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their lands, have in divers instances been productive of dangerous discontents and animosities: be it ordained, that no purchases or contracts for the sale of lands made since the fourteenth day of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventysive, or which may hereafter be made with or of the said Indians within the limits of this State, shall be binding on the said Indians, or deemed valid, unless made under the authority, and with the consent of the legislature of this State.
XXXVIII. And whereas we are required by the benevolent principles of rational liberty, not only to expel civil tyranny, but also to guard against that spiritual oppression and intolerance wherewith the bigotry and ambition of weak and wicked Priests and Princes have scourged mankind; this Convention doth further, in the name and by the authority of the good people of j.his State, ordain, determine, and declare, that the free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, ihall forever hereafter be allowed within this State to all mankind. Provided, that the liberty of
conscience Conscience hereby granted, shall not be so construed, as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of this States
XXXIX. And whereas the Ministers of the Gospel are by their profession dedicated to the service of God and the cure of souls, and ought not to be diverted from the great duties of then function; therefore no Minister of the Gospel, or priest of any denomination whatsoever, shall at any time hereafter, under any pretence or description whatever, be eligible to, or capable of holding any civil or military office or place within this State*
XL. And whereas it is of the utmost importance to the safety of every State, that it should always be in a condition of defence; and it is the duty of every man, who enjoys the protection of society, to be prepared and willing to defend it; this Convention, therefore, in the name and by the authority of the good people of this State, doth ordain, determine> and declare, that the militia of this State, at all times hereafter, as well in peace as in war, shall be armed and disciplined, and in readiness for service. That all such of the inhabitants of M z this
this State, being of the people called Quakers, who, from scruples of conscience, may be averse to the bearing of arms, be therefrom excused by the legislature; and do pay to the State such Aims of money in lieu of their personal service, as the fame may, in the judgment of the legislature, be worth: and that a proper magazine of warlike stores, proportionate to the number of inhabitants, be, forever hereafter, at the expence of this State, and by acts of the legislature, established, maintained, and continued in every county in this State.
XLI. And this Convention doth further ordain, determine, and declare, in the name and by the authority of the good people of this. State, that trial by jury, in all cafes in which it hath heretofore been used in the colony of NewYork, shall be established, and remain inviolate forever: and that no acts of attainder shall be palled by the legislature of this State for crimes, other than those committed before the termination of the present war ; and that such acts mall not work a corruption of blood. And further, that the legislature of this State shall at no time hereafter institute any new court or courts, but such as shall proceed according to
the course of the common law.
XLII. And this Convention doth further, in the name and by the authority of the good people of this State, ordain, determine, and declare, that it mall be in the discretion of the legislature to naturalize all such persons, and in such manner, as they shall think proper; provided all such of the persons so to be by them naturalized, as being born in parts beyond sea, and out of the United States of America, mall come to settle in, and become subjects of this State, shall take an oath of allegiance to this State, and abjure and renounce ail allegiance and subjection to all and every foreign King, Prince, Potentate, and State, in all matters ecclesiastical as well as civil.
WHEREAS all the constitutional authority ever possessed by the Kings of Great-Britain over these Colonies, or their other dominions, was by compact derived from the people, and held of them for the common Jnterest of the whole society, allegiance and protection are, in the nature of things, reciprocal ties, each equally depending upon the other and liable to be dissolved hy the other's being refused or withdrawn. And whereas George the Third, King of Great-Britain, has refused protection to the good people of these Colonies; and, by assenting to sundry Acts of the British Parliament, attempted to subject them to the absolute dominion of that body; and has alfa made war upon them in the most cruel and. unnatural manner, for no other cause than asserting