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Jan, 27, 28, 1834.]
Appropriation Bill-Extension of the Pension Laws.
[H. of R.
The first was, that it went to strike out a part of the bill, ing its provisions to the soldiers who fought in the wars in which the House had concurred. It was indeed true against ihe Indians. The gentleman is of the opinion that that, in point of the mere letter of the bill, it was pro- Congress had no power to grant pensions to the soldiers posed to drop two lines, which neither House had stricken even of the revolution, and think's the objection applies out: but they contained an integral part of the subject- with greater force to the soldiers who were engaged in matter which had been objected to by the Senate. The the Indian wars. With regard to the power of Congress, subject was, in fact, but one. The question was, whether I have no doubt. The framers of the constitution did not one House should limit the other in the expenditure of its think it necessary to detail minutely all the powers to be contingent fund? The Senate hac resisted the attempt exercised by Congress; to have done so, would have filled to do so by the House: the House had insisted on the your library with volumes on the subject. The authority
A committee of conference had been appoint-" to raise and support armies" gives to Congress the powed, and they had confined themselves to this subject. er to promote enlistments, and to encourage persons to They had not gone beyond the matter of disagreement. enter the service of the country, by holding forth such inThe other objection of the gentleman from Georgia re- ducements as shall be deemed expedient. There is no lates to the additional appropriation asked for the library limit as to the pay to be allowed. Congress is not restrict. of Congress. In consequence of his connexion with the ed, either in the amount, or the manner in which it shall library, it might not be improper for him to make a re- be paid; it may be fixed at six, ten, or twenty dollars per mark. It was not strictly in order to refer to what had month. Extra or additional allowances may be authorbeen done in the committee room; but he might allude ized, or not, while the soldier is in actual service, or after to what was not done; he might say that he had not pro- he shall have been discharged; and, as a primary induceposed that additional appropriation. He had, however, ment to enter the service, liberal bounties may be proassented to it when the suggestion came from a different posed, either in land or money, or both; and a further inquarter. He considered that, since the disagreement had ducement may be presented in the offer of a pension. respect only to the purchase of books for the use of the Bounty, pay, and pension may be taken into view when two Houses, any arrangement on that subject was within the individual engages in the service; and all may be authe power and competence of the committee. One source thorized by Congress. The gentleman has other objecof inconvenience, heretofore, had been the refusal of the tions to the system, arising from “its origin, character, and Committee on the Library to apply any portion of their consequences.” He ascribes its origin to the “protective fund for the purchase of duplicate copies of the books for system.” He should have gone to an earlier period. IL the use of committees. Resolutions for their purchase out is, I may say, coeval with the Government itself; it ori. of the contingent fund were consequently brought for- ginated before the adoption of the constitution under ward, from time to time, in either House. Hence, the which we are acting, and has continued under it to the connexion of the two matters. An increase of the library present moment. Washington himself recommended a fund would furnish a resource for any small calls of this provision of this kind for the officers; and, at his sugges. kind; and was also highly desirable to place the libra- tion, the old Congress resolved to give half-pay for life to ry on a proper footing, and fill up the chasms which still those who should serve through the war. And the power existed in almost every department, which he admitted to grant pensions has been exercised by Congress, under was the main object of the increase asked for.
the present constitution, from a very early period. The debate was further continued by
It is further urged by the gentleman, that the system is Mr. WILLIAMS, who concurred in the views of Mr. “ unjust and unequal,” because the greater number of WILDE.
pensioners now on the rolls belong to States north of the Mr. Foot followed in the same track.
Potomac, and but a few to the south. The reason for Mr. POLK further explained, and insisted that the com- this difference will be obvious, if the gentleman will but mittee had not transcended their authority.
advert to the history of the country. The war commenced Mr. ARCHER, though strongly disposed to favor both in the northern colonies; against them the principal parts of the arrangement proposed, would not, on account operations of the enemy were directed for several years. of the dangerous precedent. It was a compromise pur- This necessarily drew into the service of the country a chased by a grant of money.
very large number of the colonists in that quarter, either The SPEAKER explained his view of the question of as militia or enlisted soldiers. I believe there were at order, maintaining that the whole subject of the purchase least thirty thousand men under arms, and in service in of books was within the cognizance of the committee. the North, at the time of the surrender of the army under
Mr. ADAMS insisted upon his former objection. The Burgoyne, in 1777. And when the war was subsequently committee had, in fact, reported a new bill. He approved transferred to the South, in 1779-'80, these soldiers from the compromise but for the precedent.
the North were sent to assist against the enemy. Mr. WILLIAMS moved that the committee now rise, A distinction is attempted to be made between those (without reporting the compromisc.)
soldiers who fought the British enemy in the Atlantic col. Mr. POLK moved that the committee now rise and re- onies, and those who were employed against the Indian port.
enemy on the frontiers. There is certainly no good rea. Aster some conversation, Mr. Williams's motion was son for any distinction. The war against the British inlost, and the committee rose and reported concurrence volved us in a war with her allies, the Indians. It was with the report of the conferees. Ayes 88, noes 79: leav- one and the same war, and sprung from the revolution. ing the subject, therefore, before the House.
The historians of the country have viewed it in this light. Adjourned.
While the frontier inhabitants and militia were employed against the Indians, the colonists in other portions of the
country were operating against the British. No differTUESDAY, JANUARY 28.
ence, then, should be made between those who fought EXTENSION OF THE PENSION LAWS. against the red man and those who fought against the red After the reception of reports of committees, Mr. Carl- coat in the struggle for independence. It is said that, Tox's resolutions coming up again as the unfinished busi- after the treaty of peace in 1783, the Indian wars were
private wars, and for “the benefit of particular regions, Mr. DENNY rose, he said, to notice briefly a few of the and not for the benefit of the whole country.” The war objections made by the gentleman from South Carolina which originated with the revolution did not terminate (Mr. PINCKNET) to the pension system, and to extend with the treaty of 1783. The British withdrew from the
H. of R.]
Eclension of the Pension Laws - Removal of the Deposites Foreign Silver Coins. (Jan. 28, 29, 1834.
contest, and left their Indian allies to contend against the in evacuating Ticonderoga, would call forth any censure. States; with them, therefore, the war was continued. It is true, much excitement and disapprobation prevailed Although the Government made every effort to bring at the time; but all impartial military men agreed in the about peace, outrages continued to be committed by the propriety of the measure. The general exhibited more Indians along the whole frontier, from Lake Erie to Geor- true courage in abandoning the post than is required to gia. Hostilities were kept up at the instigation of British meet the enemy in the field. The country became satissubjects. The influence exercised over the Indians, by fied with his conduct, as the event proved to be the com. the subjects of the British King, with whom we were at mencement of a series of events which resulted in the peace, prolonged the war. This war was not of a pri. capture of Burgoyne. vate character; it concerned the whole nation, and was General St. Clair never lost the confidence of the com. prosecuted under the direction of the National Govern- mander-in-chief, nor of the country, as is prored by his ment, and resulted to the benefit not of any particular being subsequently appointed to places of trust and dissection solely, but of the whole nation. The lands ceded tinction. In his last battle he evinced the greatest cool. by the Indians became the property of the whole nation, ness and intrepidity, although laboring under severe bodand have added millions to the national treasury. The ily infirmity. He used every effort to take care of the campaigns undertaken by General Harmar, General St. wounded; and, when a retreat was ordered, he was the Clair, and General Wayne, were by orders of the Gov- last to leave the field. The Secretary of War, General ernment. Why, then, shall we not provide for the old Knox, made a report on the causes of the failure of this soldiers, who served with them, when the whole country expedition. A committee of Congress also investigated has been benefited by those services!
the matter. By the reports, in both instances, the genI, equally with the gentleman from Indiana, regretted eral is honorably exonerated from all censure, and the to hear the remarks made by the gentleman from Ken- misfortune ascribed to causes over which he had no contucky, [Mr. Handis,] relative to the conduct of General trol, such as "the delay in Furnishing materials and estiHarmar and General St. Clair. I bave heard the account mates for the protection of the frontier,” « lateness of the of Harmar's expedition, and the sorrowful tale of St. season,"--I believe it was in June and July that the last Clair's misfortune, from one who participated in both af of the troops reached Fort Washington, and in Septemfairs; and I never understood that either officer justly in- ber they marched into the Indian country, and the battle curred the slightest censure. General Harmar was se- occurred on the 4th of November-want of discipline, Jected, as a veteran of the revolution, to conduct the ex. and an increased number of the enemy. General St. pedition against the Miami towns. When within about Clair, after be retired from public life, resided in the thirty miles of the villages, he learned that the Indians county of Westmoreland, adjoining the district I reprewere deserting them. This induced him to direct Colonel sent; and there he experienced the ingratitude and in Hardin, an active and brave soldier, to push forward justice of his country, in the rejection by Congress of with a detachment of several hundred light troops, to just claims for services, and for property furnished for reach the towns before they should be abandoned; but, the use of the army. At last, worn down with age and on arriving there, the enemy had disappeared from them. infirmity, he exchanged the solitude of the mountains for The expedition succeeded in its object; five or six vil- the solitude of the grave. Jages, with a large quantity of corn, were destroyed. I need not take up the time of the House in further Misrepresentations and complaints were made, because a urging the propriety of making some small provision for greater loss was sustained by our troops, in two or three the heroes of our frontiers; nor need I repeat the story of engagements with parties of Indians, ihan ought to have their adventures, their perils, and sufferings, although the occurred, as was supposed. A court of inquiry was in. subject is an interesting one. To do so, would be recastituted to examine into the conduct of the general, the pitulating accounts of actions similar to those which have result of which was honorable to him. The whole pro- been ably described by the gentleman from Tennessee. ceedings of the court are to be found among the state And, while we are telling of their exploits and recounting papers of the Government. I will merely ask the atten- ibeir services, the wings of time are in motion, but are tion of the House to the result of the examination. The bearing no relief to these old soldiers. Let us, then, make court were
an effort to rescue, in some degree, our country from the “1st. Unanimous that the personal conduct of General reproach of ingratitude, by affording to those who en. Harmar was irreproachable.
gaged in its defence on the frontier some small comfort “211. Approved of the organization of the army. for the remainder of their days. They are all far advanced
“3d. Order of march was good, and adapted to the in years; let us, then, add a little oil to brighten the last country.
glimmerings of the lamp of life, before it shall be utterly “41h. Order of encampment and battle judicious, and extinguished; then will the frontier veteran, in breathing calculated to give security.
forth his last sigh, utter blessings, and not reproaches, on " 5th. Just reasons for the detachments of the 14th his countrymen. and 19th of October; and that on the 21st was made on Mr. D. closed his remarks with the bour; when the good principles, and secured the return of the army. House passed to the order of the day, being
"bin. And that the conduct of Brigadier General Harmar merits bigh approbation."
THE DEPOSITE QUESTION. This court was composed of brave and honorable men, Mr. HUNTINGTON, of Connecticut, then rose, conat the head of whom, as president, was General Richard tinued, and concluded his remarks, as given in extenso in Butler, who, after earning many laurels in conflicts with preceding pages. the British enemy, was destined to close his high, honor. Mr. ARCHER, who next obtained the floor, moved an able, and patriotic career, on the bloody field which was adjournment, which prevailed; and the theatre of St. Clair's disaster. I mention these circum The House adjourned. stances in justice to the memory of one who served bis country faithfully, and to correct any erroneous impres. sion which might have been made by the remarks of the
WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 29. gentleman from Kentucky, in relation to the conduct of
FOREIGN SILVER COINS. General Harmar. The gentleman from Indiana has ably Mr. WHITE, of New York, reported a bill to regolate vindicated the character of General St. Clair. I did not the value of certain foreign silver coin in the United suppose that, at this period, the conduct of the general, (States.
Jan. 29, 1834.] Foreign Silver Coins History of the Bank of the United States--Armory in Kentucky, &c. (H. of R.
Mr. ADAMS, of Massachusetts, inquired if there was Thomas Lee, Leavitt, Lyon, Lytle, J. K. Mann, Marshall, any report accompanying the bill from the committee. Mardis, John Y. Mason, Moses Mason, Jr., McDuffie, Mc
Mr. WHITE replied that there was not, as the subject Kay, Miller, Milligan, Robert Mitchell, Osgood, Parks, had been reported upon by the committee two sessions ago. Parker, Patton, Patterson, Franklin Pierce, Pinckney, The bill was then read twice and committed.
Polk, Pope, Potts, Schenck, Wm. B. Shepard, Shinn, HISTORY OF THE BANK OF UNITED STATES.
Smith, Speight, Standifer, Stoddert, Sutherland, Wm. Mr. ADAMS, of Massachusetts, said, that as many new Webster, Williams, Wilson.--102.
P. Taylor, Philemon Thomas, J. Thomson, Turner, members complained they were not enabled to procure
So the House refused to lay the resolution on the table. a work, the publication of which was ordered by the last
Mr. LYTLE offered as an amendment a resolution proCongress, and which was essentially necessary for them posing, in substance, that no candidate be hereafter ad. to have, he was induced to submit a resolution on the mitted into the school unless he proved, under oath, that subject now, lest any difficulty might arise hereafter as his parents were too poor to afford to educate him. to its being procured, by the new understanding as to the provision inserted in the House appropriation bill, in was declared by the Chair not to be in order.
This amendment, being in the nature of a substitute, respect to the purchase of books, &c. Resolved, that the Clerk of this House be directed to substituting, for the Committee on Military
Affairs, a se
Mr. HUBBARD moved to amend the resolution by purchase a sufficient number of copies of the Legislative lect committee, to consist of one member from each State and Documentary History of the Bank of the United States of the Union. to furnish one copy to each member and delegate who was not a member of the last Congress.
Mr. SPEIGHT supported the resolution, not so much The resolution was agreed to.
from opposition to the military academy, as hoping that
it might lead to an inquiry into the truth of the allegation ARMORY IN KENTUCKY-WEST POINT ACAD- of abuses which were said to exist in the institution. EMY.
Mr. HUBBARD) said that he had voted against the moMr. HAWES submitted the following resolutions: tion to lay the resolution, offered by the gentleman from
Resolved, That the Committee on Military Affairs be Kentucky, upon the table; and he had done so from it directed to inquire into the expediency of erecting a pub- settled conviction that the time had arrived when some lic armory on the waters of Green river, in the State of inquiry into the affairs of this institution ought to be made. Kentucky.
It was perfectly manifest, from what had transpired here. Resolved, That the Committee on Military Affairs be tofore, and from passing events, that there was an oppo. directed to inquire into the expediency of abolishing the sition, and an increasing opposition, to the academy military institution at West Point, in the State of New at West Point. The reasons why, he could not dis. York.
tinctly tell; but such he believed to be the fact. WhethA division of the question on the resolutions being re. er it arises from the manner of administering the affairs quired by Mr. WARD, the question was taken on the of the institution, or wliether from the creation of first, and agreed to without opposition.
the institution itself, he was unable to say. From what The question ther recurring on the latter, viz: had come to his knowledge, he believed that the Le
Resolved, that the Committee on Military Affairs be gislatures of two, at least, of the States of this Union directed to inquire into the expediency of abolishing the have expressly instructed their respective delegations in military institution at West Point, in the State of New Congress to oppose all appropriations, and every other Tork
measure, for the benefit of this academy; and in other Mr. BROWN moved to lay it upon the table.
parts of the confederacy there were objections to this inOn this motion Mr. BOULDIN demanded the yeas stitution. He, therefore, was of the opinion that an inand nays. They were taken, accordingly, and resulted as quiry bad better be made at once into the propriety of follows:
continuing the establishment. Such an inquiry will, of YEAS. Messrs. John Adams, Heman Allen, Anthony, course, include every thing connected with the adminisArcher, Ashley, Banks, Barnitz, Barringer, Butes, Bay- tration of its affairs. And, as it was a subject of very lies, Bean, Binney, Bockee, Bodle, Briggs, Brown, Buli, general importance, and in which every part of the UnitBurns, Cage, Cambreleng, Chambers, Samuel Clark, ed States had, most certainly, a deep interest--as no subCorwin, Cramer, Crane, Deberry, Denny, Dennis, Dick ject could engage the attention of Congress which was son, Evans, Edward Everett, Horace Everett, Foot, Fow- of more importance-he had proposed the amendment to ler, W. K. Fuller, Fulton, Gillet, Gorham, Graham, the resolution, so that the committee charged with the Grennell, Halsey, Hannegan, Hard, Hardin, Jas. Harper, subjects of inquiry should be composed of one member Hathaway, Hazeltine, Howell
, Abel Huntington, Jarvis, from each State; and he wished it to be understood, in King, Lansing, Lay, Love, Loyall, A. Mann, Martindale, proposing this amendment, that he had not done it out of McIntyre, McKennan, McKim, McKinley, McVean, Muh- any disrespect to the Committee on Military Affairs, nor lenberg, Page, D. J. Pearce, Ramsay, Keed, Schley, bad he done it with a view of being placed upon the se. Selden, William Slade, Francis Thomas, Turrill, Tweedy, lect committee, as it was his particular wish to be excused Vance, Vanderpoel, Van Houten, Vinton, Wagener, Ward, from that service. Wardwell, Watmough, Wayne, C. P.White, E. D. White, Mr. BROWN offered the following as an amendment Elisha Whittlesey, Wise, Young.--87.
to the amendment: NAYS.-Messrs. J. Q. Adlams, John J. Allen, C. Allan, Strike out all that follows after the word “inquire," William Allen, Barber, Beale, Beaty, Beaumont, John and insert as follows: Bell, James M. Bell, James Blair, John Blair, Bouldin, “Wbat new enactments or legislative provisions (if Bunchi, Burd, Bynum, Carmichael, Carr, Casey, Chaney, any) are necessary for the improvement or better gove Chilton, Chinn, Claiborne, William Clark, Clay, Clayton, ernment of the military academy at West Point." Clowney, Connor, Coulter, Crockett, Darlington, Amos The CHAIR pronounced it not to be in order, pending Davis, Davenport, Ieming, Philemon Dickerson, D. W. the motion of Mi. HUBBARD. Dickinson, Duncan, Dunlap, Felder, Fillmore, Forester, Mr. MILLER moved to postpone the entire subject Poster, Gamble, Gholson, Gilmer, Gordon, Gr on, Griffin, until Tuesday next. But the motion was negatived. Joseph Hall, Hiland Hall, T. H. Hall, Hamer, Hawes, Mr. HAWES accepted Mr. Hubbard's amendment as Hubbard, Inge, W. C. Johnson, Cave Johnson, Benjamin a modification of his motion. Jones, Kavanagh, Kinnard, Lane, Laporte, Luke Lea, Mr. MANN, of New York, obtained the floor, when,
H. of R.] Appropriation Bill.—Deposite Question-U. S. Liabilities to Indians-- Pension Laws. [Jax. 29, 30, 1834. the bour baving expired, the subject was postponed until pension system was established at least as far back as 1789,
and be (Mr. II.) was willing to take for his text, on all conAPPROPRIATION BILL.
stitutional questions, the acts and the opinions of those
wlio framed the instrument. It would seem, too, that Mr. POLK now asked the consent of the House to take South Carolina herself did not formerly regard it as unup the appropriation bill--but the House refused: ayes constitutional; for, by a reference to the journals, it will 102, noes 66--(not two-thirds, which is requisite to be found that, in the year 1804, her pensioners were change the order of business.)
placed upon the roll of the United States, without any THE DEPOSITE QUESTION.
apparent objection on her part.
it was not, however, to argue the constitutionality of The House then passed to the order of the day, being the matter that he had risen. His main object was, by 3 the motion on the subject of the deposites; when brief review of the history of the times, to show that the
Mr. ARCHER addressed the House for a short time; honorable gentleman from Rhode Island (Mr. BUBGES] but, being indisposed, yielded to a motion of Mr. GREN had-he would not say wilfully misrepresented—but that NEIL for an adjournment; and
he must have forgotten the real facts when he spoke of The House, thereupon, adjourned.
these wars as “mere petty feuils, predatory excursions,
waged by way of retaliation for purposes of robbery and
plunder.” He (Mr. H.) esteemed the years, the character, THURSDAY, JANUARY 30.
and the standing of that gentleman too highly to suppose Mr. MARSHALL, from the Committee on Revolution for a moment that he would wilfully and unjustly defame ary Claims, reported a bill providing for the settlement the acts and the reputation of any, far less those of the of certain revolutionary claims, which was twice read. time-worn soldier and patriot, who, in defence of his coun.
Mr. M. stated that the object of this bill was to refer try, had stained her soil with his blood. Unwilling to beall claims for commutation and other similar claims to the lieve such things of that honorable gentleman, he was Secretary of the Treasury for settlement, and the com- bound to presume that he had forgotten. The version mittee had suspended its action upon these claims until given to the House by the honorable member would be this bill should be decided upon. The committee hoped fouud to be widely different from what he (Mr. H.) had the House would give it an early consideration; and be learned alike from history and tradition. moved its reference to the Committee of the Whole on of tradition, however, he would not speak, but refer the state of the Union. Agreed to.
alone to history to sustain bis remarks. UNITED STATES' LIABILITIES TO INDIANS. The honorable gentleman from Pennsylvania, (Mr.
Mr. H. EVERETT moved that the resolution reported DENNT,) and both the honorable members from Tennesby him from the Committee on Indian Affairs, on the see, (Messrs. DICKINSON and PsytON) had stated to the 28th instant, should be considered. This being objected House the atrocious character of this war on the part of to, the yeas and ways were taken upon the suspension of the savages throughout the revolutionary struggle. A the rule, and it was decided that the rule should be sus that period it had raged in the most horrid manner; and, pended, so as to enable the House to proceed to the con if the honorable gentleman from Rhode Island was still not sideration of the said resolution. The resolution was then satisfied of the fact, he would refer him, for confirmation read as follows:
of the fact, and also for the character of the war, to MarResolved, That the Secretary of War be directed to lay shall's Life of Washington, representing, in the year 1778, before this House a statement of the present and future that whilst various" diplomatic concerns employed the liabilities of the United States to Indians and Indian tribes, American cabinet, and whilst the war seemed io languish under existing Indian treaties; the names of the tribes, on the Atlantic, it raged in the West in its most savage parties thereto; the several sums and annuities, designat form;" Would this appear to speak simply of some pelly ing, whether in money or goods, stipulated to be paid or feud? He thought not. delivered; the term of payment or delivery; and the spe.
But, said Mr. H., as the honorable gentleman from cific services and specific articles stipulated to be per- Rhode Island has disavowed all knowledge of the existformed for and delivered to them; the terms thereof; the ence of such a war as had been spoken of by the honora: place where to be performed or delivered; with an esti- ble gentleman from Tennessee, [Mr. Dickinson, he mate of the expense of the performance of such stipula- would ask the honorable gentleman from Rhode Island if tions, and the stipulations for removing Indians from the there could be found any general trealy of peace, or susStates; with an estimate of the number of Indians to be pension of the struggle with the hostile Indians, at the conremoved, and the expense of their removal.
clusion of the struggle with Great Britain? That gentleThe resolution was then agreed to.
man could not. Upon the contrary, although various treaEXTENSION OF THE PENSION LAWS.
ties had been occasionally formed with separate tribes at
Fort Stanwix, Fort McIntosh), at Hopewell on the Keowee, 2.Ir. Chilton's resolution on extending the pension law and at the month of the Great Miami of the Ohio, they coming up, as the unfinished business of the morningMr. HANNEGAN said he did not wish to intrude upon however, a new treaty had been made at Fort Harmar in
had proved entirely ineffectual. In pursuance of all these, the time of the House, but the present question was one the year 1789, with numerous tribes, and almost the same in which he felt a more than ordinary anxiety, arising no stipulations adopted that had been agreed upon at the alone from the fact that some few of those who would be four places just named. benefited by the resolution under consideration were his immediate constituents, but he had a higher interest-an Indians, though specially urged, had refused 10 altend.
At ihis last treaty, (said Mr. H.,) the Wabash and Miami interest springing from another and a broader source-a They were bent upon war alone. wish to see some slight public recognition, some token of But, sir, to show how far this last treaty accomplished national gratitude, to those who, in youth and vigorous its object, it is only necessary to refer
to a communication manhood, had devoted themselves exclusively to the ser- made to Congress by General Washington, in the year vice of their country.
1790, in which be informed that body that he bad been In the fulfilment of this obligation he was not, like the compelled to call out the militia in the western country, gentleman from South Carolina, (Mr. PINCKNEY,] deterred in aid of the regular troops, against the increasing depre by constitutional scruples. Those who framed the con- dations of the savage cnemy. This force was composed stilution, it would seem, had not such scruples; for the of one thousand men from Virginia and Kentucky, and
Jax. 30, 1834. ]
(H. Or R. five hundred from four counties in western Pennsylva- iary body of Canadian volunteers, on the 20th of August, nia.
1794. Yes, a body of Canadian volunteers, drawn from Sir, (said Mr. H.,) the pay could not have been the around the British post of Detroit, and encouraged by object with these men. What was it? Contrast it with the Colonel McKee, the British agent at that place, together pay that has been given in latter times: it was $22 per with Captain Elliott and others, of the British army, who month to a lieutenant, $5 per month to a sergeant, $3 were actually in view amongst the Indians at the comper month to a private; and they were to receive this only mencement of the engagement, which was fought within in time of actual service, when required by imminent sight of a British post and garrison. peril. Mr. H. said he believed he used the very words But still further to show how little this war deserves of the instructions given to the commanding general
. the unkind description given of it by the honorable genThe documents were within the reach of the House, tleman from Rhode Island, (Mr. BURGES,] let any gentleshowing that, up to the period just mentioned, savage out- man look at the report of General Wayne, shortly after rages had increased with even greater violence, and the taking command of the army, then composed of two whole frontier was stained with a repetition of the most thousand six hundred regular officers and soldiers, and shocking barbarities.
three hundred and sixty mounted volunteers from KenShortly after these men were raised, the melancholy tucky, under the command of General Charles Scott. campaigns of Harmar and St. Clair followed in quick suc- This force be reported at the time as utterly inadequate cession. They surely did not head mere predatory bands; to the difficulties of the enterprise, and the formidable they were each followed by a strong and organized force, enemy against whom he was to act. To supply the reat the direction and under the auspices of the Govern- quisite force, a draught of the militia was deemed indispenment. The bare recollection of the names of those who sable. This officer bad, as was known to all, succeeded fell on those fields would certainly destroy any impres- in the end: and the treaty of Greenville, made on the 3d sion, as to the character of the war, that might have been day of August, in the year 1795, had constituted the basis produced on a portion of the House by the remarks of of all subsequent treaties held with the Indians northwest ihe honorable gentleman from Rhode Island. For years of the Ohio river; and it was the first and only sincere after, their loss had been deplored as a public calamity all peace made by them with this republic, baving, he (Mr. over the Union. The father of his country, on receiving H.). believed, remained unbroken until within a short the news of St. Clair's defeat, was represented to have shed period anterior to the late war with Great Britain. tears: bitter and scalding they must have been, for num Throughout the whole of this war, it would be found, bered with the dead was many a revolutionary comrade. upon cxamination, that instructions had been uniformly
Sir, (said Mr. H.,) ! concur with the honorable gentle- given by the department to the commanding general to man from Pennsylvania (Mr. DeXXY) in his remarks upon procure, by all means, the services of some influential and the conduct of General Arthur St. Clair. Injustice bas intelligent gentlemen resident in the West. A Logan, a been done his memory, not withstanding a complete vindi- Shelby, a Hardin, or a Spenser, were uniformly found cation at the hands of those who best knew, and whose with their little bands around them, opening the way, and province it was to judge of the facts. He was sorry that directing the march of the advancing army. To the temthe honorable gentleman from Kentucky (Mr. HÁRDIN] porizing policy of the Government, the valuable life of had, in the course of his remarks on a former day, joined Colonel John Hardin had been finally sacrificed; he havin the censure of that man, whom he considered among ing, at the request of the Government, undertaken a misthe most meritorious this country had ever produced. His sion to the Wabash and Miami Indians, accompanied only disasters on that campaign were caused entirely by circum- by an interpreter, for the purpose, if possible, of effect. siances beyond his control: their introduction, however, ing a reconciliation. Shortly after entering their country, at this time he (Mr. H.) considered as unnecessary, per- he was seized as a prisoner, and, regardless of the characbaps unbecoming the present discussion; he hoped, how. ter in which he came, he was burnt at the stake, with ever, that loistory would finally do justice to the memory every circumstance of savage cruelly; of this gallant soldier and accomplished gentleman, whose Are the survivors of these men, when now asking for name stood so intimately blended with some of our proud. some little pecuniary aid to cheer their declining existest national recollections.
ence, to be treated only with contumely? After having But to return to the subject: In September, 1791, a re served for years, armed at their own expense, carrying port from the Secretary of War, to which he had before their provisions in their wallets, without tents, with no alluded, would be found to contain, amongst inany other shelter from the piercing night save a single blanket, their statements, a representation that" a strong coercive force" bumble request is to be rejected without even an inquiry; would be required to carry into effect the objects then whilst those who fought on this side the mountains have contemplated by the campaign; and the same report been so freely provided for. clearly explained the principles of justice and of policy It could not be that greater devotion to their country whichi dictated a most vigorous prosecution of this war. had characterized the soldiers of the East and the North,
It was not for success against the Indians alone that we than those of the West. A more striking instance of were contending. Would the honorable gentleman from genuine patriotism could not be found, either in the history Rhode Island, (Mr. Burges, ) or any other gentleman on of this country or any other, than that displayed by some that floor, hazard an assertion to the contrary? They early settlers (intruders as they were termed) upon the could not; for an object, which all must admit to have been vacant lands in East Tennessee. They were remored of the highest importance, was still further to be attained in a large body by a military force despatched for the purit was the possession and subjugation of the British posts pose, under Major Bradly, some short time previous to the on Lake Michigan, and of Niagara and Detroit, withheld defeat of General St. Clair. Sir, these very men, although from us contrary to the treaty with Great Britain. From they had just beheld their families in the most distressing these posts the hostile Indians were constantly furnished possible situation-naked, houseless, and starving, were with arms and munitions, and excited to continue their among the first to volunteer in the expedition then concareer of indiscriminate butchery and massacre, lo such templating, and met their fate in the ensuing campaign, an extent that the frontiers were made desolate from gallantly fighting for tive very Government that had just Georgia to Canada.
driven them from their cabins. From this state of things the country bad been redeem. Sir, from the brief history of facts I have given, it will ed by the successful engagement of General Anthony be seen that, down to the year 1795, no gencral cessation Wayne with the combincd Indian force and a large auxil- of hostilities had occurred; and that the savages were con