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north pole, is not the same as that at forty-five degrees from the opposite pole: The prevailing winds in these cases modify very sensibly the temperature. Climate exercises a very powerful influence upon the vegetables that form a part of our nourishment; and the Aesh of those animals, which is brought to our tables, possesses very different qualities according to the nature of the pasturage upon which these animals feed, which is also materially modified by the nature of the climate. Some years ago, M. Bonstetten published a mediocre work, entitled “ Théorie de l'Imagination.” This present production is in many respects superior to that work. Setting aside vague and general theories, M. B. confines bim. self to describing what he has seen, and describes it well. His book would be deserving of unmingled praise, if the style possessed somewhat more of ease and grace. One of the principal ideas in the work is, that the native of the south has scarcely any need of shelter from the inclemency of the climate, and is not condemned, like the inbabitant of northern climes, to remain during six months of the year, shut up in the house. The long nights of the north would prove mortal to its inhabitants, were they not provided with shelter and warm clothing. It therefore becomes necessary for them to make provision during the fine season against the rigour of winter-hence the quality of prudence which forms the basis of the moral character of the people of the north. This quality of prudence is almost unknown to the fortunate inhabitants of the south of Spain and Italy. Phi. losophy also seems to be more naturally the product of the north than of the south. During the long winter evenings, the inhabitants of the north, sealed up in their houses, are almost forced upon reflection, while the natives of southern climes, not thus rendered sedentary by the rigour of the season, indulge in more active sources of enjoyment. The presence of the sun, and light but uninterrupted labours, keep alive and fresh in the people of the south that fine tact or sensitive. ness, that renders them susceptible of the slightest and most varied impressions. They are consequently less inclined to give themselves up to profound reverie, long cherished hopes, or protracted inquietude and distant forebodings. M. Bon. stetten might have taken for the motto of his book, the fable of the ant and the grasshopper. In this work, for which we are indebted to Geneva, there are some interesting anecdotes, but more remarkable from their matter than the manner in which they are related. Though finding fault with the style of this book, yet the substance is so valuable and interesting, that we have no hesitation in stating it to be worthy of a translation into English. Those Englishmen who go to India, might there find occasion to verify or refute the ideas put forward by Bonstetten, upon the influence exercised by the long and rigorous nights of winter upon the human intellect. They might there draw a comparison between the dreary and protracted nights that freeze up, in the mountain dwelling, the hardy highlander, and the warm and delicious nights that permit the indolent Hindoo to sleep in the “spiced Indian air,” and the pure blaze of the moon.
Histoire de Christophe Colomb. Par M. Bossi de Milan, traduite par M. Urano. 1 vol. (The History of Christopher Columbus. 'By M. Bossi de Milan, translated by M. Urano.)
Italian literature has fallen very low indeed. The Austrian censorship is not the only evil under which it is succumbing. Unfortunately, the great majority of the modern writers of Italy, have got into the fatal habit of drowning a few thoughts in an ocean of words rari nantes in gurgite. However, it must be acknowledged, in justice to Italian literature, that it possesses a character of good faith and conscientious research, that it would be in vain to look for in the literary productions of the day in France. The books now published in Italy, if they have no other merit, have at least that of being totally devoid of that scientific foppery and that presumptuous ignorance that affects to know every thing, and which is so impertinently obtrusive in a large proportion of the little pretended chefs-d'æuvre that issue from the Parisian press. M. Bossi's book, though liable in some measure to the objection mentioned in the beginning of this article, is yet worthy of perusal. He has given an interesting picture of the state of society in the midst of which Columbus lived, and of the obstacles which this great man had to overcome in obtaining a vessel for the discovery of a new world. M. Bossi, a canon of the cathedral of Milan, was protected and encouraged by Napoleon. He is now, however, obliged to write for his bread, and look to the public for patronage.
Vita di Canova, Scritta di Missirini -Firenze. (The Life of Canova, by Missirini-Florence.)
M. Missirini is, we believe, a native of Florence, an additional reason for his indulging in pompous but hollow verboseness, and paying more attention to the roundness of his periods than to the strength or accuracy of his ideas. Notwithstanding this crying sin, so common, unfortunately, to the living writers of Italy, this biography of Canova is not an unacceptable present to the admirers of that renowned artist. On the subject of the fine arts, there reigns in Italy a general good sense and fineness of tact not to be met with in any other country. The Italians may, without either prejudice or presumption, look upon foreigners when they talk of sculpture, painting and music, as still little better than barbarians. To have, therefore, a good life of Canova, it must be written by a native of Italy. It is to be regretted that the author of the life now before us, though fulfilling this condition of being an Italian, has not been able to put into cach sheet of letterpress, more than three or four ideas. This is something like Grattano's reasons,
two grains of wheat in a bushel of chaff,” though the remainder of the quotation does not apply to M. Missirini's ideas; for when found they “are worth the search." The most interesting part of this publication, are the letters of Canova: some of the first of which are full of misspellings.
(New Monthly Magazine.
A Prospectus of a somewhat novel and singular nature has been issued. It relates to the publication of a Weekly Journal and Magazine, under the title of the “Parthenon,” to be printed from stone, by a process which is designated by the term Typolithography, and which unites, by one operation of the press, Pictorial Illustrations, or other Embellishments, in the same sheet with the printed text.Music, the arts of design, and polite literature form the subjects to which this Jour. nal is to be chiefly devoted; and we hope it will meet with that encouragement which it seems so well calculated to deserve.
The stream of knowledge appears to be widening each day by the accession of some new “tributary rill.” Among the various popular schemes for communicating instruction, we observe the announcement of an Association about to be formed for the intellectual improvement of persons engaged in commercial and professional pursuits. It is to be denominated "The City of London Institution," and to have for its basis, but with suitable omissions and modifications, the plan of the Mechanics’ Institution, which has been already found productive of so much benefit. The proposed modes of advancement consist of lectures on subjects of science and literature, classes and lectures for the attainment of languages, and a library of reference and circulation, with rooms for reading, &c. and conversation.
Mr. George Coventry has advertised a work, entitled “Lord G. Sackville proved to be Junius." This we think likely to prove a book of some attraction, although the work called “Junius identified with a celebrated living Character,” (Sir Philip Francis, then alive), came very near the probable truth, was in itself entertaining, and afforded a specimen of close argument from circumstantial evidence. We are informed that the question is now to be set at rest by the production of some over. whelming and positive proofs in favour of the individual named in the new work.
A volume, entitled “Stories from the Ancient Chronicles" is announced. This we consider a meritorious and clever idea. The tales of the Crusades in Joinville, the animated details, the brilliant descriptions, the minute details, and picturesque and enthusiastic narrative of Froissart-ihe particularizing vein of Monstrelet-and the Boswellian naiveté of Conines-are admirably calculated for abridgment, and for being done into English. We sincerely hope they will be done as they deserve, and we doubt not they will be so; for we have heard that the knight who has attempted this difficult adventure is none other than the clever author of Gil. bert Earle.
Languages.-From the work of the learned Adelung, we find that there exists no less than 3,064 different languages used in various parts of the earth.—There are of these, European, 587--Asiatic, 937.- African; 276-American, 1,264.
Steam-Boats. More than nine-tenths, now in use in Europe, are the property of Englishmen-the steam-boats at Venice and Naples are English property, and an English Company has proposed to establish them on the lakes of Switzerland.
In the press, in 1 vol. 8vo., a Manual of the Elements of Natural History, by Professor Blumenbach, of Berlin. Translated from the tenth German edition.
Travels in Brazil, Chili, Peru, and the Sandwich Islands, in the years 1821, 2, and 3, by Gilbert Farquhar Mathison, esq., are announced.
The Troubadour, Spanish Maiden, and other Poems, by L. E. L., author of the * Improvisatrice" are just ready.
Mr. Croly will speedily publish, the Providence of God in the Latter Days,The Prophecies of the Rise and Dominion of Pupery-The Inquisition-The French Revolution,
The Distribution of the Scriptures through all Nations, The Fall of Popery in the midst of a great general Convulsion of Empires—The Conversion of all Nations to Christianity-The Millennium;-being a new Interpretation of the Apocalypse.
Historical and Descriptive Narrative of a Twenty Years' Residence in South America, containing Travels in Arauco, Chili, Peru, and Colombia, by W. B. Ste. phenson, Capt. de Fragata, is announced, in 3 vols. 8vo.
The Poetical Album, or Register of Modern Fugitive Poetry, edited by Alaric A. Watts. is just ready.
The sixth volume of Thomson's Select Melodies of Scotland, and many of those of Ireland and Wales; united to the Songs of Burns, Sir Walter Scott, and other eminent Lyric Poets, Ancient and Modern: with Symphonies and Accompani. ments for the Piano-Forte, composed by Haydn, Beethoven, &c., will speedily be published, in royal 8vo.
Mr. Astley has in the press, Observations on the System of the Patent Laws, with Outlines of a Plan proposed in substitution for it.
Dr. Southey's long promised Tale of Paraguay, is now just ready. Shortly will be published in 2 vols. crown 8vo., the Poetical and Dramatic Works of Christopher Marlowe.
The Dramatic Works of Samuel Foote, esq., in 3 vols. crown 8vo., on yellowlaid paper, are announced for republication. This edition will be limited to 250 copies.
Mr. T. Moore's Life of the Right Hon. R. B. Sheridan is just ready. A new edition of the Philosophical Writings of David Hume, esq. is announced, which will contain the Treatise on Human Nature, together with the other Essays and Treatises on Morals, Politics and the Belles-Lettres, including all the Essays omitted in the later editions. The author's most remarkable Corrections and Al. terations, as they occur in the different impressions, will be added in the shape of Notes; and the Life, written by himself, will be prefixed to the whole.
Mr. Woolnoth will complete his Series of Views of our Ancient Castles in the course of the ensuing summer: No. XXIII. is just published; and No. XXIV., con. cluding the work, will contain a Descriptive Catalogue of all the Castles in England and Wales, with other introductory matter.
Mr. Elmes's long promised Anecdotes of Arts and Artists are now just ready for publication.
A second edition of Tremaine, or the Man of Refinement, is nearly ready.
The Rev. J. T. James, author of Travels in Russia and Poland, has in the press the Scepticism of To-Day, or the Common Sense of Religion considered.
Letters of Horace Walpole, (afterwards Earl of Orford) to the Earl of Hertford, during his Lordship’s Embassy in Paris, are now just ready.
Letters of Marshal Conway, from 1744 to 1784, embracing the period when he was Commander of the Forces, and Secretary of State, may speedily be expected.
Foreign Literature and Science.
LIFE AND CHARACTER OF MRS. ANN RADCLIFFE.
BY SIR WALTER SCOTT.
[From Ballantyne's Novelist's Library.] The life of Mrs. Ann Radcliffe, spent in the quiet shade of domestic privacy, and in the interchange of familiar affections and sympathies, appears to have been as retired and sequestered, as the fame of her writings was brilliant and universal. The most authentic account of her birth, family, and personal appearance, seems to be that contained in the following communication to a work of a contemporary biography.
- She was born in London, in the year 1764 (9th July); the daughter of William and Ann Ward, who, though in trade, were nearly the only persons of their two families not living in handsome, or at least easy independence. Her paternal grandmother was a Cheselden, the sister of the celebrated surgeon, of whose kind regard her father had a grateful recollection, and some of whose presents, in books, I have seen. The late Lieutenant Colonel Cheselden, of Somerby; in Leicestershire, was, I think, another nephew of the surgeon. Her father's aunt, the late Mrs. Barwell, first of Leicester, and then of Duffield, in Derbyshire, was one of the sponsors at her baptism. Her maternal grandmother was Ann Oates, the sister of Dr. Samuel Jebb, of Stratford, who was the father of Sir Richard : on that side she was also related to Dr. Halifax, bishop of Gloucester, and to Dr. Halifax, physician to the king. Perhaps it may gratify curiosity to state farther, that she was descended from a near relative of the De Witts of Holland. In some family papers which I have seen, it is stated, that a De Witt of the family of John and Cornelius, came to England, under the patronage of government, upon some design of draining the fens in Lincolnshire, bringing with him a daughter, Amelia, then an infant. The prosecution of the plan is supposed to have been interrupted by the rebellion, in the time of Charles the First; but De Witt appears to have passed the remainder of his life in a mansion near Hull, and to have left many children, of whom Amelia was the mother of one of Mrs. Radcliffe's ancestors.
“ This admirable writer, whom I remember, from about the time of her twentieth year, was, in her youth, of a figure exquiVOL. VII. No. 39.-Museum.
sitely proportioned, while she resembled her father, and his brother and sister, in being low of stature. Her complexion was beautiful, as was her whole countenance, especially her eyes, eyebrows, and mouth. Of the faculties of her mind, let her works speak. Her tastes were such as might be expected from those works. To contemplate the glories of creation, but more particularly the grander features of their display, was one of her chief delights: to listen to fine music was another. She had also a gratification in listening to any good verbal sounds; and would desire to hear passages repeated from the Latin and Greek classics; requiring, at intervals, the most literal translations that could be given, with all that was possible of their idiom, how much soever the version might be embarrassed by that aim at exactness. Though her fancy was prompt, and she was, as will readily be supposed, qualified in many respects for conversation, she had not the confidence and presence of mind, without which a person conscious of being observed, can scarcely be at ease, except in long tried society. Yet she had not been without some good examples of what must have been ready conversation, in more extensive circles. Besides that a great part of her youth had been passed in the residences of her superior relatives, she had the advantage of being much loved, when a child, by the late Mr. Bentley; to whom, on the establishment of the fabric known by the name of Wedgwood and Bentley's, was appropriated the superintendence of all that related to form and design. Mr. Wedgwood was the intelligent man of commerce, and the able chemist; Mr. Bentley the man of more general literature, and of taste in the arts. One of her mother's sisters was married to Mr. Bentley; and during the life of her aunt, who was accomplished according to the moderation'—may I say the wise moderation ?--of that day, the little niece was a favourite guest at Chelsea, and afterwards at Turnham Green, where Mr. and Mrs. Bentley resided. At their house she saw several persons of distinction for literature; and others who, without having been so distinguished, were beneficial objects of attention for their mind and their manners. Of the former class the late Mrs. Montague, and once, I think, Mrs. Piozzi; of the latter, Mrs. Ord. The gentleman, called Athenian Stuart, was also a visiter there."
Thus respectably born and connected, Miss Ward, at the age of 23, acquired the name which she made so famous, by marrying William Radcliffe, Esq., graduated at Oxford, and a student of law. He renounced the prosecution of his legal studies, and became afterwards proprietor and editor of the English Chronicle.
Thus connected, in a manner which must have induced her to cherish her literary powers, Mrs. Radcliffe first came before the public as a novelist in 1789, only two years after her marriage, and when she was 24 years old. A romance, entitled the Castles of Athlin and Dunbayne, which she then produced, gave but moderate intimation of the author's peculiar powers. The scene is laid in Scotland, during the dark ages, but without any attempt