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bave nominated, appointed, and commissioned, and by these presents, figned with cur band, do nominate, appoint, and commision bim our Plenipotentiary, giving bine power and special command for us and in our name, to agree upon, conclude and sign with the Plenipotenti. aries of the United States, equally furnised in due form with full powers, such Treaty, Convention, and Articles of Commerce and Navigation as be shall think proper ; willing that be a&t with the same authority as we might or could act, if we were personally present, and even as though he had more special command than what is berein contained; promising in good faith, and on the word of a King, to agree to, confirm, and establish for ever, and to accomplish and execute punctually, all that our faid dear and beloved Conrad Alexander Gerard Mall stipulate and fign, by virtue of the present power, without contravening it in any manner, or suffering it to be contravened for any cause, or under any pretext whatsoever; and also to ratify the same in due form, and cause our ratification to be delivered and exchanged in the time that shall be agreed on. For such is our pleasure. In testimony whereof we have hereunto set our seal. Done at Versailles this thirtieth day of January, 'in the year of our Lord one thousand seven bundred and Seventy-eight, and the fourth year of our reign.
(Signed) (L. S.)
. LOU I S. (Underneath) . By the King. GRAVIER de VERGENNES.
THE Most Christian King, and the Thire
1 teen United States of North America, to wit, New-Hampshire, Massachusett’s-bay, Rhode-Iland, Connecticut, New-York, NewJersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina, and Georgia, willing to fix in an equitable and permanent manner, the rules which ought to be followed relative to the correspondence and commerce which the two parties desire to establish between their respective countries, states and subjects ; his Most Christian Majesty and the said United States have judged that the said end could not be better obtained, than by taking for the basis of their agreement the most perfect equality and reciprocity, and by carefully avoiding all those burthensome preferences which are usually sources of debate, embarrassment, and discontent; by leaving also each party at liberty to make respecting navigation and commerce those interior regulations which it shall find most convenient to itself, D d 2
and by founding the advantage of commerce solely upon reciprocal utility, and the just rules of free intercourse ; reserving withal to each party the liberty of admitting, at its pleasure, other nations to a participation of the same advantages. It is in the spirit of this intention, and to fulfil these views, that his faid Majesty having named and appointed for his plenipotentiary Conrad Alexander Gerard, Royal Syndic of the city of Strasbourg, Secretary of his Majesty's Council of State ; and the United States on their part having fully empowered Benjamin Franklin, Deputy from the State of Pennsylvania to the General Congress, and President to the convention of the said State ; Silas Deane, late Deputy from the State of Connecticut to the said Congress; and Arthur Lee, Counsellor at Law: the faid respective Plenipotentiaries, after exchanging their powers, and after mature deliberation, have concluded and agreed upon the following articles :
ARTICLE I. There shall be a firm, inviolable and universal peace, and a true and fincere friendship, between the Most Christian King, his heirs and successors, and the United States of Ame
rica, and the subjects of the Most Christian King and of the said States, and between the countries, islands, cities and towns situate under the jurisdiction of the Most Christian King and of the said United States, and the people and inhabitants of every degree, without exception of persons or places, and the terms herein after mentioned shall be perpetual between the Most Christian King, his heirs and successors, and the said United States.
ARTICLE II, The Most Christian King and the United States engage mutually not to grant any partiçular favour to other nations, in respect of commerce and navigation, which shall not immediately become common to the other party, who shall enjoy the same favour freely, if the concession was freely made, or on allowing the same compensation, if the concession was conditional.
ARTICLE III. ' : The subjects of the Most Christian King shall pay in the ports, havens, roads, countries, ihands, cities or towns of the United States, or any of them, no other or greater duties or im
posts, of what nature soever they may be, or by what name soever called, than those which the nations most favoured are or shall be obliged to pay ; and they shall enjoy all the rights, liberties, privileges, immunities, and exemptions in trade, navigation and commerce, whether in passing from one port in the said States to another, or in going to and from the same, from and to any part of the world, which the faid nations do or shall enjoy.
ARTICL E IV. · The subjects, people and inhabitants of the faid United States, and each of them, shall not pay in the ports, havens, roads, islands, cities and places under the domination of his Most Christian Majesty in Europe, any other or greater duties or imposts, of what nature foever they may be, or by what' name soever called, than those which the most favoured nations are or shall be obliged to pay; and they shall enjoy all the rights, liberties, privileges, immunities, and exemptions in trade, navigation and commerce, whether in pafsing from one port in the said dominions in Europe to another, or in going to and from the same,