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1 XX. The power os suspending the laws, or the execution of the laws, ought never to be exercised but by the legislature, or by authorlty derived from it, to be exercised in such particular cases only as the legislature shall expresly provide for.
XXI. The freedom of deliberation, speech, and debate, in either House os the Legislature, is so essential to the rights of the people, that it cannot be the foundation of any accusation or prosecution, action or complaint,. in any other, court or place whatsoever.
XXII. The legislature ought frequently to assemble for the redress of grievances, for correcting, strengthening, and confirming the laws, and for making new laws, as the common good may require.
XXIII. No subsidy, charge, tax, impost, or duties, ought to be established, fixed, laid, or levied, under any pretext whatsoever, without the consent of the people, or their representatives in the legislature.
XXIV. Laws made to punish for actions done before the existence of such laws, and which have not been declared crimes by preceding laws, are unjust, oppressive, and inconsistent consistent with the fundamental principles of a free government.
XXV. No subject ought, in any case, or in any time, to be declared guilty of treason or felony by the legislature.
XXVI. No magistrate or court of law shall demand excessive bail or sureties, impose excessive fines, or inflict cruel or unusual punishments.
XXVII. In time of peace, no soldier ought to be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; and in time of war, such quarters ought not to be made but by the civil magistrate, in a manner ordained by the legislature.
XXVIII. No person can in any case be subjected to law-martial, or to any penalties or pains by virtue of that law, except those employed in the army or navy, and except the militia in actual service, but by authority of the legislature.
XXIX. It is essential to the preservation of the rights of every individual, his life, liberty, property, and character, that there be an impartial interpretation of the laws, and ad.* ministration of justice. It is the right of every
citizen citizen to be, tried by Judges as free, impartial, and independent, as the lot of humanity will admit. It is, therefore, not only the best policy, but for the security of the rights of the: people, and of every citizen, that the Judges of the supreme judicial court mould hold their offices as long as they behave themselves well; and that they should have honourable salaries, ascertained and established by standing laws.
XXX. In the government of this Commonwealth, the legislative departmentshall never exercise the executive and judicial powers, or either of them; the executive shall never exercise the legislative and judicial powers, or either of them; the judicial shall never exercise the legislative and executive powers, or either of them; to the end it may be a government of laws, and not of men.
FRAME Of GOVERNMENT.
THE people inhabiting the territory formerly called the Province of Massachusetts-Bay do hereby solemnly and mutually agree with each other, to form themselves into a Free, Sovereign, and Independent Bodypolitic or State, by the name of The ComMonwealth Of Massachusetts.
CHAP. I. The LEGISLATIVE POWER.
THE GENERAL COURT.
I. T H E department of legislation shall be formed by two branches, a Senate, and House Of Representatives, each of which shall have a negative on the other.
The legislative body shall assemble every year on the last Wednesday in May, and at such other times as they shall judge necessary; and
shall shall dissolve and be dissolved on the day next Preceding the said last: Wednesday in May; and shall be stiled The General Court Of MasSachusetts.
II. No bill or resolve of the Senate or House
of Representatives shall become a law, and
have force as such, until it shall have been laid
before the Governor for his revisal; and if he,
upon such revision, approve thereof, he shall
signify his approbation by signing the same.
But if he have any objection to the passing of
such bill or resolve, he shall return the same,
together with his objections thereto, in writing,
to the Senate or House os Representatives, in
which-soever the same shall have originated;
who shall enter the objections sent down by
the Governor at large on their records, and
proceed to reconsider the said bill or resolve.
But if after such reconsideration, two-thirds
of the said Senate or House of Representatives
shall, notwithstanding the said objections, agree
to pass the same, it shall, together with the
objections, be sent to the other branch of the
legislature, where it shall also be reconsidered,
and if approved by two-thirds of the Mem
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