grammont, (or, more correctly, Gramont,) though a contemporary of Pepys, is not (we think) mentioned once in the Diary. The Memoirs known by his name are too melancholy a corroboration of the facts related by our honest Journalist. Heartless men and profligate women shine, like corruption, over the caricaturist's page, (for such it is, in spite of its chivalry,) the one without honour, the other without virtue. Would that some record could be discovered of the better parts of England at this era : perhaps there is none. -Rev.

| See his History, vol. i. p. 137.
Vol. VII. No. 39.-Museum.

21

work. Where the coincidences happen, it is wonderfully pleasant to trace the different views of each writer: but into these we have not an opportunity now to enter; and we are sorry for it, because the corroboration thus offered is extremely valuable,—that of Evelyn, a highly literary character, telling us what he did, and thus making a partial mirror of the age; and that of Pepys, who kept for his own remembrance an account not only of all he did, but of all he saw and heard; and who thus preserved as perfectly as it can be done, “the abstract and brief chronicle of the times." We shall, however, even in this concise Review, make one or two corresponding statements to illustrate our remarks.

In looking over the memorabilia of Pepys, passing the curious particulars of the King's being brought from Holland, we shall commence with a London scene appropriate to the Restoration.

"We were told that the Parliament had sent Scott and Robinson to Monk this afternoon, but he would not hear them. And that the Mayor and Aldermen had offered their own houses for himself and his officers; and that bis soldiers would lack for nothing. And indeed I saw many people give the soldiers drink and money, and all along the streets cried God bless them,' and extraordinary good words. Hence we went to a merchant's house hard by, where I saw Sir Nich. Crisp, and so we went to the Star tavern (Monk being then at Benson's). In Cheapside there were a great many bonfires, and Bow bells and all the bells in all the churches as we went home were a-singing. Hence we went homewards, it being about ten at night. But the common joy that was every where to be seen! The number of bonfires, there being fourteen between St. Dunstan's and Temple Bar, and at Strand Bridge I could at one time tell thirty-one fires. In King Street seven or eight; and all along burning, and roasting, and drinking for rumps. There being rumps tied upon sticks and carried up and down. The butchers at the May Pole in the Strand rang a peal with their knives when they were going to sacrifice their rump. On Ludgate Hill there was one turning of a spit that had a rump tied upon it, and another basting of it. Indeed it was past imagination, both the greatness and the suddenness of it. And one end of the street you would think there was a whole lane of fire, and so hot that we were fain to keep on the further side.'

There never, perhaps, was such a national stagnation as at this crisis. Almost any man of influence might have advanced his own pretensions to supreme power; and almost any man might have led the way to do what Monk did. The King was restored by means which every one has read in the histories of that event, and what between the looseness of manners imported from the Continent and the rebound from puritanism at home, a strange effervescence ensued. Pepys, among his many similar stories of the profligacy of the upper ranks, has the following:

September 17th. Meeting Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, he took me into So. mersett House; and there carried me into the Queene-Mother's presence-chamber, where she was with our own Queene sitting on her left hand (whom I did never see before); and though she be not very charming, yet she hath a good, modest, and innocent look, which is pleasing. Here I also saw Madame Castlemaine, and, which pleased me most, Mr. Crofts, the King's bastard, a most pretty sparke of about 15 years old, who, I perceive, do hang much upon my Lady Castlemaine, and is always with her; and, I hear, the Queenes both are mighty kind to him. By and by in comes the King, and anon the Duke and his Duchesse ; so that, they being all together, was such a sight as I never could almost have bappened to see with so much ease and leisure. They staid till it was dark, and then went away; the King and his Queene, and my Lady Castlemaine and young Crotts, in one

coach, and the rest in other coaches. Here was great stores of great ladies, but very few handsome. The King and Queene were very merry; and he would have made the Queene-Mother believe that his Queene was with child, and said that she said so. And the young Queene answered, “You lie ;' which was the first English word that I ever heard her say: which made the King good sport; and he would have made her say in English, 'Confess and be hanged."

Christmas Day. Had a pleasant walk to Whitehall, where I intended to have received the communion with the family, but I come a little too late. So I walked up into the house and spent my time looking over pictures, particularly the ships in King Henry the Eighth's voyage to Bullaen; marking the great difference be. tween those built then and now. By and by down to the chapel again, where Bishop Morley preached upon the song of the angels. 'Glory to God on high, on earth peace, and good will towards men. Methought he made but a poor sermon, but long, and reprehending the common jollity of the court for the true joy that shall and ought to be on these days. Particularized concerning their excess in playes and gaming, saying that he whose office it is to keep the gamesters in order and within bounds, serves but for a second rather in a duell, meaning the groome. porter. Upon which it was worth observing how far they are come from taking the reprehensions of a bishop seriously, that they all laugh in the chapel when he reflected on their ill actions and courses.

* December 31st. Public matters stand thus: The King is bringing, as is said, his family, and navy, and all other his charges, to a less expense. In the mean time, bimself following his pleasures more than with good advice he would do; at least, to be seen to all the world to do so. His dalliance with my Lady Castlemaine being publick, every day, to his great reproach ; and his favouring of none at court so much as those that are the confidants of his pleasure, as Sir H. Bennet and Sir Charles Barkeley, which, good God! put it into his heart to mend, before he makes himself too much contemned by his people for it! The Duke of Monmouth is in so great splendour at court, and so dandled by the King, that some doubt, that, if the King should have no child by the Queene (which there is yet no appearance of), whether he would not be acknowledged for a lawful son; and that there will be a difference follow between the Duke of York and him; which God prevent! My Lord Chancellor is threatened by people to be questioned, the next sitting of the Parliament, by some spirits that do not love to see him so great: but certainly he is a good servant to the King. The Queene-Mother is said to keep too great a court now; and her being married to my Lord St. Alban's is commonly talked of; and that they had a daughter between them in France, how true, God knows. The Bishops are high, and go on without any diffidence in pressing uni. formity; and the Presbyters seem silent in it, and either conform or lay down, though without doubt they expect a turn, and would be glad these endeavours of the other fanatiques would take effect; there having been a plot lately found, for which four have been publickly tried at the Old Bailey and hanged.

“May, 1663. After dinner I went up to Sir Thomas Crewe, who lies there not very well in his head, being troubled with vapours and fits of dizzinesse ; and there I sat talking with him all the afternoon upon the unbappy posture of things at this time; that the King do mind nothing but pleasures, and hates the very sight or thoughts of business. If any of the sober counsellors give him good advice, and move him in any thing to his good and honour, the other part, which are his counsellors of pleasure, take him when he is with my Lady Castlemaine, and in a humour of delight, and then persuade him that he ought not to hear nor listen to the advice of those old dotards or counsellors that were heretofore his enemies : when, God knows! it is they that now-a-days do most study his honour.'

Continuing these notices, we are told, (February 1664-5.)

‘My Lady Sandwich tells me how my Lord Castlemaine is coming over from France, and is believed will soon be made friends with his lady again. What mad frieks ihe mayds of honour at court have, that Mrs. Jennings, one of the Dutch. esse's maids the other day dressed herself like an orange-wench, and went up and down, and cried oranges; till falling down, or by some accident, her fine shoes were descerned, and she put to a great deal of shame; that such as these tricks being ordinary, and worse among them, thereby few will venture among them for

• The elder sister of Sarah ,Dutchess of Marlborough.

wives: My Lady Castlemaine will in merriment say, that her daughter (not above a year old or two) will be the first mayd in the court that will be married.'

The character of Lady Castlemaine, as drawn by Burnet and other writers, though sufficiently notorious to have placed her at the head of such a bevy: yet assuredly the King's mistress (created Duchess of Cleveland) was worthy of a superior rank, even among these sportive maids of honour to the Queen! Grammont's Memoirs also curiously embroider this lady's fame; and therewith the customs of the age.

• Miss Stewart's beauty (he says) began at this time to be celebrated. The Countess of Castlemaine perceived that the King paid attention to her; but, instead of being alarmed at it, she favoured, as far as she was able, this new inclination, whether from an indiscretion common to all those who think themselves su. perior to the rest of mankind, or whether she designed, by this pastime, to divert the King's attention from the commerce which she held with Jermyn. She was not satisfied with appearing without any degree of uneasiness at a preference which all the court began to remark: she even affected to make Miss Stewart her favourite, and invited her to all the entertainments she made for the King; and, in confidence of her own charms, with the greatest indiscretion, she often kept her to sleep. The King, who seldom neglected to visit the Countess before she rose, seldom failed likewise to find Miss Stewart in bed with her. The most indifferent objects have charms in a new attachment: however, the imprudent Countess was not jealous of this rival's appearing with her, in such a situation, being confident, that whenever she thought fit, she could triumph over all the advantages which these opportunities could afford Miss Stewart; but she was quite mistaken.'

Miss Stewart herself, however, if, indeed, she ever yielded to his power, seems to have been no subservient favourite of the amorous King. Grammont, in his dogmatical way, tells us:

*The Duke of Buckingham formed the design of governing her in order to in. gratiate himself with the King; God knows what a governor he would have been, and what a head he was possessed of, to guide another; however, he was the pro. perest man in the world to insinuate himself with Miss Stewart: she was childish in her behaviour, and laughed at every thing, and her taste for frivolous amusements, though unaffected, was only allowable in a girl about twelve or thirteen years old. A child, however, she was, in every other respect, except playing with a doll: blind-man's buff' was her most favourite amusement: she was building cas. tles of cards, while the deepest play was going on in her apartments, where you saw her surrounded by eager courtiers, who handed her the cards, or young architects, who endeavoured to imitate her.

She had, however, a passion for music, and had some taste for singing. The Duke of Buckingham, who built the finest towers of cards imaginable, bad an agreeable voice: she bad no aversion to scandal; and the Duke was both the fa. ther and the mother of scandal: he made songs, and invented old women's stories with which she was delighted; but his particular talent consisted in turning into ridicule whatever was ridiculous in other people, and in taking them off, even in their presence, without their perceiving it: in short, he knew how to act all parts, with so much grace and pleasantry, that it was difficult to do without him, when he had a mind to make himself agreeable; and he made himself so necessary to Miss Stewart's amusement, that she sent all over the town to seek for him, when he did not attend the King to her apartments.

“He was extremely handsome, and still thought himself much more so than he really was: although he had a great deal of discernment, yet his vanity made him mistake some civilities as intended for his person, which were only bestowed on his wit and drollery: in short, being seduced by too good an opinion of bis own merit, he forgot his first project and his Portuguese mistress, in order to pursue a fancy in which he mistook himself; for he no sooner began to act a serious part with Miss Stewart, than he met with so severe a repulse, that he abandoned, at once, all his designs upon her: however, the familiarity she had procured him with the King opened the way to those favours to which he was afterwards ad. vanced.'

In fact, the afterwards Duchess of Richmond, under the semblance of childishness (as Brutus under that of madness), seems to have played her own cards, and built her own castles, in a style above the comprehension of the King, Buckingham, Grammont, or Pepys: but to return to the last of these, and his court-register, anno 1665:

March 19th. Mr. Povy and I in his coach to Hyde-Park, being the first day of the tour there. Where many brave ladies; among others, Castlemaine lay impudently upon her back in her coach asleep, with her mouth open.'

He (Mr. Price a celebrated surgeon) tells me how the Duke of York is wholly given up to his new mistress, my Lady Denham,* going at noon-day with all his gentlemen to visit her in Scotland-Yard; she declaring she will not be his mistress, as Mrs. Price, to go up and down the privy stairs, but will be owned publickly; and so she is.' [Oh! mighty honour!) Mr. Brouncker it seems was the pimp to bring it about, and my Lady Castlemaine, who designs thereby to fortify herself by the Duke; there being a falling out the other day between the King and her: on this occasion, the Queene, in ordinary talk before the ladies in her drawingroom, did say to my Lady Castlemaine that she feared the King did take cold, by staying so late abroad at her house. She answered before them all, that he did not stay so late abroad with her, for he went betimes thence, (though he do not before one, two, or three in the morning,) but must stay somewhere else. The King then coming in and overhearing, did whisper in the eare aside, and told her she was a bold, impertinent woman), and bid her to be gone out of the court, and not come again till he sent for her; which she did presently, and went to a lodging in the Pell-Mell, and kept there two or three days, and then sent to the King to know whether she might send for her things away out of her house. The King sent to her, she must first come and view them; and so she come, and the King went to her, and all friends again. He tells me she did, in her anger, say she would be even with the King, and print his letters to her. So putting all together, we are and are like to be in a sad condition.'

Another reporter (Mr. Fenn,) Pepys records,

• Tells me that the King and my Lady Castlemaine are quite broke off,t and she is gone away, and is with child, and swears the King shall own it; and she will have it christened in the chapel at White Hall so, and owned for the King's, as other Kings have done; or she will bring it into White Hall gallery, and dash the brains of it out before the King's face. He tells me, that the King and court

* It was said her husband poisoned her to revenge his dishonour.

† They seem to have had many quarrels and bickerings, in each of which the Jady, as usual, gets off victoriously. In one scene she tells the King he is “a fool, and allows fools to govern him;" and, throughout, she covers her own intrigues by accusing her royal goose of infidelity, and pretending to be jealous of him.-Rev.

# A later entry runs thus:-"How imperious this woman is, and hectors the King to do whatever she will. It seems she is with child, and the King says he did not get it; with that she made a slighting puh with her mouth, and never came in again, till the King went to Sir Daniel Harvy's to pray her; and so she is come to-day when one would think his mind should be full of other cares, having this morning broken up such a parliament, with so much discontent, and so many wants upon him, and but yesterday heard such a sermon against adultery. But it seems she hath told the King that whoever did get it, he should own it. And the bottom of the quarrel is this:-she is fallen in love with young Jermyn, who hath of late been with her oftener than the King, and is now going to marry my Lady Fal. mouth; the King is mad at her entertaining Jermyn, and she is mad at Jermyn's going to marry from her, so they are all mad: and thus the kingdom is governed.'

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