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Resolved, nem. con. 1. That they are entitled to life, liberty, and property ; and have never ceded, to any sovereign power whatever, a right to dispose of either without their consent.

Resolved, n. 6. 2. That our ancestors were, at the time of their emigration from the Mother-Country, entitled to all the rights, liberties, and immunities, of free and natural-born subjects within the realm of England,

Resolved, n. c. 3. That, by such emigration, they Heither forfeited, surrendered, nor loft, any of those rights.

Resolved, 4. That the foundation of English liberty, and of all free government, is a right in the people to participate in their Legislative Council ; and as the English Colonists are not reprefented, and, from their local and other circumstances, cannot properly be represented in the British Parliament, they are entitled to a free and exclusive power of legislation, in their several Provincial Legislatures, where their right of representation can alone be preserved, in all cases of taxation and internal polity, subject only to the negative of their Sovereign, in such manner as has been heretofore used and accustomed : but, from the necessity of the case, and a regard to the mutual interests of both countries, we chearfully consent to the operation of such Acts of the British Parliament as are, bonâ fide, restrained to the regulation of our external commerce, for the purpose of securing the commercial advantages of the whole Empire to the Mother-Country, and the commercial benefits of its respective members, excluding every idea of taxation, internal or external, for raising a revenue on the subjects in America without their consent.

Resolved, n. c. 5. That the respective Colonies are entitled to the Common Law of England, and, inore especially, to the great and inestimable privilege of being tried by their peers of the vicinage, according to the course of that law.

Resolved, Resolved, 6. That they are entitled to the bene. fit of such of the English Statutes as existed at the time of their colonization, and which they have; by experience, respectively found to be applicable to their several local and other circumstances.

Refolved, n. 6. 7. That these, his Majesty's Colonies, are likewise entitled to all the immunities and privileges, granted and confirmed to them by Royal Charters, or secured by their several codes of Provincial Laws.

Resolved, n. 6. 8 That they have a right peaceably to assemble, consider of their grievances, and petition the King; and that all prosecutions, prohibitory proclamations, and commitments for the same, are illegal.

Resolved, n. c. 9. That the keeping a standing army in these Colonies, in times of peace, without the consent of the legislature of that colony in which such army is kept, is against law.

Resolved, n. 6. 10. It is indispenfibly necessary to good government, and rendered essential by the English Constitution, that the constituent branches of the legislature be independent of each other ; that, therefore, the exercise of legislative power, in several Colonies, by a Council appointed during pleasure by the Crown, is unconftitutional, dangerous, and destructive to the freedom of American legislation.

All and each of which, the aforesaid Deputies, in behalf of themselves and their constituents, do claim, demand, and insist on, as their indubitable rights and liberties, which cannot be legally taken from them, altered or abridged by any power whatever, without their own consent, by their Representatives in their several provincial legislatures. • Resolved, n. C. That the following Acts of Para liament are infringements and violations of the rights of the Colonists; and that the repeal of them is effentially necessary, in order to restore harmony be


tween Great Britain and the American colonies, viz.

The several Acts of 4 Geo. III. ch. 15. and ch. 34. - 5 Geo. III. ch. 25.-6 Geo. III. ch. 52.67 Geo. 111. ch. 41. and ch. 46.--8 Gco. III. ch. 22. which impose duties for the purpose of raising a revenue in America, extend the powers of the Adiniralty Courts beyond their ancient limits, deprive the American subject of trial by Jury, authorise the Judges certificate to indemnify the prosecutor from damages that he might otherwise be liable to, requiring oppressive security from a claimant of ships and goods seized, before he shall be allowed to defend his property, and are subversive of American rights.

Also 12 Geo. III. ch. 24. intituled, “ An Act for the better securing his Majesty's dock-yards, inagazines, ships, ammunition, and stores;" which des clares a new offence in America, and deprives the American subjects of a constitutional trial by Jury of the vicinage,by authorising the trial of any person charged with the committing any offence deicribed in the laid Act out of the realmı, to be indicted and tried for the same in any thire or county within the realm.

Also the three Acts pailed in the last Setion of Parliament, for atopping the port and blocking up · the harbour of Boston, for altering the charter and

government of Matlachulett's-Bay, and that which is intituled, " An Act for the better adıninistration of justice, &c.”

Also the Act passed in the same Sefion for establishing the Roman Catholic religion in the Province of Quebec, abolishing the equitable system of English laws, and erecting a tyranny there, to the great danger, froin so total a dissimilarity of religion, law, and government, of the neighbouring British Colonies, by the aliistance of whose blood


the harbolt, for itonn palled in

loldiers in hiding suitable the fame Seffio

and treasure the said country was conquered from France. • Also the Aet passed in the fame Session for the better providing suitable quarters for officers and soldiers in his Majesty's service in North-America.

Resolved, That this Congress do approve of the opposition made by the inhabitants of the Massachusett's-bay to the execution of the said late Acts of Parliament; and if the same shall be attempted to be carried into execution by force, in such case, all America ought to support them in their oppofition.

Resolved, That the removal of the people of. Boston into the country, would be not only extremely difficult in the execution, but so important in its consequences, as to require the ut. most deliberation before it is adopted. But in cafe the Provincial Meeting of that Colony shall judge it absolutely necessary, it is the opinion of this Congress, that all America ought to contribute towards recompensing them for the injury they may

thereby sis. Pensing them fought to contribu

Resolved, That this Congress do recommend to the inhabitants of Massachulett's-bay, to submit to a suspension of the administration of justice, where it cannot be procured in a legal and peaceable manner, under the rules of the charter, and the laws founded thereon, until the effects of our application for a repeal of the Acts by which their charterrights are infringed, is known.

Resolved unanimously, That every person who Thall take, accept, or act under any commission or authority, in any wife derived from the act passed in the last Session of Parliament, changing the form of Government, and violating the charter of the Province of Massachusett's-Bay, ought to be held in deteftation, and considered as the wicked tool of that despotism which is preparing to destroy those rights which God, nature, and compact, hath given to America.


: Resolved unanimously, That the people of Bof. ton and the Massachusett's-bay, be advised still to conduct themselves peaceably towards his Excellency General Gage, and his Majesty's troops now stationed in the town of Boston, as far as can possibly consist with their immediate safety and the security of the town; avoiding and discountenancing every violation of his Majesty's property, or any insult to his troops; and that they peaceably and firmly persevere in the line in which they are now conducting themselves on the defensive. · Resolved, That the seizing, or attempting to feize, any person in America, in order to traniport such person beyond the sea, for trial of offences committed within the body of a county in America, being against law, will justify, and ought to meet with resistance and reprisal.

A copy of a letter to General Gage was brought: into Congress, and, agreeable to order, figned by the President, and is as follows:

Philadelphia, Oct. 10, 1774. : « Sir,

« The inhabitants of the town of Boston have informed us, the Representatives of his Majesty's faithful subjects in all the Colonies from NovaScotia có Georgia, that the fortifications erecting within that town, the frequent invasions of private property, and the repeated insults they receive from the soldiery, hath given them great reason to suspect a plan is formed very destructive to them, and tending to overthrow the liberties of America.

Your Excellency cannot be a stranger to the sentiments of America with respect to the late Acts of Parliament, under the execution of which those unhappy people are oppressed; the approbation universally expressed of their conduct, and the determined resolution of the Colonies, for the preser. yation of their Common Rights, to unite in their


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