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four; but these constitute the principal varieties of this great influence and this vast joy.

1. The first kind of piety is emotional piety, or piety of the feelings. There are two varieties of this, the sacramental and the sympathetic. Sacramental piety is born of faith in the grace of God given through sacraments. It is found most often in the great sacramental churches. There is a devout pleasure derived from taking part in the ceremonies, the festivals, the liturgies and anthems made memorable by the worship of a thousand years. There is a sincere comfort and peace felt in leaving the world of noise and traffic, and entering into the solitudes of prayer and praise, into that house of God which seems the gate of heaven. How many great and good souls, saints and martyrs, have been fed by these ceremonies and lifted above the earth by their solemn influence! The imagination is touched by the grand religious architecture, the imposing ritual, the divine music, and the vast multitude of adoring worshippers. He who cannot feel this is deficient in some of the human sentiments.

Another form of this kind of piety is the sympathetic emotion caught from crowds. This is awakened in revivals, camp-meetings, and social religious gatherings, where those who come to scoff often remain to pray. As God is felt to be near in the solemn rites and awful forms of the sacramental churches, so he is also felt to be present in

the contagious fire which runs through a meeting of warm-hearted worshippers. In both places many feel, for the first time, that God is not far from us, that we are his children, and are made to realize a father's love. They learn to love God with all their heart.

2. The Piety of Personal Salvation. There is a second kind of piety which comes from a sense of pardoned sin. This grace of God which brings salvation has had great power, and accomplished vast results. It has always existed side by side with sacramental and emotional piety, but it becaine most conspicuous as the great motive power of the Protestant Reformation. While the sacramental and emotional churches the Roman Catholics, Episcopalians, and Methodists — find the presence and love of God revealed to them in their public and social worship, the Calvinistic denominations struggle and agonize and pray alone, and receive a sense of God's pardoning love given to each soul for its own personal salvation. Through this struggle each one goes by himself; he is alone with his conscience and his God. He seeks and finds salvation for himself, and loves God with an intense gratitude for having ransomed and redeemed him from sin and evil. He loves God with all his soul, for that is what God has saved from despair and death.

3. The Piety of Reason. There is a third kind of piety, - one in which men love God with all their mind, seeing his boundless goodness in the mysteries of creation; feeling that from him and through him and to him are all things. This is the piety which inspires the sublime song of Milton, the universal prayer of Pope, the solemn litanies of Wordsworth, and the tender strains of Whittier. These poets see God in the majesty of Nature, in the changing year, in the vast laws of the universe, which are from everlasting to everlasting. They say:

“ These, as they change, Almighty Father, these

Are but the varied God. The rolling year

Is full of thee." Swedenborg was one who loved God with all his mind, who lived in the thought of God's presence in all things, to whom Nature and life were a manifestation of God. So, too, was Spinoza, the “God-intoxicated man," as Schleiermacher called him, living in loneliness, poverty, obscurity, but thinking of God all day long. So, too, among the Greeks was Plato, whose vast religious influence has been felt among serious thinkers down to our times. These men loved God with their mind, and the grace of God came to them through their thoughts. Science, too, in our day is growing deeply religious. It occupies itself with the methods of divine creation, with questions of universal law. Passing from the observation of unrelated facts, which was the method of the last century, it advances to larger speculations as to the whence and how.

We have seen three ways by which the grace of God comes, creating piety. By a sense of a divine presence mediated by sacraments and churches, and felt in the sympathy of religious meetings; by the influence of the heavenly love which was shown in the death of Jesus, and which has power to purify the soul from evil; and by that experimental knowledge of God which results from religious thought and intellectual inquiry. Now, we ask, Is there any other way by which we can enter into the love of God; by which practical men, immersed in business, yet desirous of not losing the religious life, wishing to see and know and serve God, can also enter into his love? There are great numbers of men who cannot, or at least do not, become pious in any of the previous ways. They do not enjoy rituals or take delight in ceremonial religion. Nor do they believe in the religion of sympathy or get any good from revival meetings. They are accustomed to stand firm on their feet, and are not carried away by excitement or emotion. Nor do they enter into the experiences of those who make Christianity a question of the salvation of the individual soul, of sin and pardon. They are conscientious men, who have always meant to do right. They know, to be sure, that they have done wrong things, but they are sorry for them, and they believe that God will forgive them, just as they forgive any one who has injured them and is sorry for it. Nor are they religious thinkers, spending their time in meditation on God, duty, and immortality. They are doing the work of the world. Is there any kind of piety which they can have, or are they to be always left, as they have been usually left, to work without the inspiration and joy which come from the sense of God's love in what they do?

4. Piety from Work. I answer that I believe there is still another way in which God's love is brought to man. I believe that work also can be a sacrament by which the divine grace may be mediated; that love may descend into the soul by means of labor; that duty may be the step upward into piety; that we may be led by God while engaged in our daily work, and that what is often called mere morality may be the natural way to an inward spiritual life.

Thus may the grace of God which brings salvation come to those who are seeking to serve their fellow-men. Work may lead us into prayer.

We may learn to pray, not as a duty, not as a sentiment, not from sympathy, not for our own salvation, not by an intellectual piety, but because we need the help of God to enable us to fulfil our duties to others.

There is work which can be done, perhaps, without prayer, - mechanical work, routine work, which is done with the hands alone. But whenever an occasion occurs in which we work to help others, but do not know how; in which we ought to do some

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