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like manner "with powers in due form, to determine, conclude and Jignsuch articles, conditions, conventions, der clarations, definitive treaty, and any other acts whatever, as he Jball judge proper to answer the end which we propose ; promising on the faith and word of a King, to agree to, confirm and establish for ever, to accomplish and execute punctually, whatever our said dear and beloved Conrad Alexander Gerard shall have stipulated and signed in virtue of the present power, without ever contravening it, or suffering it to he contravened for any cause and under any pretext whatever; as likewise to cause our letters of ratification to be made in due form, and to have them delivered in order to be exchanged at the time that shall he agreed upon, for such is our pleasure. In testimony whereof We have set our seal to these presents. Given at Versailles, the thirtieth day of the month January, in the year of grace one thousand seven hundred and seventyeight, and the feurth os our reign.

(L. S.) LOUIS.

By the King,

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vT R E A T Y.

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THfe Most Christian King and the United States of North America, to wit, NewHampshire, Massachusetts-Bay, Rhode-Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North.* Carolina, and Georgia, having this day concluded a Treaty of Amity and Commerce, for the reciprocal advantage of their subjects and citizens,' have thought it necessary to take into consideration the means of strengthening those engagements, and of rendering them useful to the safety and tranquility of the two parties; particularly in cafe Great Britain, in resentment of that connection, and of the good correspondence which is the object of the said treaty, should break the peace with France, either by direct hostilities, or by hindering her commerce and navigation in a manner contrary to the rights of nations, and the peace subsisting between the two Crowns. And his Majesty and the said United States having resolved in that Ff case case to join their councils and efforts against the enterprizes of their common enemy;


The respective Plenipotentiaries impowered to concert the/ clauses and conditions proper to fulfil the said intentions, have, after the most mature deliberation, concluded and- deter on the following articles..r„...

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. IF war shauld-break ouj between France and Great-Britain during the.'.qantin.uance of the present war between the United States and England, his Majesty and the said United States fhajl make it ia common cause, iand aid each other mutually with their good offices, their councils, and their forces, according. to the; exigence of conjunctures, as becomes good and saithful allies.; visi.-'u., a ;; - -»j-j;*.

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- The essential and direct end of the present defensive alt&hce is, to maintain effectually the liberty, sovereignty, and independence, absolute and unlimitedj of the said United States, as well in matters of government as of commerce.

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The two contracting parties shall, each on its own part;, and in the manner it may judge

x most most proper, make all the efforts in its power against their common enemy, in order to attain the end proposed.

ARTICLE IV j The contracting parties agree, that in cafe either of them should form any particular en* terprize in which the concurrence of the other may be desired, the party whose concurrence is desired, shall readily and with good saith join to act in concert for that purpose, as far as circumstances and its own particular situation will permit; and in that cafe, they shall regulate by a particular convention, the quantity and kind of succour to be furnished, and the time and manner of its being brought into action, as well as the advantages which are to be its compensation.

ARTICLE V. If the United States should think fit to attempt the reduction of the British power remaining in the northern parts of America, or the Islands of Bermudas, those countries or islands, in cafe of success, shall be confederated with, or dependent upon, the said United States.


ARTICLE VI. The Most Christian King renounces for ever the possession of the Islands of Bermudas, as well as of any part of the Continent of NorthAmerica, which before the Treaty of Paris, in 1763, or in virtue of that treaty, were acknowledged to belong to the Crown of Great-Britain, or to the United States, heretofore called British Colonies, or which are at this time, or have lately been, under the power of the King and Crown of Great-Britain.


If his Most Christian Majesty shall think proper to attack any of the islands situated in the Gulph of Mexico, or near that Gulph, which are at present under the power of GreatBritain, all the said isles, in cafe of saccess, shall appertain to the Crown of France.

ARTICLE VIII. Neither of the two parties shall conclude either truce or peace with Great-Britain, without the formal consent of the other first obtained; and they mutually engage not to lay down their arms, until the independence of the United States shall have been formally or tacitly


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